北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计)
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The Causes and Possible Settlement of IPR Conflicts between China and USA
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……………Student’s Name Supervised by ……
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Submitted to the School of Foreign Languages In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for The Degree of Bachelor of Arts in English Beijing Forestry University June 2007
北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计) 三号黑体居中
外语学习的性别差异
英语 02-1 ××× 指导老师:×××
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摘 要
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性别是第二语言习得和外语学习中学习者差异的重要因素之一,因此,语言 性别差异的研究已经越来越受到重视。 该论文通过对七十二名以英语为外语的大 学生的调查问卷进行分析,研究性别差异对英语学习者的学习动机,策略运用, 以及学习观念的影响,基于调查结果对英语教学提出建议。分析结果表明英语学 习者在学习动机,策略运用,以及学习观念方面的确存在不同程度的性别差异。 根据分析结果, 该研究建议教师通过各种课堂活动激发学生对英语国家文化的兴趣,针对 男、女生性格差异,对其学习策略采取重点不同的培养和训练,并通过相互沟通 的方式鼓励学生树立积极的学习态度,拓展适合于自己的学习方法。
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关键词:性别差异,学习动机,策略运用, 关键词:性别差异,学习动机,策略运用,学习观念
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i
北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计) 新起一页三号 Arial 体加粗居中
Gender Differences in Foreign Language Learning
English 02-1
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×××
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Supervisor ×××
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Abstract
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Gender is one of the learner variables that may play an important role in second language acquisition and foreign language learning, so that research on gender differences related to language has attracted more and more attention. This paper examines the self-reported study of 72 university students learning English as a foreign language in China, and focuses on the effects of gender differences on motivation, the use of language learning strategies and beliefs, and teaching implications are provided based on the result of the survey. The analysis reveals that gender differences do exist in motivation of learning language, the use of language learning strategies as well as beliefs about language learning. Based on the result of the analysis, the study suggests that the teachers should try to arouse the interests of the students learning the culture of English-speaking countries, carry out the strategy training according to the differences of the characters of male and female students, and through communication with the students encourage them to develop positive attitude towards their study and explore the methods suitable to their own characteristics.
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Key Words: Gender differences, motivation, learning strategies, learners’ beliefs
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ii
北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计)
Acknowledgements
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(内容省略)
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Contents
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Abstract (Chinese) ……………………………………………….…….……….... i Abstract (English)………………………….……………….……………………..ii Acknowledgements…………………………………….……………………….....iii Chapter One Introduction……..……………………..…………………………1 Chapter Two Theoretical Foundations…………………………………………3

  2.1 Motivation.......................................…….……………….................................3
  2.
  1.1 Definition….…………………..…...…………………………………….3
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  2.
  1.2 Taxonomies……………………………………………………………….4 右缩进 2 个字母位置
  2.2 Learning Strategies…………………………………………………………...5
  2.
  2.1 Definitions…………………………….……..……….…………………..5
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  2.
  2.2 Taxonomies………………………..…………………………………..…5 右缩进 4 个字母位置
  2.3 Learners’ Beliefs………….………………………………………………......6
(省略)
References………………………………………………………………………....21 Appendix……………………………………………………………..……………23
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Chapter One
Introduction
Language is at the center of human life. Language learning and language teaching are vital to the everyday lives of millions. All forms of language teaching could be greatly improved if we had a better understanding of the language learner and of the language learning process itself. In fact, many studies on English learners have been conducted in China, which indeed provide teachers and researchers with a deep understanding of the actuality of English learning in this country. However, while individual differences have attracted more and more attention, the factors that contribute to the relationship between gender and motivation, language learning strategies, and learners’ beliefs have not received adequate recognition. It is at the beginning of the 20th century that scholars started to pay attention to the relationship between gender and language. Research on gender differences related to language has focused on cognitive functions. For example, studies have been conducted on a variety of differences among young school children (Robinson, 19
  96), college students (Stumpf and Stanley, 19
  96), and adults (Halpern and Wright, 19
  96) as well as subjects with affective or communicative disorder. And other studies are related to language production as in conversation and addressed gender differences in spoken and written language output. Examples include Mulac and Lundell (19
  94) ? written discourse. In China, researches on gender language date back to the 1980’s, which are mainly about differences in men and women language forms. Most scholars put the focus on language form as related to gender, either by introducing achievements made by researches abroad or by exploring gender and language according to their own experience. And later, some researchers brought the study of gender and language to a broader scope. From then on, there was an obvious shift from examining language form to exploring communication strategies and speech style (e.g. Xu Lisheng, 20
  00). …… (省略)
北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计)
Chapter Two

