第一节 如何写好句子 句子是文章的基础,写好句子十分重要.
  1.句子要正确. 误:Do you know where is the People's Park? 正:Do you know where the People's park is? (注:从句要用陈述语序,不 能用疑问语序.)
  2.句子要平行. 差:In my spare time I enjoy popular music and collecting stamps. 好:In my spare time I enjoy listening to popular music and collecting stamps.(注:enjoy 的两个并列的宾语都用动名词.)
  3.句子要连贯. 差:Go into the park. Go forward. Cross the stream. Turn right. 好:After you enter the park by the main gate, walk straight on till you come to a stream. Cross the stream and turn right. (注:使用 after, till, and 等过渡词,使句子连贯)
  4.句子要有逻辑性. 误:I am very interested in computer and won first prize last year. 正:I was very interested in computer and won first prize last year. (注: 因为后半句的结果"去年获奖赢了"用过去时,所以前半句的原因"对电 脑感兴趣 "也必须用过去时,尽管至今仍非常感兴趣."
  5.句子要避免过多重复. 差:You will continue to walk. You will see a hill. You will go around the hill. You will arrive a lake. 好:After walking for a while you'll come to a hill. Walk round to the other side of the hill. There you'll see a lake. (注:通过主表交换的 方法; 若真正主语为从句,不定式短语,动名词短语时,可用形式主语 it.)
  6. 句子要避免头重脚轻. 差: Chinese, maths, English, physics, chemistry and computer were the main subjects. 好: The main subjects were Chinese, maths, English, physics, chemistry and computer.
  7. 句子要避免汉式英语. 误: My spare time lovers are swimming, skating, collecting stamps and listening to popular music. 正: In my spare time, I enjoy swimming…或 I'm fond of swimming…或 my favorites are swimming…或 my hobbies are swimming… (注:"业余爱好" 不能写成"spare lover","lover"是"情人"的意思.) 第二节 如何写好段落 段落是有一组相关的,共同表达一个中心思想的若干句子组成. 段落本身具有 完整性和连贯性.段落的长短要根据主题的简单或复杂而定. 高考的书面表达 有时全文进用一个段落就可以表达全部内容. 段落本身又是一篇小短文,包括主题句,支持句和结尾句. 主题句是一个段落 的中心或灵魂,代表着整个段落的主要思想,他往往放置于句子的首位. 支持 句是用各种材料结实,说明,论证主题句的句子. 结尾句是有主题句和支持句
发展而来的,他通常是一种肯定或否定的结论,是对全段一种浓缩式的说明. 段落的展开方式有多种:以实例展开, 以时间顺序展开, 以空间顺序展开,以 过程展开,以细节展开等等. 段落的使用句式要错落有致,不要单调重复.例如,1995 年高考很多考生书面 表达中所需要的几乎都是将来时态,很多考生从头到尾用"you will ",使文 章单调乏味. 而有的考生则穿插使用祈使句和 I'm sure 等主观想象句,在辅 以时间状语从句与非位于动词,长句或短句的交替使用,是文章更具可读性. 第三节 过渡词 为了是文章更加连贯,更具逻辑性,常常需要使用比较的过渡词.
  1. 表示增加的过渡词: also and and then too in addition furthermore moreover again on top of that another first second third 等.
  2.表示时间顺序的过渡词:now then before after afterwards earlier later immediately soon next in a few days gradually suddenly finaly 等.
  3.表示空间顺序的过渡词:near(to) far(from) in front of behind beside beyond above below to the right to the left around on one side outside 等.
  4.表示比较的过渡词: in the same way just like just as 等.
  5. 表示对照的过渡词: still yet however on the other hand on the contrary but in spite of even though 等等.
  6.说明结果和原因的过渡词:because since so as a result therefore then thus otherwise 等.
  7.说明目的的过渡词:for this reason for this purpose so that 等等.
  8.说明强调的过渡词:in fact indeed surely necessarily certainly without any doubt truly to repeat above all most important 等.
  9.表示解释说明的过渡词:for example in fact in this case for actually 等等.
  10.表示总结的过渡词:finally at last in conclusion as I have shown in other words in brief as has been stated 等等. 第四节 如何开头和结尾 "万事开头难","好的开头是成功(认识到)的一半". 虽然开头有着各式 各样的风格,不能千篇一律,要因不同文章的需要而各异,但又有其共同遵循原 则:
  1. 开头多是通篇文章内容的摘要;
  2. 开头常能展示文章的主题;
  3. 开头应能抓住读者的注意力,引导读者读下去. 开头的方法很多:开门见山,结实和描述主题,提供背景知识,小故事引路,提 出问题,倒叙,悬念,名言,描写,等等. 结尾一般是文章的升华或对文章主题的归纳,也是写好文章的关键.好的结尾能 唤起读者的共鸣,深化主题,给人回味,引人深思. 结尾的方法千变万化:总结主要观点,重复开头或题目,提出结论,提出问题, 暗示答案,引言,故事,等等. 以[NMET1992 年高考书面表达样题原文]为例,开头使用了"提供背景"的手法: "Betty set to work in the kitchen quickly. "而结尾使用了"提出问题"
的手法:"Oh, my goodness !The door's locked and I don't have a key. My dinner's on the stove .What am I going to do ?"这个问题,让读者充 分认识到她所处的窘境,把故事的情节推向高潮.
 

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