The place of titles The title or the topic of the essay should be placed in the middle of the first line. (标题书写中应该注意的地方
  1.Every word of the title should be capitalized except articles,preositions,coordinating,conjunctions and to in infinitives.
  2.But if one of these words is the first or last word of the title, it should be capitalized.
  3.The title of a book within the topic should be underlined,and the title of an article should be put between quotation marks 引号.) Word division 即单词划分 (当一行写到末尾时候,可能出现一个单词写不完的 情况,这是需要用到单词划分。)
  1.重读闭音节通常在辅音字母后面断开。如,fin ish
  2.以辅音字母加 le 结尾的通常在辅音字母前断开。如,peo ple
  3.一个字母不能单独放在行中或行末。
  4.以两个字母的后缀结尾的,不能在后缀处划分。如,hand ed, hard en
  5.一页的最后一个单词不能被划开,且需写到下一页。
  6.合成词应在练此符号出断开。如,broad minded
  7.有两个连续相同辅音字母的双音节词,在相同的两个辅音字母 中间断开。如,lat ter
  8.人名应避免被拆开。如,Dickens
  9.容易引起误解的应避免。如,re ally,lay man
  10.连续几行的行尾单词划分需要避免。 Capitalization Capitalized words are used mainly in three places: proper names, key words in titles, and the first words of sentences. Punctuation(标点符号 及其用途 标点符号)及其用途 标点符号 (一)The Comma (, )逗号 ,
  1. A comma is used to join coordinate clauses, it is put before the conjunction.
  2. A comma is used after an adverbial clause or phrase, including a
1

  3.
  4.
  5.
  6.

  7.
prepositional and a participial phrase before the subject, or inserted in the middle of the sentence. Commas are used to separate a series of words or phrases with the same function in the sentence: Nonrestrictive clauses and phrases are set off by commas Commas set off parenthetical elements In dates, a comma is used to separate the day and the year if the order is month?day?year; no comma need be used if the order is day?month?year. With numbers of 1 000 or over, commas or little blank spaces may be used to separate digits by thousands. Form right to left, a commas is placed after every three numerals.
(二)The Period ( . )句号
  1. The period is used at the end of a declarative sentence, a mildly imperative sentence, and an indirect question.
  2. The period is used with most abbreviations.
  3. Three spaced period make the ellipsis mark, which indicates the omission of one or more words within a quoted passage. (三)The Semicolon ( ; )分号
  1. The semicolon is used between two coordinate clauses which are not linked by a conjunction.
  2. Conjunctive adverbs like therefore, however, nonetheless, hence, otherwise, besides, moreover, etc., should not be used as conjunctions to link two coordinate clauses, before them there should be a semicolon, not a comma.
  3. The semicolon is used with conjunctions when the clauses contain internal punctuation.
  4. The semicolon is used to separate a series of items with internal commas.
  5. A semicolon may be used to join clauses with words omitted, and the omission is sometimes indicated by a comma. (四)The Colon ( : )冒号
  1. The colon is used to introduce a quotation or a statement.
2

  2. The colon is used to introduce an examination, a summary, or an appositive.
  3. The colon is used between the hour and the minute to show the time, to record the scores of games, to end the salutation of a business letter and the introductory remark of a spealer to the chairman and audience. (五)The Question Mark ( ?)问号
  1. The question mark is used after a direct question.
  2. The question mark is used after a statement turned into a question.
  3. A question mark put between parentheses indicates the writer’s uncertainty about the correctness of the preceding word, figure or date. (六)The Exclamation Mark ( ! )叹号
  1. The exclamation mark is used after an exclamatory sentence, or an emphatic interjection, or a phrase expressing strong emotion..
  2. Sometimes the exclamation mark is used after a slogan. (七)Quotation Marks( … )引号
  1. Double quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations in dialogue or from books or articles.
  2. Single quotation marks are used to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
  3. Indirect quotations are not enclosed by quotation marks.
  4. Quotation marks are used for titles of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, songs, etc., and for headings of chapters or subdivisions of books. Titles of books, newspapers and magazines are generally underlined or italicized.
  5. Words with special meaning are sometimes put between quotation marks, (八)Parentheses/Brackets ( ( ) )圆括号
  1. Parentheses are used to set off parenthetical, supplementary, or illustrative words.
  2. Parentheses enclose figures or letters used for enumeration. (九)Square Brackets( 【 】 )方括号
3

