The place of titles The title or the topic of the essay should be placed in the middle of the first line. (标题书写中应该注意的地方
  1.Every word of the title should be capitalized except articles,preositions,coordinating,conjunctions and to in infinitives.
  2.But if one of these words is the first or last word of the title, it should be capitalized.
  3.The title of a book within the topic should be underlined,and the title of an article should be put between quotation marks 引号.) Word division 即单词划分 (当一行写到末尾时候,可能出现一个单词写不完的 情况,这是需要用到单词划分。)
  1.重读闭音节通常在辅音字母后面断开。如,fin ish
  2.以辅音字母加 le 结尾的通常在辅音字母前断开。如,peo ple
  3.一个字母不能单独放在行中或行末。
  4.以两个字母的后缀结尾的,不能在后缀处划分。如,hand ed, hard en
  5.一页的最后一个单词不能被划开,且需写到下一页。
  6.合成词应在练此符号出断开。如,broad minded
  7.有两个连续相同辅音字母的双音节词,在相同的两个辅音字母 中间断开。如,lat ter
  8.人名应避免被拆开。如,Dickens
  9.容易引起误解的应避免。如,re ally,lay man
  10.连续几行的行尾单词划分需要避免。 Capitalization Capitalized words are used mainly in three places: proper names, key words in titles, and the first words of sentences. Punctuation(标点符号 及其用途 标点符号)及其用途 标点符号 (一)The Comma (, )逗号 ,
  1. A comma is used to join coordinate clauses, it is put before the conjunction.
  2. A comma is used after an adverbial clause or phrase, including a
1

  3.
  4.
  5.
  6.

  7.
prepositional and a participial phrase before the subject, or inserted in the middle of the sentence. Commas are used to separate a series of words or phrases with the same function in the sentence: Nonrestrictive clauses and phrases are set off by commas Commas set off parenthetical elements In dates, a comma is used to separate the day and the year if the order is month?day?year; no comma need be used if the order is day?month?year. With numbers of 1 000 or over, commas or little blank spaces may be used to separate digits by thousands. Form right to left, a commas is placed after every three numerals.
(二)The Period ( . )句号
  1. The period is used at the end of a declarative sentence, a mildly imperative sentence, and an indirect question.
  2. The period is used with most abbreviations.
  3. Three spaced period make the ellipsis mark, which indicates the omission of one or more words within a quoted passage. (三)The Semicolon ( ; )分号
  1. The semicolon is used between two coordinate clauses which are not linked by a conjunction.
  2. Conjunctive adverbs like therefore, however, nonetheless, hence, otherwise, besides, moreover, etc., should not be used as conjunctions to link two coordinate clauses, before them there should be a semicolon, not a comma.
  3. The semicolon is used with conjunctions when the clauses contain internal punctuation.
  4. The semicolon is used to separate a series of items with internal commas.
  5. A semicolon may be used to join clauses with words omitted, and the omission is sometimes indicated by a comma. (四)The Colon ( : )冒号
  1. The colon is used to introduce a quotation or a statement.
2

  2. The colon is used to introduce an examination, a summary, or an appositive.
  3. The colon is used between the hour and the minute to show the time, to record the scores of games, to end the salutation of a business letter and the introductory remark of a spealer to the chairman and audience. (五)The Question Mark ( ?)问号
  1. The question mark is used after a direct question.
  2. The question mark is used after a statement turned into a question.
  3. A question mark put between parentheses indicates the writer’s uncertainty about the correctness of the preceding word, figure or date. (六)The Exclamation Mark ( ! )叹号
  1. The exclamation mark is used after an exclamatory sentence, or an emphatic interjection, or a phrase expressing strong emotion..
  2. Sometimes the exclamation mark is used after a slogan. (七)Quotation Marks( … )引号
  1. Double quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations in dialogue or from books or articles.
  2. Single quotation marks are used to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
  3. Indirect quotations are not enclosed by quotation marks.
  4. Quotation marks are used for titles of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, songs, etc., and for headings of chapters or subdivisions of books. Titles of books, newspapers and magazines are generally underlined or italicized.
  5. Words with special meaning are sometimes put between quotation marks, (八)Parentheses/Brackets ( ( ) )圆括号
  1. Parentheses are used to set off parenthetical, supplementary, or illustrative words.
  2. Parentheses enclose figures or letters used for enumeration. (九)Square Brackets( 【 】 )方括号
3

  1. Square Bracketsare used to indicate corrections or explanations in quoted matter made by the writer who is quoting .
  2. Square Brackets are used instead of parentheses within parentheses. (十)The Dash ( ? )破折号
  1. The dash indicates a break in thought or a change in tone, or a speaker’s confusion or hesitation.
  2. The dash indicates an unfinished or interrupted statement.
  3. A pair of dashes set off a parenthetical element.
  4. The dash is sometimes used to introduce a summarizing clause after a series of nouns.
  5. The dash is sometimes used just like quotation marks in a dialogue.
  6. The dash may be used to introduce subheadings and authors after quotations. (十一)The Slash ( / )间隔号
  1. The slash indicates alternatives, representing the word or or and\or
  2. The slash is used to separate lines in short quotations of poetry being quoted in running text.
  3. When fractions are written in a sentence, a slash is used to separate the numerator from the denominator.
  4. Sometimes the slash means “per.” 四种句型及其用途 四种句型及其用途 Comma 逗号??declarative sentence(陈述句):makes an assignment (陈述句) or statement Question mark 问号??direction question sentence(疑问句):ask a (疑问句) question Exclamation mark 叹号?? Imperation sentence(祈使句):express a command or a request (祈使句) Exclamatory sentence ( 感 叹 句 ) :express a strong feeling or emotion Underlining and italics
  1. Titles of books, periodicals, newspaper, plays, movies, operas, and long poems are underlined or italicized.
4

