考博英语范文35篇
                         
           博士生入学英语考试协作部分试题说明
           
 根据教育部1992年颁布的《研究生英语教学大纲》(以下简称大纲《大纲》
的要求:“非英语专业博士研究生英语入学水平原则上应达到或高于硕士生的通过水平。”
《大纲》中对硕士生的写作要求是“掌握基本写作技能(如文章结构、段落展开和起承转合等),能按具体要求,在一小时内写出250词左右的短文,正确表达思想,语意连贯,无重大语言错误。”、
第一部分 写作文的要求,评分标准及考试中普遍存在的问题
一 考试要求

  1.文章内容切题。审题准确,不跑题。

  2.表达清楚。语言简洁、准确、说理清楚,读者能从作文内容清楚理解作者写作意图。

  3.意义连贯。 文字连贯、层次分明、意义表达完整。要使文章意义连贯必须具有一定的技能,包括较强的语感,遣词造句能力和文章谋篇布局的组织能力;

  4.语言规范。符合英语表达的习惯、语法错误较少、语言基本功扎实,最终避免中式英语。
二 作文的评分标准及样卷介绍
14 分: 内容符合要求, 包括了标题或提纲中的全部内容;语言流畅;层次分明,句式有变化。词汇丰富,句子结构和用词准确,文章长度符合要求。
11分:内容符合要求,包括了标题或提纲中的全部内容;文字连贯,句式有一定变化,句子结构和用词无重大错误,文章长度符合要求。
8分:内容符合要求,包括了标题或提纲中多数内容;基本清楚表达的主题的内涵;句子结构和用词有少量错误,个别是大错。文章长度符合要求。
5 分: 内容基本切题,基本表达了标题或提纲中的内容;文字连贯,语言可以理解,但有较多的结构和用词错误,且大错较多。文章长度基本符合要求。
2 分: 基本切题,但语句支离破碎,只有少数句子可以理解。
0 分: 文不切题。只将预先背诵的某篇文章默写下来,或语句混乱,无法理解。

附:14 分样卷
Topic: With her entry into WTO, China is being plunged into an international competition for talents, and in particular, for higher- level talents. To face this new challenge, China must do something, among other things, to reform her graduate(postgraduate) education system. State your opinion aobut this reform, and give the solid supporting details to your viewpoint.
  With China’s entry into WTO, she is facing a lot of chances and challenges in many aspects. As far as talents are concerned, China is being plunged into an international competition for talents, especially for higher-level talents. In order to adapt this new challenge, China must do something, among other things, to reform her graduate education system.
  
In my opinion, we must make some reform and adjustment in graduate education system in many aspects as follows. First of all, from the view of the government, it must adjust its policy of using talents, especially higher-level talents. For example, it may provide many privileges for them.
Secondly, for the viewpoint of the universities, they should adjust their constructure of curriculum. They should pay more attention to the cultivation of graduate’s capability. They should take effective measures to direct their educational goal from exam-oriented education to education for all-round development. Finally, as far as personnel is concerned, a student should pay more attention to the learning of all kinds of knowledge to meet the needs of society.
In a word, it is high time that we reformed the graduate education system. If we do not make some changes in the graduate education system, we may be failure in the international competition. So we must reform our graduate education system. (219 words)
点评: 该文紧扣主题,结构严谨,内容充实,语言流畅,句式变化多样。虽有个别小错,但英语表达能力较强,长度符合要求。
万能框架
As is implied in the table (or cartoon) and well known to all of us, … Take … in the table(cartoon) for example, it’s … for the … to… But when…
On the other hand, there do exist some… that… They are making all possible means to … and trying their best to… Compared with what those… , It’s a pity that… And what’s more, with the deepening and furthering of our country’s opening and reforming, more… are allowed to… With China entering the WTO, … are also permitted to … If still blind to this, the … is sure to … So, it’s urgent and essential for … to analyze… more rationally and macroscopically.It must keep in mind that … should never be unheard.
Although the condition is unsatisfactory now, with the awareness of the …in the table (or cartoon) and all the society efforts, improvement and an even brighter future are not only possible but also inevitable.


三 历年考试中存在的典型问题分析

  1. 不会审题,偏离主题。

  2. 汉语思维,逐字翻译。常见考生用汉语构思文章,同时将汉语句子硬译成英语。

  3. 用词搭配不当。

  4. 词汇量小,表达困难,拼写错误。

  5. 句法逻辑关系混乱。例如:Our English class often told stories.正确的应是:
Stories are often told on our English class.

