英语写作
第一节:作文试题分析 一 作文试题分类 作文从试题角度可以分为现象解释型、问题解决型、对比选择观点论证型与应用 文五种类型。 现象解释型 此类作文在考试作文中比较常见。命题主要要求考生对某一社会现象进行解释并 加以评论,其基本结构是:首先说明现状;其次阐述这种现状产生或存在的原因;最 后做出分析,提出建议或总结观点。 问题解决型 此类作文要求考生从提示性文字或图表、图画入手,解释提示性文字、图表、图 画反映出的问题,提出问题的危害性或解决这一问题的紧迫性;然后对问题展开分析, 提出解决问题的方案或应对措施;最后一段要求考生表明自己的态度、做法等。 对比选择型 此类作文同样是考试中常见的类型,它的标志十分明显。作文题目要求较明确, 富有针对性,即直接要求考试者比较两种观点或做法,进而表明自己对问题或事务的 态度或观点,也就是做出选择。 观点论证型 此类作文往往要求考生根据题目给出论点,按照提纲的结构要求对其下论证,然 后表明自己的立场和看法。通过摆事实、讲道理的方式剖析事物,论述事理,发表意 见,确立或否认某一主张。 应用文
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应用文中的信函,也是作文设计的试题之一。在这类题型中,考生会读到一个特 定的场景,试题要求考生按照这个场景给相关人士写一封短信,并在信中明确表达自 己写信的原因(动机) 、目的(愿望)等。文章所设及的内容多种多样,但大部分都与 日常生活比较贴近。书信的类型可能变化万千,如邀请信、申请信、感谢信、道歉信 等,但是万变不离其宗,只要掌握了英语书信的格式,并应用恰当的句式和语句,就 一定能够写出好的文章来。 二 解决方案
  1. 建议考生分解作文观点,扩充内容。
  2. 建议考生在写作时只选择自己能够驾驭的句式和词语。
  3. 建议考生在文章中长短句搭配使用,用短句表达观点,长句推理分析。
  4. 建议考生选用作文模板,限定文章逻辑结构。
  5. 建议考生采用固定的句式,限定文章的字数。
第二节:写作技巧及作文结构安排 一 写作技巧
  1.根据文章大意判断作文题型。
  2.各种题型的写作方法。 现象解释型:基本方法为:描述现象→分析原因→对现象做出预测或如何促进(限制) 这种现象的进一步发展。 问题解决型:基本方法为:提出问题→分析问题→解决问题。 对比选择型:基本方法为:选择一种观点或态度;重点阐述个人支持或反对以上观点 或态度,并说明原因;做出比较客观的总结。
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观点论证型:基本方法为:分析主题→举例论证→得出结论(证明观点的正确性) 。 应用文基本方法为:分析所给情景→选择写作方法。 三段式作文的结构安排 题型
现象解释型 问题解决型 观点论证型 对比选择型 应用文
第一段
描述现象 提出问题 提出论点 选择一方观点, 表明 态度 描述事实
第二段
说明现象产生的原因 分析问题,给出解决方案 例证论点 提出个人选择的理由, 并指出不足 阐述原因
第三段
表明个人态度或阐述个人做法 表明个人态度或阐述个人做法 得出结论或表明个人看法或做法 客观综述 表明观点或提出建议
第三节:写作模板 一 现象解释型写作模板
  1.现象解释型模板一 Topic sentence ①??has become a common part of people’s life. ②And??has always aroused the greatest concern. ③what impresses us most is ??. ④The reasons??are varied. 信息提示
  1.空格内用概括性的词语填出最近 出现的总体现象。
  2.空格内填题目要 去讨论的具体现象
  3.现象的具体表现
  4.过度句, 填现象或现象带来的后果, 为下文分析产生的原因做铺垫。
  5. Among the various reasons,??plays an important role.
  5.原因之一。
  6.That is to say,??
  7.What is more,??
  8.For example,??
  6.具体说明原因一。 7 原因二。 8 举例说明原因二
3

  9.When talking about??,??,
  10.On the one hand??
  11.On the other hand,??
  12.In brief,??

  9.空格一填作者要讨论的现象,空格
  10.支持看法的理由 二填作者的看法。 一或说明看法的第一个方面。
  11.理由 二或第二个方面。
  12.总结。
Reading regularly has long become a common part of people’s life. And reading preference has always aroused the greatest concern. What impresses us most is according to the table, the percentage of book circulation in an American university library, which shows that the circulation of popular fictions, general nonfictions, science/technology/education books and art/ literature/poetry books accounts for
  65.9%,
  18.2%,
  10.8%and
  5.1% respectively. The reasons for the phenomenon are varied. Among the various reasons, the appealing content of the popular fictions plays an important part. That is to say, thanks to its appealing plot, popular fictions attract more people than other types of books do. What is more, science and art books which require readers’ knowledge on relevant fields are highly demanding. For example, it’s hard for students majoring in chemistry to understand Browning’s poems, and vice versa. When talking about my reading preference, I think I prefer to science books. On the one hand, in order to deepen what I’m specializing in, I need read more books relevant to my major. On the other hand, these books can also broaden our horizons. In brief, college students should choose books according to their interests and needs.
  2.现象解释型模板二
  1.We have witnessed ??
  2.According to ??,??
  1.空格内填最近出现的总体现象。
  2.空格 1 根据 题目填 the chart, the report 等,空格二内填现象
4

  3.And ??
  4.Many reasons contribute to??
的具体表现
  1。
  3.现象的具体表现
  2。
  4.过渡句, 填现象或现象带来的后果,为下文分析产生的原 因做铺垫。

  5. To begin with ,??.
  6.More over,??
  7.In addition ,??
  8.As a result ,??
  9.As to me,??,
  10.First of all,??
  11.Besides,??
  12.To conclude,??

