stomach-stomachs,a German- three Germans, an American-two Americans, man cook - men cooks; papers 报纸, 文件 manners礼貌 drinks饮料jeans (年仔裤), headphones (耳机), trousers (裤子), clothes (衣 服), pants (短裤), glasses (眼镜), shoes (鞋子), sunglasses (太阳镜), scissors (剪刀), compasses (圆规) 一些表示庆祝、祝贺的名词只 有复数形式,常见的有:celebrations (庆祝), congratulations (祝贺)
Mother’s day Father’s day Boy’s day Girl’s day Children’s day Women’s day Teachers’ day I met her at the doctor’s (office). She went to Mr. Black ‘s (house) yesterday.
在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名 词 所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如: the barber‘s 理发店。 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有‘s,则表示 “分别有”;只有一个’s,则表示‘共有’。 John‘s and Mary’s room(两间) John and Mary‘s room(一间) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。 如:a month or two's absence
常见有的express one’s thanks to sb. (向某人表 达感激之情), a letter of thanks (一封感谢信), in high/low spirits (情绪高涨/低落), have sports (进 行体育活动)。 in a word 简言之in other words 换句话说 have words with 与某人吵 嘴 have a few words (a word) with sb.与某人说 几句话 The crowd were running for their lives. 某些集体名词, 如people, police, cattle等, 只当复 数看待, 谓语动词必须用复数。
一些不可数名词只有复数形式,但 却表示单数概念
常见的有news (消息), means (手段)。 As we all know, no news is good news. 如果复数名词前有many、few,不可数名词前有much、little等表 示量的形容词时,该用so而不用such。如: I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over. Mr White got so little money a month that he could hardly keep body and soul together. 但little不表示数量而表示“小”的意思时,仍用such。如: They are such little children that the they cannot clean the hous e by themselves 专有名词: The Smiths; at Harold's; buy a China Daily; a chemist and mathematician; in the 1980s; in his fifties; The United States(America); the Spring Festival; (an art festival) a + 不可数名词 a good knowledge of English; a science
物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which等词一起前置,修饰一个名词, 而必须用双重所有格。 公式为: a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。 如: a friend of mine. each brother of his.
不定代词的用法: 不定代词的用法
all与none用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动 词;跟复数名词,用复数动词。All of the students are there. 所有的学生都在那。 All (of) the milk is there.所有的牛奶都在那 固定搭配:only a few (=few) not a few (=many) quite a few(=many) many a (=many) Many books were sold. Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。
代词比较辩异 one,that 和it ,
one表示泛指,that和it 表示特指。that与所指名 词为同类,但不是同一个,而it 与所指名词为同 一个。 I can‘t find my hat. I think I must buy one.(不定) The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought. (同类但不同个) I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it. ( 同一物)
one/another/the other
one… the other 、 some… the others one… another,another… some… others,others… others = other people/things the others = the rest 剩余的全部
  1) 泛指另一个用another。
  2) 一定范围内两人(物),一个用one,另一个用the other。
  3) 一定范围内三者,一个用one,另一个用one (another),第三个可用the other,a third。
  4) 一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用the others。
  5) 泛指别的人或物时,用others当在一定范围内,除去 一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部时,也用others。
some /any
肯定句用some:I have some toys in my bedroom. 一般疑问句和否定句any:Do you have any brothers or sisters? 表示建议、请求等:Would you like some juice? Can I have some stamps ①some亦可用于表示盼望得到对方肯定的答复或表示建议、委 婉请求的疑问句中,例如: Would you like to have some apples?你想吃苹果吗? ②any也可用于肯定句中,表示"任何的"。例如: Any one of us can do this.我们当中任何一个都能做这个。 some 和any的用法是经常出现的考点,希望大家能准确地掌握 它们的用法。 记忆:请求邀请委婉时, 用于疑问句( 记忆:请求邀请委婉时,some用于疑问句(常出现情态动词); 用于疑问句 常出现情态动词); 否定疑问用any。肯定句中用 否定疑问用 。肯定句中用any,任何一个接单数 ,
It用作形式主语 用作形式主语
  1. 代作主语的动词不定式,其句型为 (
  1)It be adj.(for sb.)to do sth.此处adj. 通常为描述事件的形 容词:easy,difficult,hard,necessary,unnecessary, possible,impossible,likely,unlikely,right,wrong, important,unimportant,legal,illegal,well-mannered,illmannered,polite,impolite,clear,obvious,certain, suitable,proper,fit,useful,useless,dangerous… 例 It is illegal(for a teenager)to drive a car without a license. (
  2)It be adj. of sb. to do sth. 此处adj. 通常为描述人的形容词:kind,unkind,nice,rude, cruel,considerate,thoughtful,thoughtless,careful, careless,silly,foolish,stupid,clever,wise,crazy. 例 It's kind of you to help me with the problem.
“It” 用法及其句型和固定搭配
It's no good/use doing… It's(well)worth doing… It's(well)worth one's while doing/to do… It's(well)worth while doing/ to do 例 It's no use crying over spilt milk.

