外文资料文 外文资料文 Translation Equivalence
Halloween On October 31st, dozens of childrendressed in costumes knock on their neighbors' doors and yell "Trick or Treat" when the door opens. Pirates and princesses, ghosts and popular heroes of the day all hold bags open to catch the candy or othergoodies that the neighbors drop in. As they give each child a treat the neighbors exclaim over the costumes and try to guess who is under the masks. Since the 800's November 1st is a religious holiday known as All Saints' Day The Mass that was said on this day was called Allhallowmas. The evening before became knownas All Hakkiw e'en, or Halloween. Like some otherAmerican celebrations, its origins lie in both pre-Christian and Christian customs. October 31 st was the eve of the Celtic new year. The Celts were the ancestors of the present-day Irish, Welsh and Scottish people. On this day ghosts walked and mingled with the living, or so the Celts thought. The townspeople baked food all that day and when night fell they dressed up and tried to resemble the souls of the dead. Hoping that the ghosts would leave peacefully before midnight of the new year. Much later, when Christianity spread throughout Ireland and October 31 was no longer the last dayof the year, Halloween became a celebration mostly for children. "Ghosts" went from door to door asking for treats, or else a trick would be played on the owners of the house. When millionsof Irish people immigrated to the United States in the 1840s the tradition came with them. Today' school dances and neighborhood parties called "block parties" are popular among young and old alike. More and more adults celebrate Halloween. They dress up like historical or political figures and go to masquerade parties In larger cities, costumed children and their parents gather at shopping malls early inthe evening. Stores and businesses give parties with games and treats for the children.Teenagers enjoy costume dances at their schools and the more outrageous the costume the better! Certain pranks such as soaping car windows and tipping over garbage cans are expected. But partying and pranks are not the only things that Halloweeners enjoy doing. Some collect money to buy food and medicine for needychildren around the world. Symbols of Halloween Halloween originated as a celebration connected with evil spirits. Witches flying on broomsticks with black cats, ghosts, goblins and skeletons have all evolved as symbolsof Halloween. They are popular trick-or-treat costumes and decorations for greeting cards and windows. Black is one of the traditional Halloween colors, probably because Halloween festivals and traditions took
place at night. In the weeks before October 31, Americans decorate windows of houses and schools with silhouettes of witches and black cats. Pumpkins are also a symbol of Halloween. The pumpkin is an orange-colored squash, and orange has become the other traditional Halloween color. Carving pumpkins into jack- o'lanterns Chinese Valentine's Day Raise your head on August 19 and gaze at the stars, you will find something romantic going on in the sky. VALENTINE'S Day in China, the seventh day of the seventh lunar month, falls on August 19 this year. That is, on Sunday evening, Niu Lang and Zhi Nu will meet on a bridge of magpies across the Milky Way. Chinese grannies will remind children that they would not be able to see any magpies on that evening because all the magpies have left to form a bridge in the heavens with their wings. Hungry Ghost Festival The 14th and 15th of the seventh lunar month Unlike other celebrations of the dead in Eastern cultures that seek to honor dead ancestors, the Hungry Ghost Festival seeks to pacify the hungry ghosts, the ghosts of strangers and the un-cared-for dead. These are the ghosts of those who died by their own hands, by accidents, by drowning or hanging who have been denied entry into heaven. Angry because they are forced to dwell in hell without food or comfort, when released, they search for souls to take their place in misery. The most important days of this month are the 14th and 15th, the days of the great feasts. On the 14th, a great feast would be held to honor family ancestors. Prayers and offerings would be made at family altars. On the following night, the 15th, they would feast for the hungry ghosts. Held outside under the full moon, these feasts feed the evil spirits so that they will leave the living alone and bribe the ancestors for luck with money and the harvest. Winter solstice Winter solstice is a very important solar term in Chinese Lunar calendar. Being a traditional holiday as well, it is still now celebrated quite often in many regions. Early during the Spring and Autumn period, 2500 odd years from now, Winter solsticewas first determined as the Chinese traditional solar term among the total 24 terms. In Gregorian calendar, it is around Dec 22nd or 23rd. Ancient china did pay great attention to this holiday, regarding it as a big event. There was the saying that "Winter solstice holiday is greater than the spring festival". Nowadays, many regions still celebrate it as a big holiday. Northerners may have dumplings and raviolis that day while southerners may have dumplings made by rice and long noodles. Some places even have the tradition to offer sacrifices to the heaven and earth.