  6.不会用关联词转承上下句和段落。关联词即过渡词,使用过渡词,可使上下句子和段落合理衔接,承上启下,使表达合乎逻辑,常见过渡词如as far as, however, well, though, in spite of 。

  7. 语法错误。 主要表现为:

  1) 分不清及物与不及物动词,例如:rise, raise; hear, listen

  2) 被动语态和主动语态的误用,例如: interesting和 interested

  3) 词类混淆,将动词或形容词误用作名词,将名词或动词误用作形容词,例如:
benefit 和beneficial; difficult和 difficulty; pleasure 和pleased等。

  4) 混淆可数名词和不可数名词,例如: help,practice等。

  5) 冠词、情态动词、介词、代词等方面的错误,例如:
a English book, should did, must done 等。
   
   四.如何写出漂亮的文章
文章要内容切题,表达清楚,意思连贯,语言比较规范。这就要求考生在写作时,把握如下方面:

  1. 统一性(Unity)
内容切题,实际上就是要求文章统一性。所谓统一性,就是指短文必须围绕着主题扩展,不能多中心。统一性表现在句子、段落和篇章三个层次上。我们写汉语文章的要求是首先不能跑题,实际上就是对统一性的要求。

  2. 连贯性 (Coherence)
指句子与句子之间、段落与段落之间的衔接要自然通畅,主要体现在文章的逻辑发展顺序和过渡词语的运用上。

  1) 逻辑顺序
  按照时间先后,或空间位置的相互关系,我们可以写出眉目清晰、符合逻辑的段落或文章。叙述文体多采用时间顺序,描写文体中空间顺序更常见。高潮形成系指按照其重要性或严重性安排各个发展点(指段落)或发展段(指文章)的顺序,这种语篇发展方法在描写、叙述、说明和议论文中均常出现。英语语篇的逻辑顺序安排一般是先谈最次要的内容,继而谈较为重要的内容,最后再谈最重要的内容,从而形成文章高潮。

  2) 过渡词语的运用?? 语篇的外在连贯手段
  有时,单靠逻辑上的连贯对英语语篇来说是很不够的,因而过渡词语的运用必不可少。汉语的连贯属于“意合”,英语的连贯属“形合”,而借助过渡词语取得语篇的连贯是形合法最突出的特点。所以,在英语文章内,诸如等过渡词语特别多。它们的运用挑明了句子与句子之间、段落与段落之间的关系,使文章更加显得连贯。由于受汉语“意合”的影响,中国学生常忽略过渡词语的运用。所以中国学生在进行英语写作时必须对此给以足够的重视。
  、

  3. 语言规范
语言的规范涉及面广。小至遣词造句,大到语篇结构,无不体现语言使用的质量。根据近年博士生入学英语考试的作文试卷统计,许多考生未熟练掌握造句技能甚至不能保证单词拼写正确、句子无重大语法错误。因此要多读多看英语报刊和原著,从中学习语言用法,没有仔细阅读过、理解过的东西千万不要在作文中使用,切忌中国式英语。、、
第二部分 35 篇范文

  1. Television Program and Their Effect on children
Television programs regularly entertain, educate, effect and even frighten the majority of our children. Most children are allowed to watch whatever program is on, with little thought on the effect that particular show will have on a child. Most programs can be classed as beneficial or harmful, according to what effect the program might have on a child.
  The beneficial television programs are mainly thouse that educate the young. There are often specials on animal life. A few regular children’s programs develop the child’s interest in school-type learning by stressing numbers and the alphablt, and that encourages him or her to be creative. The beneficial commercials, such as those on anti-smoking, anti-litter, and health, should be included in this category.
   On the opposite side are the shows, which are generally harmful to children. Many commercials, especially those sponsoring the children’s programs, are deliberately written to create a desire for an unnecessary product such as sugar coated cereals and candy. All adult programs that include violence or sex scenes can at best fill a child’s mind with confusing or misleading ideas, and could possib ly harden the child to violence.
   Thoughtful parents will definitely not allow their children to view the bad programs. A child’s viewing time should be limited to watching educationlly benefical programs.
  

  2. How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big Cities
With the development of modern industryu, more and more people are flowing into big cities. Accordingly, the housing problem in big cities is becoming more and more serious.
People have offered many solutions to this problem. I think building satellite cities in the suburbs is more practical. The fresh air and beautiful secnery in the suburbs will be appealing to the city citizens, who suffer from air pollution, noises, etc. in the overcrowded city. With more people leaving the city, more space will be available for those remaining. The housinmg problem in big cities will thus be solved.

  3. “The younger generaton knows best”
Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comments is made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer than ti is today. The young are better educated. They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom. They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. They think more for themselves and do not blindly accept the ideas of their elders. Events, which the older generation remembers vividly, are nothing more than past history. This is as it should be. Every new generation is different from the one preceded it. Today the difference is very marked indeed.
  The old always assume thaty they know best for the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this precisely what the young are doing. They are questioning the assumptions of their elders and disturbing their complacency. They take leave to doubt that the older generation has created the best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than anything is conformity. Office hours, for instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Wouldn’t people work best if they were given complete freedom and responsibility? And what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the world should wear drab grey suits and convict haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious matters, who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used violence to solven their problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives, so obsessed with mean ambitions and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be right with the rat ?race? Haven’t the old lost touch with all that is important in life?
  There are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. Their record over the past forty ye
 

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