Motivational Strategies Applied In Teaching College Students Second Language
Jin Juan
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For the B. A Degree Supervisor: Ma Liyan Applied English Department Ginling College Nanjing Normal University April 3, 2010
教大学生第二语言的过程中所运用到的动 大学生第二语言的过程中所运用到的动 生第二语言的 机策略
金娟
导师:马黎燕 南京师范大学 金陵女子学院 实用英语系 2010 年 4 月 3 日
Contents
English Abstract and Key Words................................................................................................... I Chinese Abstract and Key Words ................................................................................................. II Ⅰ. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1 Ⅱ. The Definition of Motivation .................................................................................................... 2 Ⅲ. The Role Motivation Acts in Second Language Acquisition.................................................. 3
  1. Preactional Phase ............................................................................................................ 3
  2. Actional Phase ................................................................................................................. 5
  3. Postactional Phase ............................................................................................................ 5 Ⅳ. Motivational Strategies for Teachers ....................................................................................... 6 A. Creating the Basic Motivational Conditions .................................................................... 7
  1. Appropriate Teacher Behaviors ................................................................................. 7
  2. A Good Relationship with the Student ...................................................................... 7
  3. A Pleasant Supportive Atmosphere in the Classroom.............................................. 8 B. Maintaining and Protecting Motivation ........................................................................... 8
  1. Setting “Proximal Sub-goals” .................................................................................... 9
  2. Improving the Quality of Learning Experience ..................................................... 10 C. Encouraging Positive Self-evaluation ............................................................................. 10 Promoting Attributions to Effort Rather Than to Ability ......................................... 11 Ⅴ. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 12 Bibliography .................................................................................................................................. 13 Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................ 15 致谢 ................................................................................................................................................ 15
English Abstract and Key Words
As more and more attention is paid to the great effect language learners’ interior factors have on foreign language acquisition, educators are also emphasizing more to improve teaching efficiency by designing various kinds of classroom activities to stimulate students’ learning motivation. This paper will introduce some motivational strategies applied in teaching college students second language. In the first part of this paper, the definition of motivation is given to provide readers with a better acknowledgement of the subject of the paper. In the second part, the role motivation acts in the three main periods of second language learning is displayed. It is proved in the third part that teachers can arouse students’ learning enthusiasm by using three motivational strategies which are: ⑴Creating the basic motivational conditions. ⑵Maintaining and protecting motivation. ⑶Encouraging positive self-evaluation. In the last part of the paper, a conclusion is given that motivational strategies can be applied to enhance students’ motivation. Then, the limitation of this paper and the further aspects of this topic to be researched is given to help us have a deeper understand of motivational strategies.
Key Words: motivation, motivational strategies, second language teaching, college
student
I
Chinese Abstract and Key Words
人们越来越重视语言学习者的内在因素对外语习得的重要影响,同时,教育 者也注重运用各种各样的课题活动来激发学生的动机,从而提高教学的效率。这 篇论文下面将介绍一些大学英语教学中所能运用到的动机策略。 这篇论文的第一部分给出了动机的定义, 以便让读者能够对这篇文章的论述 对象有一个更全面的了解。随后,在第二部分,论文主要论述了动机在第二语言 习得过程中所起的作用,从而论证了动机的重要性。论文的第三部分提出了三条 教师可以运用到的动机策略, 因为它们可以很好地激发学生们学习第二语言的动 机。 这三条动机策略分别是: ⑴创造基本的可以激发学生的学习动机的学习环境; ⑵维持和保护好学生的学习动机;⑶估计学生进行积极的自我评价。论文的最后 一部分归纳总结出动机策略可以用来巩固学生的学习动机。 同时也提出了这篇文 章的缺陷和未来的研究方向,从而帮助我们进一步理解这些动机策略。
关键词: 关键词:动机,动机策略,语言教学, 第二外语教学,大学生
II
Motivational Strategies Applied In Teaching College Students Second Language
Ⅰ. Introduction We may not be conscious of why we choose to do or not to do certain things. In fact, when we refer to our goals, expectations, and interests; or when we complain about the poor salaries we get, we are dealing with motivational issues already. Not only in daily life are we motivated, but also in the process of second language learning can we find that motivational concerns have called our attention. Teacher’s thinking of how to encourage lazy students to work harder; how to make the classroom teaching more interesting, exciting and attractive; and which kind of feedback the most positive effect on students has are all motivational issues in second language teaching. The role teacher plays in student’s learning process is vital. His systematic strategies to stimulate student’s motivation in learning have an intimate relationship with student’s learning result, because the better the student is motivated, the more he seems to achieve in the learning process. Here, second language teaching is one topic of applied linguistics deals with. In a narrow sense, applied linguistics specially refers to language teaching, especially second language teaching (Ye Baokui, 2002: 340-3
  41).