  1. Square Bracketsare used to indicate corrections or explanations in quoted matter made by the writer who is quoting .
  2. Square Brackets are used instead of parentheses within parentheses. (十)The Dash ( ? )破折号
  1. The dash indicates a break in thought or a change in tone, or a speaker’s confusion or hesitation.
  2. The dash indicates an unfinished or interrupted statement.
  3. A pair of dashes set off a parenthetical element.
  4. The dash is sometimes used to introduce a summarizing clause after a series of nouns.
  5. The dash is sometimes used just like quotation marks in a dialogue.
  6. The dash may be used to introduce subheadings and authors after quotations. (十一)The Slash ( / )间隔号
  1. The slash indicates alternatives, representing the word or or and\or
  2. The slash is used to separate lines in short quotations of poetry being quoted in running text.
  3. When fractions are written in a sentence, a slash is used to separate the numerator from the denominator.
  4. Sometimes the slash means “per.” 四种句型及其用途 四种句型及其用途 Comma 逗号??declarative sentence(陈述句):makes an assignment (陈述句) or statement Question mark 问号??direction question sentence(疑问句):ask a (疑问句) question Exclamation mark 叹号?? Imperation sentence(祈使句):express a command or a request (祈使句) Exclamatory sentence ( 感 叹 句 ) :express a strong feeling or emotion Underlining and italics
  1. Titles of books, periodicals, newspaper, plays, movies, operas, and long poems are underlined or italicized.
4

  2.
  3.
  4.
  5.
Foreign words are often underlined or italicized. Words and letters referred to as such are underlined or italicized. Names of ships, aircraft and tragic sinking of the titanic. Sometimes underlining or italicizing indicates emphasis.
【Words】 】
一、Type of words Common words Formal and technical words: (political,legal,scientific,technical,bussiness,literary) Nonstandard words: (slang,jargon,dialectal and obsolete) 二、Choice of words
  1. Use common or informal words for general purposes; use formal or nonstandard when only on special occasions or for special purposes.
  2. Use specific and concrete words when giving details; use general or abstract words when making summaries.
  3. Use idiomatic expressions and words in acceptable collocations; avoid combinations and that are unidiomatic.
  4. When there are synonyms, choose the word that expresses the meaning most exactly and that suits the content and style. 三、Synonyms The english language is very rich in synonyms. This is partly due to the fact that english has over the centuries borrowed or absorbed tens of thousands of words from other languages, mainly Greek, Latin and French. Word of anglo-saxon origin are generally colloquial or informal, and they form a great part of the vocabulary that people use daily. Many of the words of greek, latin, and french origin are formal, learned or “big”; and are mainly used in formal writing or speech. 四、Some good dictionaries
  1. Longman dictionary of contemporary english
  2. Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary of current english.
5

