Never give in, never, never, never
Winston Churchill
WW II
? was a global military conflict between 1939 and 1945, which involved most of the world's nations, including all great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilized. In a state of "total war," the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Over seventy million people, the majority civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest conflict in human history.
Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Angry Churchill
Brief
? Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill grew up as the son of a British noble. He attended private school from age of seven, and entered Harrow in 18
  88. He was not impressed with his education. Later he entered Sandhurst Royal Military College in 1893 after three attempts to pass the entrance test. He joined the army in 18
  95.
? He was elected to the House of Commons (下议院)as a Conservative in 19
  00. Then he joined the Liberal Party and became the President of the Board of Trade (贸易大 臣)in 19
  04.He served as Under Secretary of State for the Colonies(殖民部次官) from 1906 to 19
  08.He served in the military in France during World War I. He was Secretary of State for War(陆军大 臣) from 1918 to 1921 and Chancellor of the Exchequer(财政大臣) from 1924 to 19
  29.When World War II broke out, he was nominated as First Lord Of Admiralty (海军大臣).
? He was Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1955, and his widely regarded as Britain’s greatest 20thcentury statesman. Besides this, he is also a prolific historical writer, and his most famous works are The World Crisis, My
early Life, Marlborough, The Second World War, and A History of the Englishspeaking People. He was knighted for his
great contribution to Britain and was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 for his The Second World War.
Harrow School
Harrow School
? Harrow School, commonly known simply as "Harrow", is an English independent school for boys in the British public school tradition situated in the town of Harrow, in north-west London. Harrow has educated boys since 1243 but was officially founded by John Lyon under a Royal Charter of Elizabeth I in 15
  72. ? The school has an enrolment of approximately 800 boys spread across twelve boarding houses, all of whom board full time.
? Harrow is world-famous for its many traditions and rich history, which includes the use of boaters, morning suits, top hats and canes as uniform as well as a very long line of famous alumni including eight former Prime Ministers (including Winston Churchill, Jawaharlal Nehru and Henry John Temple,), numerous foreign statesmen, former and current British Lords and members of Parliament, two Kings and several other members of various royal families, 19 Victoria Cross holders, and a great many notable figures in both the arts and the sciences. It is one of the original nine English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 18
  68.
The Art of Public Speaking
? Types of speeches: Speaking to inform/persuade/ on special occasions/in small groups ? Elements of public speaking: Speaker / Message/ Channel/ Listener / Feedback/ Interference/ situation ? Methods: Reading from manuscript (a book or other document written by hand) / Reciting from memory/ Speaking impromptu ( sth unrehearsed ) / Speaking extemporaneously (spoken, performed, etc, without planning or preparation )
Suggested Readings
? The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson ? Letter from Birmingham Jail Martin Luther King, Jr. ? Inaugural Address John F. Kennedy ? Speech on Hitler’s Invasion of the U.S.S.R. ? Winston Churchill ? Why I’m in Favor of a Nuclear Freeze --Christopher Buckley ? I have a Dream Martin Luther King, Jr. ? Politics and the English Language ? George Orwell
Text structure
? Part 1 (Para
  1) Opening remarks in which Churchill summarized the great events that had happened in the world with Great Britain in particular and then talked about the purpose of his visit to Harrow schoolto (cheer) encourage the whole nation to fight against the Nazis.
Text structure
? Part II (para2-
  5) It is the body of the speech in which he analyzed the world situation and how other countries looked at Britain and then called on the Britain people not to give in.
Text structure
? Part III( para6-
  8) It is the closing remarks in which, by changing a word in the additional verse of the school song, he expressed his conviction that this nation was determined to fight for the victory of this great war.
Text analysis
? 3 parts
The lyrics of Forty
Years On
? Forty years on ? Not less we praise in darker days/ The leader of our nation/ And Churchill’s name shall win acclaim / From each new generation/ For you have power in danger’s hour/ Our freedom to defend, Sir!/Though long the fight we know that right/ Will triumph in the end, Sir!
Harrow school
? At the initial stage of the Second World War, Great Britain was fighting in isolation against Nazi Fascist. Some British people doubted whether their nation could win the war with their own efforts. Churchill wanted to convey the conviction of the government to the British people through these songs and encourage them not to give in.
Language points
? ? ? ? ? ? Catastrophic: extremely harmful catastrophic hypothesis 灾变说 A potentially catastrophic situation 可能引发严重灾难的形势 Its Noun: catastrophe
? ? ? ? ?
A catastrophic illness. 一场灾难性的疾病 A decisive or catastrophic conflict. 决定性的或大规模的战争 Be certain that you are not underinsured against catastrophic illness. ? 一定要为大病办理充足的保险
? Menace: threat (en); danger vi.
  1. Two men menaced him with weapons and forced him to give up his money.
  2. menace with one's fist clenched.
? n.
  1. He spoke with menace in his voice.
  2. A careless driver is a menace to all road users.
  3. military menace
lull :break calm hush intermission letup pause quiet recess respite rest silence stillness ? N.
  1. We are in a lull before a storm.
  2. The Winter Olympic Games has brought with it a lull for the Chinese movies, with box-office collections dropping drastically. ? vt., vi. (into) The monotonous voice of the movement of the train lulled me to sleep. The wind lulled.
? Deceptive: misleading
  1. Appearances are deceptive.人不可貌 相。
  2. He posed the question with deceptive casualness.
Address :speak to (typically in a formal way)
? n.
? ? ? ? home address an address of welcome a man of pleasing address pay one's addresses to a lady (expressions of affection made by a man in courting a woman )
? ? ? ? ?
vt. address a meeting address the ball瞄球 How shall I address you? If your friend did something wrong, you should always address a warning to him.
More examples
? I have the honor of introducing to you Mr. Smith, who will address you on his recent tour abroad. ? The letter was addressed to the wrong house. ? He addressed himself to the task of doing his homework. ? He addressed her with high compliment.
Liquidate: put an end to; abolish or kill ? The government made every effort to stabilize the economy by liquidating the national debt. ? Hitler tried to liquidate the Jews in Germany. ? The plan to liquidate the terrorists failed to be materialized. ? Noun: liquidation
Sponge Vt. ? sponge the mud spots off the car. Vi. ? Don’t sponge on your friends. ( rely on)
Flinch: (Noun; Verb) avoid doing or becoming involving in sth through fear or anxiety. cringe draw back recoil shrink vi.
  1. He had faced death without flinching. ? flinch from danger.
Compliment: (Noun; Verb) commend congratulate flatter praise n. ? Your presence is a great compliment. ? A sincere compliment boosts one's morale ( moral confidence). ? A free sample is enclosed with the compliments of the manufacturer.
Stern: austere exacting firm hard harsh severe strict
? a stern teacher. ? a stern taskmaster. ? China’s textile industry is facing a stern situation of trade friction.
Language Appreciations part I