The study of second language teaching and learning strategies began in the middle of 1970s. Rubin from America, Naiman from Canade, Frohlich and Todesco are those who first step into this field. The study of second language teaching and learning strategies became more and more popular since then and many famous theories are put forward. In China, the study of second language teaching and learning began in the early 1980s, but achievements are little and many aspects are not researched. In 1984, Huang Xiaohua published together with his supervisor’s name the thesis “Learning strategies for oral communication” in Applied Linguistics. This is the first thesis about foreign language learning strategies written by Chinese scholars published in international magazine. China
1
is country with the most population learning second language, but the research in this field is far from enough. (Wen Qiufang, 2000: F11-
  24)
It is hoped that this paper, especially those motivational strategies in it, will help the teacher make progress in making second language teaching in college more efficient. Ⅱ. The Definition of Motivation Motivation can be defined as the dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates and terminates the processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritized and (successfully or unsuccessfully) acted out(Dornyei, 1998:
  65). Motivation is a kind of internal drive that moves people from boredom to interest and encourages people to make decisions. It continuously enhances people’s mind to keep on accomplishing their tasks especially when facing with difficulties. Besides, it also has the power to make people work hard on their tasks. It is motivation that decides why people are determined to do something, how long they are willing to persist on the activity, how hard they are going to work on it, and how well they think they are going on well with it. It is choice, persistence, effort and evaluation. In linguistics, there is a professional name for learning a second language. That is second language acquisition. Second language acquisition refers to the process that people gradually improve their level of a second language (Wu Xudong, 2006:
  47). In the language acquisition, the student has to make progress. Actually, learning a second language has a lot of differences with learning other subjects. It can be proved by Gardner’s motivation theory that the student is not being asked to learn about them; he is being asked to acquire them, to make them part of his own language reservoir. This involves imposing elements of another culture into one’s own life (Gardner, 1979:193-
  4). Therefore, to motivate the student to learn a second language in the greatest extend is very complex and difficult since language is both social and cultural. But it is accepted that student’s motivation and learning behavior can be affected by adding or removing outside stimulation, which means that although motivation is abstract and
2
nonobjective, it can still be useful and benefit the second language teaching and learning process. Ⅲ. The Role Motivation Acts in Second Language Acquisition On the whole, researchers have found a strong, positive connection between motivation and achievement. The two items are directly related. The better a student is motivated, the higher achievement he will tend to get. During the process of acquiring a second language, the role motivation acts is vital. When a student’s initial wishes and desires to learn a language are transferred into goals in the beginning of the semester; when he is accomplishing these goals during the semester; or when he is evaluating the whole process of learning by asking himself whether the learning result is satisfactory enough at the end of the semester, he is dealing with his learning motivation all the time. Motivation drives him to perform such a sequence of actions. Without motivation, he will find no reason why he should start this long journey of learning. Without motivation, the faith that encourages him to insist on overcoming the difficulties he meets will disappear. The role that motivation acts in second language acquisition is all-around. Dornyei has introduced a process-oriented model of second language acquisition motivation. According to his model, motivational influence can be classified into three levels(motivational influence on goal setting, executive motivational influence and motivational influence on postactional evaluation) on the basis of the following three phases that the whole language acquisition process can be divided into (Dornyei, 20
  05):
  1. Preactional Phase The preactional phase is the process of setting a specific goal and plan to do the learning. It is the process of choosing an action to be done in the future and making a decision. Before people make decisions, they may have many general wishes, hopes, desires and dreams in their minds. Some of these have been existed in their minds for a long time while others are just ideas that flash by. Consciously or unconsciously, people select some of their wishes and ideas and put them into practice. That conscious or unconscious selection is the process of setting a goal.
3
Then, why do learners select to learn a second language? “The motivation to learn a second language is various. Some people learn a second language to obtain degrees, or find a good job. These are instrumental motivation. Others learn a second language with the purpose of communicating with foreigners or learning the foreign cultures and technologies. These are integrative motivation.”(Zhang Hongling, 2007: 1
  28), We often hear people explain their reasons why they study English in these ways: English is very important in the international world; It is necessary to know a second language; Cross cultural communication is vital in our life; English will help me when traveling; I want to make friends with foreigners. What do these expressions in common? According to Zhang’s classification of motivation, we can conclude that all these reasons are of instrumental or integrative motivations. Apart form this, they are all learner’s subjective believes and feelings such as. At the same time, the
 

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