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英语专业毕业论文范文
[日期: [字体:大 中 来源:英语坊 作者: 2007-05-16] 小] A Brief Analysis of english teaching in senior high school Abstract: Classroom teaching is the main way for students to learn En glish. But in senior high school, a lots of probelms still exsit in t he English teaching especially in the teaching of reading and writing. In this paper, the importance and methods of reading and writing wi ll be further discussed. Key words: reading writing techniques Introduction: Classes should be learner-centered, with meaningful, fu nctional activities, often, classes begin by finding out what the stu dents don’ know. These classes operate on the assumption that there t is a great deal of information that students lack and that the teache r and textbooks will impact that information to the students. Teacher s who hold this assumption view students as plants waiting passively to be fed and watered. But I think the students should be regarded as explorers, active learners who bring a great deal to the learning pr ocess and at the same time, draw from their environment as they devel op new understandings. The basic principle will be used in the teachi ng of reading and writing. Section One How to teach reading
I. Why teach reading.
There are many reasons why getting students to read English texts is an important part of the teacher’s job. In the first place, many of them want to be able to read texts in English either for their career s, for study purposes or simply for pleasure. Anything we can do to m ake reading easier for them must be a good idea.
Reading texts provide good models for English writing, provide oppo rtunities to study language vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and the way to construct sentences, paragraphs and texts. Lastly, good readi ng texts can introduce interesting topics, stimulate discussion, exci te imaginative responses and be the springboard for well-rounded, fas cinating lessons. The last but not the least, students must read widely because only a fraction of knowledge about the world can come from other experienc es in their short lives. II. What kind of reading should students do? When the teachers give reading class to students, they should notic e a balancea balance to be struck between real English on the one hand and the students’ capabilities and interests on the other. The re is some authentic written material which beginner students can und erstand to some degree: menus, timetables, signs and basic instructio ns, for example, and, where appropriate, teachers can use these. But for longer prose, teachers can offer their students texts, which, whi le being like English, are nevertheless written or adapted especially for their level. Anyway, the materials to be read should be interest ing and meaningful. Teachers should become better acquainted with boo ks written specially for teenagers and dealing with their problems. III. What are the principles behind the teaching of reading? i) Permit Students To Read No one has learned to swim by practicing the skills of backstrokes, f lutter kicks or treading water while staying on the edge of the swimm ing pool. Yet, in the teaching of reading teachers often do just that. Rather than let the students into “the water”, teachers keep them in skills books learning rules about letters, syllables or definition s of words rather than letting them into the book itself, permitting them to be immersed in the language which comes from the authors as the readers try to reconstruct the written message.
ii) Encourage students to respond to the content of a reading text, n ot just to the language Of course, it is important to study reading texts for the way they us e language, how many paragraphs they contain and how many times they use relative clauses. But the meaning, the message of the text, is mu ch more important. Teachers should help students understand that the main reason to read is for them. They have to have their own purpose to read and reading must make sense, they have to find ways of doing something about it. They should be encouraged either to reread or to continue reading to gain meaning. But they must realize that the mean
ing is not in the teacher, but in the interaction between the reader and author. Students should be encouraged to ask themselves repeatedl y, “Does this make sense to me?” Students should be encouraged to r eject and to be intolerant of reading materials that do not make sens e. iii) Encourage students to guess or predict Readers’ guesses or predictions are based on the cumulative inform ation and syntactic structure they have been learning as they have be en reading. Therefore, their guesses are more often than not appropri ate to the materials. Students have to realize that risk taking in re ading is appropriate; that using context to decide what words mean is a proficient reading strategy and that they have the language sense to make appropriate guesses which can fit both the grammatical and se mantic sense of what they are reading. iv) Match the task to the topic Once a decision has been taken about what kind of reading text the students are going to read, teachers need to choose good reading task s?the right kind of questions and useful puzzles, etc. Asking boring and inappropriate questions can undermine the most interesting text; the most commonplace passage can be made really exciting with imagin ative and challenging tasks. Working in groups, the English teacher a nd students take turns asking each other questions following the read ing. The teacher may ask, “ What is the significance of the characte r’s age?” These questions require inferences based on details from the reading text.