Spring Festival The New Moon on the first day of the new year-- the full moon 15 days later Chinese New Year starts with the New Moon on the first day of the new year and ends on the full moon 15 days later. The 15th day of the new year is called the Lantern Festival, which is celebrated at night with lantern displays and children carrying lanterns in a parade. The Origin of Chinese New YearThe Chinese New Year is now popularly known as the Spring Festival because it starts from the Begining of Spring (the first of the twenty-four terms in coodination with the changes of Nature). Its origin is too old to be traced. Several explanations are hanging around. All agree, however, that the word Nian, which in modern Chinese solely means "year", was originally the name of a monster beast that started to prey on people the night before the beginning of a new year. Traditional New Year Foods Probably more food is consumed during the New Year celebrations than any other time of the year. Vast amounts of traditional food is prepared for family and friends, as well as those close to us who have died. On New Year's Day, the Chinese family will eat a vegetarian dish called jai. Although the various ingredients in jai are root vegetables or fibrous vegetables, many people attribute various superstitious aspects to them. Other foods include a whole fish, to represent togetherness and abundance, and a chicken for prosperity. The chicken must be presented with a head, tail and feet to symbolize completeness. Noodles should be uncut, as they represent long life. In south China, the favorite and most typical dishes were nian gao, sweet steamed glutinous rice pudding and zong zi (glutinous rice wrapped up in reed leaves), another popular delicacy. In the north, steamed-wheat bread (man tou) and small meat dumplings were the preferred food. The tremendous amount of food prepared at this time was meant to symbolize abundance and wealth for the household. Lantern Festival The 15th day of the 1st lunar month is the Chinese Lantern Festival because the first lunar month is called yuan-month and in the ancient times people called night Xiao. The 15th day is the first night to see a full moon. So the day is also called Yuan Xiao Festival in China. According to the Chinese tradition, at the very beginning of a new year, when there is a bright full moon hanging in the sky, there should be thousands of colorful lanterns hung out for people to appreciate. At this time, people will try to solve the puzzles on the lanterns and eat yuanxiao (glutinous rice ball) and get all their families united in the joyful atmosphere. Besides entertainment and beautiful lanterns, another important part of the Lantern Festival,or Yuanxiao Festival is eating small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour. We call these balls
Yuanxiao or Tangyuan. Obviously, they get the name from the festival itself. It is said that the custom of eating Yuanxiao originated during the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the fourth centuty, then became popular during the Tang and Song periods. The fillings inside the dumplings or Yuansiao are either sweet or salty. Sweet fillings are made of sugar, Walnuts, sesame, osmanthus flowers, rose petals, sweetened tangerine peel, bean paste, or jujube paste. A single ingredient or any