  3. Webster’s new word dictionary.
  4. Collins cobuild english language dictionary.
【Sentences】 】
构建句子: 一、Composed sentences 构建句子 ①complete structure ②begin with a capital letter ③full stop, or a question mark, or an exclamation mark ④a single complete idea 二、Requirement of correct sentences 及其对应错误
  1.completeness in structure ?fragment in structure
  2.the right subject ?the wrong subject
  3.agreement between the subject and the predicate verb ?disagreement between the subject and the predicate verb
  4.agreement between pronoun and antecedent ?disagreement between pronoun and antecedent
  5.clear pronoun reference ?unclear pronoun reference
  6.ending sentences with full stops ?ending sentences with no full stops
  7.joining clauses with conjuctions ?joining clauses with no or wrong conjuctions
  8.a main claus in a complex sentence ?no main claus in a complex sentence
  9.proper use of comparisons ?improper use of comparisons
  10. correct use of the tenses ?incorrect use of the tenses 四、Quality of effective sentences Effective sentences have the following quality: Unity(完整性)
6
Coherence(连贯性) Conciseness(简明扼要性) Emphasis(强调) ( ways of emphasis:placing, climactic sequence, subordination,the use of verbs in the active voice,balanced sentences 平行结构,periodic sentences 圆周句,negative/positive sentences,rhetorical question,loose sentences 松散句 ) Variety(表达多样性) 五、The difference between subordination and coordination Coordination is tipically realized by coordinators which join units at the same level while subodination is realized by subordinators which distinguish the superodinate claus and the inferior clause.
【Paragraph】 】 一、Ways of developing a paragraph There are many possible ways to develop a paragraph. (
  1)development by time (
  2)development by process (
  3)development by space (
  4)development by examples or generalization (
  5)development by comparison and contrast: (the difference between comparison and contrast : When we compare one thing with another, we show the similarities; when we contrast one thing with another, we show dissimilarities.) (
  6)development by cause and effect (
  7)development by classification (
  8)development by definition (
  9)development by combination of methods 二、The steps of developing a paragraph First, think of the topic or theme or main idea, And express it in a complete sentence(topic sentence). Then think of the details or examples or facts that may be used to support or explain the main idea.
7
Work out the outline and arrange them in logical order. 三、Features of a paragraph A effective paragraph must have a control idea, and this central idea may be expressed either explicitly in a topic sentence.
【Summray】 】 定义) 一、Definition (定义 定义 A sumary is the gist or main theme of a piece of a piece of writing expressed in as few words as possible .it should be clear ,brief,and complete,with all the essential points included. 二、Uses(用途) (用途) ①summary writing enables people to get more out of their reading. ②summary writing is also a very good exercise to teach us to express thoughts clearly,concisely and effectively. ③summary writing has great practical value on grasping quikly and accurately what is read or heard. 三、Procedure(步骤) (步骤) ⑴ reading ⑵ writing ⑶ revision 要求) 四、Requirements(要求 要求 A.we should be sure of the word limit required . B.we should use our own words to write a summary. C.we should convey the message fully and clearly. D. We should write in the logical order of the original passage. E. Compression (压缩) 五、Ways(方法) (方法) A. Ommit the details B. Reduce the examples C. Refuse repeatness
删除细节 削减例子 避免重复
8
D. Simplify the decription E. Comprise wordy F. Generable words G.use the shortest transitions H.inderect speech
简化描述 全面用词 多用泛词 最简洁的过渡词 间接引语
【Composition 】 一、Steps in writing a composition
  1.planning a composition ( ① putting down all the relevant facts ② thinking of a proper theme and deciding on our purpose ③ re-examing our list of details and outlining )
  2.writing the fist draft
  3.revising the first draft
  4.making the final copy 二、Parts in composition
  1. the beginning ??introduction (Ways of start a composition :start with … ① relevant background material ② the time and place of the event to be described ③ a quotation ④ a question ⑤ a statement ⑥ a figures or statistics ⑦ a definition )
  2. the middle ??body
  3.the end ??conclusion 三、Types of writing
  1.narration 记叙体
  2.exposition 说明文 一篇好文章的标准) 四、Criteria of a good composition (一篇好文章的标准 一篇好文章的标准 A good composition have something interesting and/or important,
9
and if possible, something new , to say and that this “something”is expressed clearly, accurately, and appropriately. And we must decid
 

相关内容

英语写作基础教程

   Welcome to my class A Basic Course in Writing 2010.10.20 A Basic Course in Writing 英语写作基础教程 辅导教师: 辅导教师 盛秋霞 电话: 电话:13325832973 QQ: 34111488 Email: susanna_sheng@hotmail.com 嘉善学院 上课要求及成绩评定 1, 请准时来校上课,不要迟到早退,如有其他情况 请在上课前请假,出勤率将算入平时成绩,上课时间 周三晚上6:40-8:4 ...