  2.
  3.
  4.
  5.
Foreign words are often underlined or italicized. Words and letters referred to as such are underlined or italicized. Names of ships, aircraft and tragic sinking of the titanic. Sometimes underlining or italicizing indicates emphasis.
【Words】 】
一、Type of words Common words Formal and technical words: (political,legal,scientific,technical,bussiness,literary) Nonstandard words: (slang,jargon,dialectal and obsolete) 二、Choice of words
  1. Use common or informal words for general purposes; use formal or nonstandard when only on special occasions or for special purposes.
  2. Use specific and concrete words when giving details; use general or abstract words when making summaries.
  3. Use idiomatic expressions and words in acceptable collocations; avoid combinations and that are unidiomatic.
  4. When there are synonyms, choose the word that expresses the meaning most exactly and that suits the content and style. 三、Synonyms The english language is very rich in synonyms. This is partly due to the fact that english has over the centuries borrowed or absorbed tens of thousands of words from other languages, mainly Greek, Latin and French. Word of anglo-saxon origin are generally colloquial or informal, and they form a great part of the vocabulary that people use daily. Many of the words of greek, latin, and french origin are formal, learned or “big”; and are mainly used in formal writing or speech. 四、Some good dictionaries
  1. Longman dictionary of contemporary english
  2. Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary of current english.
5

  3. Webster’s new word dictionary.
  4. Collins cobuild english language dictionary.
【Sentences】 】
构建句子: 一、Composed sentences 构建句子 ①complete structure ②begin with a capital letter ③full stop, or a question mark, or an exclamation mark ④a single complete idea 二、Requirement of correct sentences 及其对应错误
  1.completeness in structure ?fragment in structure
  2.the right subject ?the wrong subject
  3.agreement between the subject and the predicate verb ?disagreement between the subject and the predicate verb
  4.agreement between pronoun and antecedent ?disagreement between pronoun and antecedent
  5.clear pronoun reference ?unclear pronoun reference
  6.ending sentences with full stops ?ending sentences with no full stops
  7.joining clauses with conjuctions ?joining clauses with no or wrong conjuctions
  8.a main claus in a complex sentence ?no main claus in a complex sentence
  9.proper use of comparisons ?improper use of comparisons
  10. correct use of the tenses ?incorrect use of the tenses 四、Quality of effective sentences Effective sentences have the following quality: Unity(完整性)
6
Coherence(连贯性) Conciseness(简明扼要性) Emphasis(强调) ( ways of emphasis:placing, climactic sequence, subordination,the use of verbs in the active voice,balanced sentences 平行结构,periodic sentences 圆周句,negative/positive sentences,rhetorical question,loose sentences 松散句 ) Variety(表达多样性) 五、The difference between subordination and coordination Coordination is tipically realized by coordinators which join units at the same level while subodination is realized by subordinators which distinguish the superodinate claus and the inferior clause.
【Paragraph】 】 一、Ways of developing a paragraph There are many possible ways to develop a paragraph. (
  1)development by time (
  2)development by process (
  3)development by space (
  4)development by examples or generalization (
  5)development by comparison and contrast: (the difference between comparison and contrast : When we compare one thing with another, we show the similarities; when we contrast one thing with another, we show dissimilarities.) (
  6)development by cause and effect (
  7)development by classification (
  8)development by definition (
  9)development by combination of methods 二、The steps of developing a paragraph First, think of the topic or theme or main idea, And express it in a complete sentence(topic sentence). Then think of the details or examples or facts that may be used to support or explain the main idea.
7
Work out the outline and arrange them in logical order. 三、Features of a paragraph A effective paragraph must have a control idea, and this central idea may be expressed either explicitly in a topic sentence.
【Summray】 】 定义) 一、Definition (定义 定义 A sumary is the gist or main theme of a piece of a piece of writing expressed in as few words as possible .it should be clear ,brief,and complete,with all the essential points included. 二、Uses(用途) (用途) ①summary writing enables people to get more out of their reading. ②summary writing is also a very good exercise to teach us to express thoughts clearly,concisely and effectively. ③summary writing has great practical value on grasping quikly and accurately what is read or heard. 三、Procedure(步骤) (步骤) ⑴ reading ⑵ writing ⑶ revision 要求) 四、Requirements(要求 要求 A.we should be sure of the word limit required . B.we should use our own words to write a summary. C.we should convey the message fully and clearly. D. We should write in the logical order of the original passage. E. Compression (压缩) 五、Ways(方法) (方法) A. Ommit the details B. Reduce the examples C. Refuse repeatness
删除细节 削减例子 避免重复
8
D. Simplify the decription E. Comprise wordy F. Generable words G.use the shortest transitions H.inderect speech
简化描述 全面用词 多用泛词 最简洁的过渡词 间接引语
【Composition 】 一、Steps in writing a composition
  1.planning a composition ( ① putting down all the relevant facts ② thinking of a proper theme and deciding on our purpose ③ re-examing our list of details and outlining )
  2.writing the fist draft
  3.revising the first draft
  4.making the final copy 二、Parts in composition
  1. the beginning ??introduction (Ways of start a composition :start with … ① relevant background material ② the time and place of the event to be described ③ a quotation ④ a question ⑤ a statement ⑥ a figures or statistics ⑦ a definition )
  2. the middle ??body
  3.the end ??conclusion 三、Types of writing
  1.narration 记叙体
  2.exposition 说明文 一篇好文章的标准) 四、Criteria of a good composition (一篇好文章的标准 一篇好文章的标准 A good composition have something interesting and/or important,
9
and if possible, something new , to say and that this “something”is expressed clearly, accurately, and appropriately. And we must decid
 

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