  1)It is + noun +从句 例 It is no secret that the president wants to have a second term at office. (
  2)It is adj. +clause It's surprising that…(should)… ……竟然…… It's a pity/shame that…(should)… ……竟然…… that… should … …… …… 例 It's important that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.(=It's of much importance that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.) (
  3)It verb sb. + clause= It is v-ing + clause It+surprise/delight/interest/disappoint/worry/disturb/annoy/amaz e /bother/concern/frighten/please/anger sb. that… 例 It worried me that she drove so fast.(= It was worrying that she drove so fast.)

  4)It verb(to sb.)that…= sb/sth verb to do (verb = appear,seem,come about,emerge,follow, chance,happen,occur,transpire,turn out ,work out) 例 It(so)happened/chanced that they were out.(= They happened/chanced to be out.) (
  5)It is v-ed that…=sb/sth is to do (verb=say,report,think,believe,hope,expect,agree, accept,decide,determine,intend,plan,understand, know) 例 It is said that the couple have gotten divorced.(=The couple are said to have gotten divorced.) (
  6)It is v-ed that …(should)… (verb=demand,request,require,order,suggest,advise, recommend 例 It is suggested that they should begin with the third question.
It作主语的句型 作主语的句型

  1. It takes sb. … to do…(=sb takes…to do…)某人用多长时间做 某事 It took the men a week to mend our roof.(= The men took a week to mend our roof.)
  2. It's(about/high)time that… should /v-ed…是该做某事的时候 了 It's(about/high)time that we should take action.
  3. It's the x-th time(that)… have v-ed…第几次做某事了 It's the third time that he has failed the driving test.
  4. It is/has been… since …continuous v-ed(延续性动词)某动作 已有多长时间不发生了 It's 10 years that he lived here
  5. It was(not)… before…过(不)了多长时间某动作发生了 It was not long before they arrived.
It 作形式宾语
用来替代作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动 名词,而把真正作宾语的从句、动词不定 式、动名词置于句尾。
It 作形式宾语的常见句型:
  1. verb+ it+ adj./noun(for/of)to do/clause (verb=think,believe, suppose,consider,feel,make,keep…) I think it hard for you to do the task on your own
  2. verb+it+adj./noun(one's)doing(adj.=useless/worth/worthwhile) (noun=no use/no good/worth one's while/a waste of time/money/energy/words)(verb=think,believe,suppose, consider,feel,make,keep…) I'll make it worth your while telling me about his secret.
  3. verb+it+ important/unimportant/necessary/unnecessary/natural/essential that …(should)… verb+it+of much/great/no/little importance that…(should)… (verb=think,believe,suppose,consider,feel,make,keep…) I think it important that you(should)attendthe conference.

  4. verb + it+ as+ noun/adj.+ clause(verb=accept,regard, take,see,view) The lecturer takes it as encouraging when so many students attend his lecture.
  5. v. +it + prep. + that…owe it to sb. that…把…归功于… leave it to sb that…把…留给某人去做 take it for granted that …想当然 keep it in mind that… Don't bother to arrange anything. Just leave it to me to sort out.
  6. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后面,尤其是表示好恶的动 词后,enjoy,like,love,dislike,resent,hate,don't mind, be fond of,feel like,see to 宾语从句紧跟it之后 I hate it you can swim so well and I can't.
  7. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的介词后面,宾语从句紧跟it之后 (except that例外) I'm for it that you will follow their advice.

  1)倍数表示法 a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。 b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length…) of… The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球 的49倍。 49 c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than… The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year.今年比去年粮食产量增加8%。 d. 还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍 The production of grain has been increased by four times this year.今年粮食产量增加了4倍。
  2)分数表示法 构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于1时,分 子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数: 1/3 one-third ; 3/37 three and three-sevenths.
形容词和副词的比较级和最高级①一般的比较级和 最高级在形容词或副词后加-er或-est,如:small -- smaller smallest ② 以不发音-e结尾的形容词或副词直接加 ?r或 ?st, 如 large largest largest ③ 重读闭音节词尾是一个辅音字母的,需双写该辅 音字母,再加-er或-est。 ④ 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的形容词和副词,把“y”变“i”, 再加 ?er或-est. busybusierbusiest happyhappierhappiest
但一些双音节及多音节形容词或副词前要加more和 most,如: slowly more slowly most slowly difficultmore difficultmost difficult beautifulmore beautifulmost beautiful 但还有一些不规则的变化: good / wellbetterbest manymoremost bad / ill / badly worseworst littlelessleast far farther / further farther / furthest
①as…as… 和……一样 I’m as tall as you. ② not as(so)…as 不和…… 一样(在否定句 中常用so 来代替as)如, I can’t run so fast as you. 另外as…as possible 为固定结构,如,as soon as possible, as quickly as possible 等。 在以上两个句型中形容词或副词一定要用原级。
① 形容词/ 副词 比较级 + than 句型 ,在than 后面的人称 代词 用主语和宾语均可。 He is older than I / me. 但是如果人称代词后有动词时,则只能用主格形式。 Tom found more red leaves than I did. ② “the + 比较级, the + 比较级” 结构表示两个变化一起 发生。如, The more you learn, the more you’ll know. ③ “more and more”结构(指两个形容词比较级用and 连 接)表示持续不断的变化。 如: I’m getting thinner and thinner.

  1) more B than A 与其说A不如说B less A than B He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work.
  2) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor. no less… than… 与……一样……He is no less diligent than you.
  3) more than 不只是,非常She is more than kind to us all.

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