  1.Ups and downs : A mixture of good things and bad things Eg:
  1. Sitting beside the window, he recalled the ~ of his career.
  2. The organization has experienced ~ since it was founded in 20
  10.

  2.the very great improvement: the better armament of the British forces and assistance from the United States
  3.position: status; circumstance; situation at a particular time Eg: It is time that those companies revealed more about their financial ~. The soccer team is going to be in a very difficult ~ if nothing particular shows up.

  4.the unmeasured menace of the enemy: the immense , incalculable threat or danger of the enemy attack. 5….there has been this long lull…: There has been no progress of the war in such a long quiet period.
Para 2-5

  1. What is short and sharp and what is long and tough: difficulties and hardships of any kind, imminent or distant, temporary or longlasting (fierce and quick battles, but also the long and enduring wars)
  2. Noble chance of war: impressive ( or good) opportunities of war

  3.throw our minds back to our meeting here ten months ago: recollecting our meeting at Harrow School ten months ago
  4.Apperances are often very deceptive: misleading

  5.Meet with: Experience; undergo Eg:
  1. Attempts to find civilian volunteers have met with embarrassing failure.
  2. Efforts to put the Russian space program into market have met with little success.
6…imagination makes things out far worse…: What one imagines leads to be worse than reality reality… make out: see or understand
7….pray to be given that extra courage to carry this far-reaching imagination: Paraphrase: ..wish to be blessed with excessive courage to accomplish or realize this effective and influential blueprint. or: ….wish to be blessed with excessive courage to stand the fear and fright from this effective imagination.

  8.convictions of honor and good sense: strong beliefs in honor and good judgment of duty and justice
  9.Never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy: never give in or surrender to the seemingly strong enemy

  10.our account was closed…: we were completely defeated by the enemy troops (Metaphor)
  11. Very different is the mood today. (inverted sentence) How other nations view Britain and how the British people think and feel about the war is quite different today from ten months ago.

  12.Britain…had drawn a sponge across her slate. (Metaphor) Britain … was completely wiped out ( defeated). 13….our country stood in the gap (Metaphor). Idiom: expose oneself for the protection of sth Eg: we need you to stand in the gap and help provide the financial resources to meet this economic challenge. paraphrase: our country shouldered the responsibility in isolation
14….we have only to persevere to conquer. We will win as long as we hold on to the end. or: we have no choice but to hold on until victory comes. or: As long as we persevere, the final victory will surely belong to us.
Para 6-8

  1.The extra verse written in my honor: ….to show your respect for me
Extra verses
Not less we praise in darker days The leader of our nation And Churchill’s name shall win acclaim From each new generation For you have power in danger’s hour Our freedom to defeat, Sir! Though long the fight we know that right Will triumph in the end, Sir!

  2.Each of us according to our stations: Each of us according to our social positions.
Keys to Text comprehension I

  1.Why does the author urge people to be patient? Because he understands that the war is long and tough: it is not to end in months but in years. He tells the people there that however the war lasts, the final victory belongs to Britain. But at the same time he makes it clear that not every day is an opportunity to take action: they have yet to wait and persevere.

  2. What is the change in the widespread mood
referred to in Paragraph? For one thing when Britain came under the heavy air attacks by Germany, many other nations thought that Britain was finished. As the country stood the ordeal to their great surprise, those nations changed their view. For another, people now start to see the hope of the final victory as long as they persevere to the end, as opposed to their pessimistic mood in the past as evidenced by the term “darker days” in school song and by the author’s suppression of his desire to change it.

  3.Why does the author change “darker” into “sterner”? Because the author has a strong conviction of victory. The two terms have different implications. When used in the text to refer to the days of war, “darker days” emphasizes the dark/negative side of the event and shows the user’s pessimism. “sterner days”, though identical in its reference, suggests the bright side and shows the user’s optimism
Text Comprehension
?
  1. B ? II. T T F F
Keys to IV text comprehension
?
  1. Britain has been in too long a period of stillness without taking any particular action against the enemy. ?
 

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