Section TwoHow to teach writing (Developing correctness in stud ents’ writing) “Students learn to write by writing, and they learn to write corr ectly by writing, revising, and proofreading their own work”with some help or direction from the teacher when it is necessary. They do not learn to write correctly by studying about writing or doing isol ated workbook exercises unrelated to their own writing. So, the most important technique a teacher can use to guide students toward gramma tically correct writing is to let them write, let them write things r elated to their own experiences. There is no limit to the kinds of te xt the teacher can ask students to write. Teachers’ decisions, thoug h, should based on how much language the students know, what their in terests are. “Do I read a paper and ignore all punctuation, what good is that f or students
We spend hours at night with papersI’m not sure the students g et as much from it as the time I spend on it.” These comments by senior high school English teachers discussing t he process of marking student papers reflect the dissatisfaction and frustration of many teachers over the problem of dealing with the err ors in student writingthe obvious mistakes in spelling, punctuat ionTraditionally, teachers have worked to correct errors in two w ays: by teaching grammatically correctness through exercise in gramma r texts; by pointing out all errors when making student papers. Most students find it very dispiriting if they get a piece of writ ten work back and it is covered in red ink, underlings and crossing-o ut. It is a powerful visual statement of the fact that their written English is terrible. Of course, some pieces of written work are compl etely full of mistakes, but even in these cases, the teacher has to a chieve a balance between being accurate and truthful on the one hand and treating students sensitively and sympathetically on the other. Some techniques can be used in dealing with the errors in student papers: i) Selectivity Rather than engage in intensive error-correction when responding to s tudent writing, teachers are encouraged to adopt a more moderate appr oach to error. If the teacher over-corrects the students’ mistakes, the students would be likely to focus on errors instead of ideas. Stu dents are more likely to grow as writers when the teacher’s primary purpose in reading student papers is to respond to content. However, if attention to content and correctness are combined when making pape rs, it is more helpful to select one or two kinds of errors the indiv idual student is making than to point out every error in the paper. T he teacher can identify a selected error, show an example or two on t he student paper, and either explain the correct form or direct the s tudent to a handbook for further explanation. It is always worth writ ing a comment at the end of a piece of written work anything fro m “Well done” to “This is a good story, but you must look again at your use of past tensessee X grammar book page xx.” ii) Error-analysis Another method for working with student error, one that can be especi ally fruitful for teachers, is to approach it from an analytic perspe ctive. Teachers, as error-analyst, look for patterns in the errors of an individual student, tries to discover how the mistake arrived at the mistakes by analyzing the error (Lack of knowledge about a certai n grammatical point; A careless one or a mis-learned rule?), and plan s strategies accordingly. iii) Publish Student Writing The final basic strategy is publishing. Students need a reason for la
boring over a draft until it is perfect; the urge to see oneself in p rint can be a powerful drive toward revision and proofreading. Conclusion: As teachers to the students who are in senior high scho ol, they should learn to turn students’ hard work toward supporting the language strengths students already have, proving students with a feeling of success, finding materials and planning classroom experie nces will turn students on to reading and writing, the reading and wr iting will develop with much greater ease than it does at the present time.
Reference: Gu Xueliang, The Basic Technical Training in English Teaching, Hangzh ou University Press, 19
  98. Wilga M.Rivers & Mary S. Temperley, A practical guide to the teaching of English as a second or foreign Language, New York: Oxford Univers ity Press, 1978 Smith F. Understanding Reading (2d ed), New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978 David Freeman&Yvome S. Freeman, 龚雅芳&张连忠&李静军(编辑),英语教学 基本讲座,北京师范学院出版社,1991
 

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