1. 叙述的人称 英语的记叙文一般是以第一或第三人称的角度来叙述的。 英语的记叙文一般是以第一或第三人称的角度来叙述的。用第一称表示的 是由叙述者亲眼所见、亲耳所闻的经历。它的优点在于能把故事的情节通过 我 是由叙述者亲眼所见、亲耳所闻的经历。它的优点在于能把故事的情节通过“我” 来传达给读者,使人读后感到真实可信,如身临其境。 来传达给读者,使人读后感到真实可信,如身临其境。如: The other day, I was driving along the street. Suddenly, a car lost its control and ran directly towards me fast. I was so frightened that I quickly turned to the left side. But it was too late. The car hit my bike and I fell off it. 用第三人称叙述,优点在于叙述者不受 我 活动范围以内的人和事物的限 用第三人称叙述,优点在于叙述者不受“我”活动范围以内的人和事物的限 制,而是通过作者与读者之外的第三者,直接把故事中的情节展现在读者面前, 而是通过作者与读者之外的第三者,直接把故事中的情节展现在读者面前, 文章的客观性很强。 文章的客观性很强。如: Little Tom was going to school with an umbrella, for it was raining hard. On the way, he saw an old woman walking in the rain with nothing to cover. Tom went up to the old woman and wanted to share the umbrella with her, but he was too short. What could he do? Then he had a good idea.
  2. 记叙文中用得最多的是动词的过去式 记叙文中用得最多的是动词的过去式
  4. 叙述的过渡 过渡在上下文中起着承上启下、融会贯通的作用。 过渡在上下文中起着承上启下、融会贯通的作用。过渡往往用在地点转移 或时间、事件转换以及由概括说明到具体叙述时。 或时间、事件转换以及由概括说明到具体叙述时。如: In my summer holidays, I did a lot of things. Apart form doing my homework, reading an English novel, watching TV and doing some housework, I went on a trip to Qingdao. It is really a beautiful city. There are many places of interest to see. But what impressed me most was the sunrise. The next morning I got up early. I was very happy because it was a fine day. By the time I got to the beach, the clouds on the horizon were turning red. In a little while, a
small part of the sun was gradually appearing. The sun was very red, not shining. It rose slowly. At last it broke through the red clouds and jumped above the sea, just like a deep-red ball. At the same time the clouds and the sea water became red and bright. What a moving and unforgettable scene!
  5. 叙述与对话 引用故事情节中主要人物的对话是记叙文提高表现力的一种好方法。 引用故事情节中主要人物的对话是记叙文提高表现力的一种好方法。适当 地用直接引语代替间接的主观叙述,可以客观生动地反映人物的性格、 地用直接引语代替间接的主观叙述,可以客观生动地反映人物的性格、品质和 心理状态,使记叙生动、有趣,使文章内容更加充实、具体。 心理状态,使记叙生动、有趣,使文章内容更加充实、具体。试比较下面两段 的叙述效果: 的叙述效果: I was in the kitchen, and I was cooking something. Suddenly I heard a loud noise from the front. I thought maybe someone was knocking the door. I asked who it was but I heard no reply. After a while I saw my cat running across the parlor. I realized it was the cat. I felt released. 这本来应是一段故事性很强的文字,但经作者这么一写,就不那么吸引人 这本来应是一段故事性很强的文字,但经作者这么一写,就不那么吸引人 悬念”给冲淡了 了。原因是文中用的都是叙述模式,没有人物语言,把“悬念 给冲淡了。可作如 原因是文中用的都是叙述模式,没有人物语言, 悬念 给冲淡了。 下调整: 下调整: I was in the kitchen cooking something. “Crash!” a loud noise came from the front. Thinking someone was knocking at the door, I asked, “Who?” No reply. After a while, I saw my cat running across the parlor. “It's you.” I said, quite released. 二、写好记叙文的基本要领
  1. 头绪分明,脉络清楚 头绪分明, 写好记叙文,首先要头绪分明,脉络清楚,明确文章要求写什么。 写好记叙文,首先要头绪分明,脉络清楚,明确文章要求写什么。要对所 写的事件或人物进行分析,弄清事件发生、发展一直到结束的整个过程, 写的事件或人物进行分析,弄清事件发生、发展一直到结束的整个过程,然后 再收集选取素材。 这些素材都应该跟上述五个 W ”和一个 H ”有关。 和一个“ 有关 尽管不是每 有关。 再收集选取素材。 这些素材都应该跟上述五个“ 五个 和一个