商务英语写作基础知识

   商务英语写作基础知识 商务英语写作基础知识 史上最牛英语口语学习法:躺在家里练口语,全程外教一对一,三个月畅谈无阻! 史上最牛英语口语学习法:躺在家里练口语,全程外教一对一,三个月畅谈无阻! 太平洋在线英语,可免费体验全部外教一对一课程: 太平洋在线英语,可免费体验全部外教一对一课程:www.pacificenglish.cn 使用日常讲话的方式来写作 Pedantic 学究式的 ascertain aforementioned is a result of at this point in ...

英语专业四级历年写作真题

   本文由jerry512贡献 doc文档可能在WAP端浏览体验不佳。建议您优先选择TXT,或下载源文件到本机查看。 英语专业四级历年写作真题 1992 大学英语四级六级考试 My View on Reading Extensively 大学英语四级六级考试 大学英语四级六级考试 1993 大学英语四级六级考试 My Idea of Becoming a Teaching in the Future 大学英语四级六级考试 大学英语四级六级考试 1994 大学英语四级六级 ...

七年级下册 英语1-6单元短语归纳

   1 让优秀成为一种习惯 Vincehu 七 下 1-6 单 元 短 语 归 纳 教学内容:初一下 教学内容:初一下 1-6 单元课文中出现的短语的拼读及听写 教学重点难点极其突破方法:每个短语读准,熟悉相关动词与介词的搭配,具备简单短语翻译的能力并能 教学重点难点极其突破方法:每个短语读准,熟悉相关动词与介词的搭配,具备简单短语翻译的能力并能 造句,此外,在阅读课文时能通过记忆以下短语了解文章中心思想。 造句,此外,在阅读课文时能通过记忆以下短语了解文章中心思想。 课时安排:一周一次与单词同 ...

日语、英语、韩语专业毕业论文写作要求

   大连工业大学继续教育学院 专科生毕业大作业指导手册 下发日期 2010 年 12 月 15 日 一、日语、英语、韩语专业论文撰写时间阶段安排: 日语、英语、韩语专业 1、 12 月 1512 月 30 日,毕业论文写作要求下达。 2 、1 月 10 日之前,网上提交《毕业论文审题表》 月 20 日之 ,1 前由指导教师给出定题意见,如无改动教师将不予回复,如有改动教 师将通告学生,1 月 21 日后学生可开始论文写作的准备工作。 指导教师电子邮箱:75639710@QQ.COM 3 、3 月 ...

2009《英语写作基础》课程教学大纲

   2009《英语写作基础》 2009《英语写作基础》课程教学大纲 一,课程性质与教学目的: 《英语写作教程基础》是英语专业基础阶段一门重要的实践课程,着重培养 学生英语写作的基本技能.掌握句子,段落以及应用文写作的基本理论和技巧, 写出主题较为突出,内容较为完善,语言较为通顺,格式符合要求的短文. 二,教学对象 本课程的教学对象是高等专科英语专业的学生或具有同等水平的自学者. 三,教学要求: 通过系统学习和刻苦训练,使考生最终掌握教材所规定的全部写作基本概 念,基本理论和基本用法.最终能写一般 ...

人教版初中英语第二册16单元说课稿

   人教版初中英语第二册 16 单元说课稿教材分析: 16 单元是第二册的第二个单元,也就是说是这个新学期的第二单元.16 单元的主题是围绕 "问路和指路"展开的,同时教学生,如何用情态动词"Can"和"May"来表达许可和可能.在 第二册上学期的课本中,学生已经学到了一些关于"问路和指路"的知识,而且他们也知道一 部分关于许可的表达,比如"May I come in?""Can I b ...