  5.原因之一。
  6. 原因二。 7 原因三。 8 原因导致的结果。
  9.空格内填作者对现象的看法。
  10.支持看法的理 由
  1。
  11.理由二。
  12.总结。
We have witnessed that college students vary in reading preference. According to the table of the percentage of book circulation in an American university library, the circulation of popular fictions and general nonfictions accounts for
  65.9% and
  18.2% respectively. And the table shows that the circulation of science/technology/education books and art/ literature/poetry books is
  10.8%and
  5.1% respectively. Many reasons contribute to this phenomenon. To begin with, popular fictions usually possess more appealing plot than other types of books do, so many readers are attracted by popular fictions. Moreover, popular fictions and general nonfictions are easier to be understood. In addition, science and art books demand certain knowledge in special field of study. As a result, more students tend to choose popular fictions and general nonfictions.
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As to me, I’m in favor of books of science and technology. First of all, in order to deepen what I’m learning, I need read more books relevant to my major and observe the new development in science and technology circles. Besides, there books can also broaden my vision. To conclude, college students should choose books according to their interests and needs. Saving animals There is an undeniable fact that the number of animals is declining faster than ever before. According to a recent survey made by some experts, about 37 species disappear from our earth every year. It is obvious that the problem has become a serious one worth our concern. When we explore this problem, some underlying factors emerge. In the very first place, human beings have played a big part. With the fast development of human society, the environment is severely destroyed, and animals lose their home. Accordingly, some species become extinct. What’s more, people hunt animals for food and skin. A good case in point is that the Japanese have killed a lot of whales because they like to eat the meat. In addition, human beings are largely responsible for the pollution of natural environment, which has poisoned animals in many ways. The current problem, I believe, should be solved immediately. First of all, our government should play a key role in making relevant rules and protecting animals. The general public should also be educated to value the existence of these animals on our planet. 二 问题解决型作文模板
  1.模板一
6

  1.With the development/improvement of
  1.空格一处铺垫,空格二处填写某一问题。 ??,??.
  2. It is necessary that??.
  2.关注解决现象引出的问题很必要。
  3. On the one hand, ??.
  4. On the other hand, ??
  3.解决问题很必要的理由一。
  4.解决问题很必要的理由二。
  5.承上启下,填要解决的问题。
  5. Therefore, how to ?? is worth paying
  6. 解决办法一。 attention.
  6.Firstly??
  7.Secondly?? 7 解决办法二。
  8.For example,??
  9. Thirdly, ??.
  8. 举例解释解决办法二。
  10.In other words,??
  9. 解决办法三。
  10. 阐明解决办法三。
  11. 指出解决问题的办法多种多样。
  11.In fact, ways to ?? are countless.
  12.It’s time that ?? Reduce Waste on Campus With the improvement of living standard, waste on campus is increasingly serious. It is necessary that something should be done to reduce waste on campus. On the one hand, our waste has already caused a great loss of precious resources, such as water and electricity. On the other hand, our waste adds our parents as well as our society a burden. Therefore, how to eliminate waste on campus is worth paying attention. Firstly, we should turn off the light when we leave our dorms or classrooms so as to save electricity as much as possible. Secondly, we should stop wasting water when we bath, or wash clothes and dishes. For example, we should use a basin when we clean faces. Thirdly, we should be economical. In other words, when go shopping, we should buy only what we really need.
7

  12. 强调解决问题时不可待。
( education; concrete methods; strict supervision) In fact, the ways to reduce waste on campus are countless. It’s time that we cultivate the habit of thrift in every possible way.
  2.模板二
  1. There has been a discussion recently
  1.提出现存的问题。 about??.
  2. It is obvious that??.
  3. Additionally, ??.
  2.解决问题很必要的理由一
  4. So it is high time, ??
  3.解决问题很必要的理由二。
  4.承上启下,说明解决问题的必要性。
  5.解决办法一
  5. First of all, ??
  6.The reason is??
  7.Secondly??
  8.That is to say,??
  9. Thirdly, ??.
  6.解决办法一的理由.。
  7.解决办法二。
  8. 阐明解决办法二。
  9. 解决办法三。
  10. 指出解决问题的办法多种多样。
  10.In fact, more than three ways can be
  11. 小结解决问题的根本途径。 adopted,??
  11.As for me, ??
  12. 总结全文。
  12.All in all, ?? Reduce Waste on Campus There has been a discussion recently about waste on campus. It is obvious that a great loss of precious resources, such as water and electricity have been caused by waste. Additionally, our waste adds our parents and society a burden. So it is high time that we took actions to reduce the waste on campus. First of all, we should stop wasting water when we bath, or clean faces, or wash
8
clothes and dishes. The reason is that there is a great shortage of water in the word. Secondly, we should be economical. That is to say, when go shopping, we should buy only what we really need. Thirdly, we should turn off the light when we leave dorms or classrooms so as to save electricity as much as possible. In fact, more than three ways can be adopted. As for me, the cultivation of good habit of thrift is most important for all of us. All in all, every college student should join in the efforts to combat the waste on campus. Income Gap There has been a heated discussion over the growing income gap now. Some people hold that the gap is natural because it reflects different contributions that different people make in their work. In their view, those people with high income work hard and long. Besides, these people bring high efficiency and create more wealth. Accordingly, they deserve high pay. On the other hand, there are always some people who view this gap negatively. They believe that a lot of crimes happen as a result of this income gap. Some people make so little from their work that they risk taking criminal acts to get rich. In fact, experts have long found out that most cases of crime are directly related to low income. What’s more, for most people, income gap may destroy the satisfaction that they obtain from work. As anything has two sides, so has the problem of income gap. Personally, I believe that appropria
 

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