combination can be used as the filling . The salty variety is filled with minced meat, vegetables or a mixture. The way to make Yuanxiao also varies between northern and southern China. The usual method followed in southern provinces is to shape the dough of rice flour into balls, make a hole, insert the filling, then close the hole and smooth out the dumpling by rolling it between your hands. In North China, sweet or nonmeat stuffing is the usual ingredient. The fillings are pressed into hardened cores, dipped lightly in water and rolled in a flat basket containing dry glutinous rice flour. A layer of the flour sticks to the filling, which is then again dipped in water and rolled a second time in the rice flour. And so it goes, like rolling a snowball, until the dumpling is the desired size. The custom of eating Yuanxiao dumplings remains. This tradition encourages both old and new stores to promote their Yuanxiao products. They all try their best to improve the taste and quality of the dumplings to attract more customers. Qing Ming(Tomb Sweeping Day) Celebrated two weeks after the vernal equinox, Tomb Sweeping Day is one of the few traditional Chinese holidays that follows the solar calendar-- typically falling on April 4, 5, or
  6. Its Chinese name "Qing Ming" literally means "Clear Brightness," hinting at its importance as a celebration of Spring. Similar to the spring festivals of other cultures, Tomb Sweeping Day celebrates the rebirth of nature, while marking the beginning of the planting season and other outdoor activities. Easter Easter is a Christian holiday celebrating the resurrection of Christ. Now for most people, Easter is a good time to enjoy the festival. Time is the first full moon after the vernal equinox on Sunday, probably in the March 22-April 25 any day between. Easter gift with a typical spring and regeneration, such as eggs, Easter Bunny, etc.. Easter morning, children will find the bed of the Easter basket filled with chocolate eggs, Easter bunnies, chicks and baby plush toys. It is said that the Easter Bunny will be eggs hidden in the room or the grass to get the kids to find. The Christian believers will go to church for the christening in the pre-holiday, and then put their new robes to celebrate the new life of Christ, the custom of wearing a new reservation now, people think the festival is to be out of luck do not wear new clothes, so the resurrection Day comes, people will have clean houses, put on new clothes, new life.
外文资料译文 翻译对等
万圣节 在十月三十一日这天,成群的小孩穿着节日的盛装并去敲邻居的门当他们打开门时就叫喊 着: “不请吃就捣乱” 。孩子们装扮成的海盗,公主,鬼魂和当时流行的英雄们都手持着袋子 去接邻居散发的糖果或是其他好吃的食物。 当邻居分发给孩子们食物时就会试着猜猜盛装以 及面具下面是谁。 万圣节最早起源于公元八百年的十一月一日, 这天的聚会被称作万圣节聚餐。 前一天的傍晚 就是我们熟知的万圣节前夕,或是万圣节。像一些其他的美国节日一样,它也是起源于圣诞 节以及圣诞的风俗。 十月三十一日是凯尔特人的新年前夕。 凯尔特人是现在的爱尔兰人, 威尔逊人和苏格兰人的 祖先。在这天,鬼魂就会走出来并且混到活人中去,凯尔特人是这么认为的。城里的人们这 天会烹制好食物,并且等候到夜幕降临时,他们就会乔装打扮成已故的灵魂。希望鬼魂能够 在新年午夜前平静地离开。 过年以后,当基督教传播到爱尔兰时,十月三十一日不再是每年的最后一天了,万圣节变成 了主要是孩子们庆祝的节日。 “鬼魂”走家串巷叫嚷着要求请吃东西,否则就会在主人的房 子上做恶作剧。 当为数目众多的爱尔兰人于十九世纪四十年代移民到美国后, 也将他们的文 化带到了那里。 现在,像学校学校的舞会和社区的聚会之类的“群众聚会”无论是老人还是年轻人都一 样很喜欢。 越来越多的成年人庆祝万圣节。 他们打扮成历史或是政治上的人物并参加化装舞 会。在大城市里,盛装打扮的小孩和他们的父母会在傍晚时早早地就在购物广场里集合。商 场和商店会举行派对并有游戏和食物提供给小孩。青少年们就正在享受着学校的盛装舞会, 服装越是怪异越好。 经常能见到恶作剧, 比如用肥皂涂抹车窗和弄翻垃圾箱。 万圣节狂欢者不仅仅是聚聚会 或是做点恶作剧。有些人会募捐善款来购买食物和药品给全世界那些需要的孩子们。 万圣节的象征 万圣节的起源和邪恶的灵魂有关。 万
 

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