人教新目标英语七年级下1-6单元课文翻译

   人教新目标英语七年级下1-6单元课文翻译 单元课文翻译 人教新目标英语七年级下 第一单元 Section A 图片 你的笔友来自哪?他来自澳大利亚。你的笔友来自哪?她来自日本。 2d 约翰的笔友来自哪? 他来自日本。他住在哪?他住在东京。 Grammar Focus 你的笔友来自哪? 他来自澳大利亚。 约翰的笔友来自哪?他来 自日本。他住在哪?他住在巴黎。 3b 这是我的新笔友。她来自澳大利亚。他讲什么语言? 她讲英语。 4 问题:悉尼在哪儿?答案:在澳大利亚!悉尼在哪儿? 在美国。不,在澳 ...

七年级英语下册1-6单元必背句子与词组检测

   单元必背句子与词组检测 七年级英语下册 1?6 单元必背句子与词组检测 年级英语下 Unit1 Where’s your pen pal from? (ok) 1. --你的笔友来自哪里 (无“实义动词 come, 用 你的笔友来自哪里? 你的笔友来自哪里 无 实义动词 is/are”) --他来自加拿大。 他来自加拿大。 他来自加拿大 同 义 句 : do/does”) 练:They’re Australia, a beautiful country. A. come from B. co ...

大学英语基础教程(修订版)第四册教案Unit Eight

   Unit 8 Objectives By the end of this unit, students will be better able to 1. talk about moving stories about family love and perseverance; 2. use about 30 new words and 8 new phrases and expressions in brief conversations and translation; 3. revie ...

热门内容

2008学年五年级英语第二学期期中试卷

   2008 学年五年级英语第二学期期中试卷 考试时间( 分钟) 考试时间(60 分钟) I.听力部分:40% 一、圈出你所听到的单词,用 A,B 或 C 表示,将答案填在前面的括号内:8% ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) 1. ) 2. ) 3. ) 4. ) 5. ) 6. ) 7. ) 8. A. books A. glass A. hair A. watch A. cut A. sketchbook A. beside A. sitting B. box B. grass B. he ...

七年级 英语(下)各类作文范文

   七年级 英语(下)各类作文范文 一、描写朋友、自己或家人的喜好 1、 Dear friend, My name is Sally. I am from China. I want a pen pal in Australia. I am 14 years old. I have no brothers or sisters in my family. MY favorite subject in school is science, because I think it’s very int ...

英语口语常用句子

   1. I see. 我明白了。 2. I quit! 我不干了! 3. Let go! 放手! 4. Me too. 我也是。 5. My god! 天哪! 6. No way! 不行! 7. Come on. 来吧(赶快) 8. Hold on. 等一等。 9. I agree。 我同意。 10. Not bad. 还 不错 。 11. Not yet. 还 没。 12. See you. 再时 。 13. Shut up! 闭 嘴! 14. So long. 再时 。 15. Why n ...

关于听英语

   【转 关于听英语 】about listening method http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4c4e92400100c0tl.html 首先声明一下,我这里叙述是我的真实经验,总结出的理论也有我个人 的偏见,无意引起过多的流派之间的争端;每一个人的学习方法更多是 他个人的性格、环境和际遇造就的。 一次性地听懂英语影视节目一直是国人学英语的最大难点之一, 那 么如果我们每天坐在电视机前面象看母语一样看下去, 到底能不能最终 一次性听懂?这里跟大家分享一下我在 ...

file2010河南中考英语河南各题型答题技巧

   2010 河南中考英语河南各题型答题技巧 河南中招英语试卷一共有七道大题,其中听力,阅读理解和作文所占分值比重较大,共计 75 分,剩下 45 分的试题分别为单项选择,完形填空,短文填空和补全对话.灵活掌握各类 题型的答题技巧,是获得高分的关键. 英语听力是考生最先接触的题目, 范老师建议考生拿到试卷后, 先把听力题目快速阅读一遍, 包括选择题的所有选项都要顾及, 做到心中有数. 阅读时抓住侧重点, what, 对 where, when, who 之类的关键词和相似的人名,地名,时间,数字 ...