篇记叙文里都必须包括这些“ 篇记叙文里都必须包括这些 W ”和“ H ”,但动笔之前,围绕五个 W ”和“ H ”进行 和 ,但动笔之前,围绕五个“ 和 进行 构思是必不可少的。 构思是必不可少的。
  2. 突出中心,详略得当 突出中心, 在文章的框架确定后,对支持故事的素材的选取是很关键的。 在文章的框架确定后,对支持故事的素材的选取是很关键的。选材要注意 取舍,应该从表现文章主题的需要出发,分清主次,定好详略。要突出重点, 取舍,应该从表现文章主题的需要出发,分清主次,定好详略。要突出重点, 详写细述那些能表现文章主题的重要情节,略写粗述那么非关键的次要情节。 详写细述那些能表现文章主题的重要情节,略写粗述那么非关键的次要情节。 面面俱到反而使情节罗列化,使人不得要领。 面面俱到反而使情节罗列化,使人不得要领。这一点是写好记叙文要解决的一 个基本问题,也需要一定的技巧。 个基本问题,也需要一定的技巧。如: One night a man came to our house and told me, “There is a family with eight children. They have not eaten for days.” I took some food with me and went. When I finally came to that family, I saw the faces of those little children disfigured (破坏外貌) by hunger. There was no sorrow or sadness in their faces, just the deep 破坏外貌) pain of hunger. I gave the rice to the mother. She divided the rice in two, and went out, carrying half the rice. When she came back, I asked her, “Where did you go?” she gave me this simple answer, “To my neighbors ? they are hungry also!”
  3. 用活语言,准确生动 用活语言, 记叙文要用具体的事件和生动的语言对人、 记叙文要用具体的事件和生动的语言对人、事、物加以叙述。一篇好的记 的事件和生动的语言对人 物加以叙述。 叙文的语言既要准确、生动,又要表现力强,这样才能把人、 叙文的语言既要准确、生动,又要表现力强,这样才能把人、事描写得具体生 动,其可读性才强。试比较下面一篇例文修改的前后效果。 其可读性才强。试比较下面一篇例文修改的前后效果。 原文: 原文: One day Xiaoqiang was wandering away. He was soon lost among people and traffic. He could not find the way back home and started crying. Just then, two young students who were passing by found him standing alone in front of a shop and crying.
They went up to Xiaoqiang and asked him what had happened. Xiaoqiang told them how he got lost and where he lived. The two students decided to take him home. Mother was pleased to see Xiaoqiang come back safe and sound. She invited the two students into the house and gave them some money, but they didn't take it. She served them with tea but they left. 修改后: 修改后: The other day, five-year-old Xiaoqiang left home alone and wandered happily in the street. After some time, he felt hungry so he wanted to go back home. But he found he was lost among the crowded people and heavy traffic. When he could not find the way home, he started crying. Just then, two young students who were passing by from school found him standing crying in front of a shop. They immediately went up to him. “Little boy, why are you standing here crying?” they asked. “I want Mom, I want to go home.” said the boy, still crying. “Don't worry, we'll send you home.” And they spent the next two hours looking for the boy's house. With the help of a policeman, they finally found it. When the worried mother saw her son come back safe and sound, she was so thankful and she invited the students into her house. Gratefully, she offered them some money, saying it was a way to express her thanks, but the young students firmly refused it and left without even a cup of tea.
 

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