  2.1 Motivation
Theoretical Foundations
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The important involvement of motivation in learning English as a foreign language has been established for some time. There can be little doubt that motivation is a powerful factor in foreign language learning: most studies investigating the effect of motivation have found a relatively strong correlation between motivation and language learning success, with many finding motivation to be the most significant predictor of achievement (e.g. Oxford, 19
  93). Motivation has also been found to affect the use of language learning strategies, with highly motivated students generally employing strategies more frequently than less motivated students in many types of foreign language programs (Ehrman and Oxford, 19
  89).
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  2.
  1.1 Definitions
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Although motivation is a term frequently used in both educational and research contexts, there is little agreement as to the exact meaning of this concept. The term has a number of different interpretations, and it has come to be used in different ways by different people. A simple definition is provided by Keller (19
  83) in current psychology: “motivation refers to the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid, and the degree of effort they will exert in that respect” (Crookes and Schmidt, 1991: 4
  81). This definition gives readers an initial idea about what motivation is. By this definition, motivation includes making choices and exerting efforts. Kanfer (19
  92) developed the definition of motivation by indicating that motivation refers to “the direction of attentional effort, the proportion of total attentional effort directed to the task (intensity), and the extent to which attentional effort toward the task is maintained over time (persistence)”. (省略)
北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计)
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References
Bacon, S. M. & Finneman, M. D. Sex differences in self-reported beliefs about foreign language learning and authentic oral and written input. Language Learning. 1992, 4: 471-4
  95. Boyle, J.P. Sex differences in listening vocabulary. Language Learning. 19
  85. 2: 273-2
  84. Brown, H.D. Breaking the Language Barrier. Intercultural Press, Inc. 19
  91. Deci, E. L. & R. M. Ryan. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. 19
  85. Ellis, R. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 19
  85. Halpern, D. F. & Wright, T. M. A process-oriented model of cognitive sex differences. Learning and Individual Differences. 1996, 1: 3-
  24. 胡文仲, 《跨文化交际与英语学习》 。上海:上海译文出版社,19
  88。 刘润清,吴一安,俞涓,高校英语教育调查报告(四)《外语教学与研究》1990(
  3):54-
  60。 , 李长忠,语篇衔接、连贯与大学英语写作,《外语与外语教学》2002(
  11):25-
  28。 束定芳, 《现代外语教学??理论、实践与方法》 。上海:上海外语教育出版,19
  96。 赵俊华, 《中学生英语学习观念的发展特点及性别差异研究》 广西:广西师范大学出版社, 。 20
  03。
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注释模式如下: 注释模式如下: Notes
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[1] 楼夷, “中美知识产权报告交锋”《财经》 2006 年第 5 期, p.
  31。 , [2] E. G. Hinkelman, Dictionary of International Trade: Handbook of the Global Trade Community. Economic Science Press, 2002, p.58-p.59 . [3] 姚欢庆,郝学功,“中美知识产权保护的冲突和解决办法的探讨”, 《知识产权》1998 年 第 5 期, p.
  18。 [4] N. G. Mankiw, Principles of Economics (the Second Edition). Beijing: Beijing University Press, 2004, p.1
  02. [5] Ibid [6] 杨叔进, “中美知识产权争端和新贸易协定及其影响” 《当代中国研究》1995 年第 3 , 期,p.
  48。 [7] Ibid.
北京林业大学本科毕业论文(设计)
[8] Ibid. p.
  72. [9]China’s Action Plan on IPR Protection 2006 (I). http://english.enorth.com.cn/system/2006/04/30/0012948
  08.shtml. Retrieved 2 June 20
  06.
 

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