复合句??定语从句专题 一、定语从句的定义和结构 在句中做定语,修饰句中的名词性成分,被修饰的名词或代词称作先行词。由关系代词 或关系副词来引导。当关系代词作定语从句的主语时,其后的位于的人称和数取决于先行词的人称和数。 定语从句一般位于现行词的后面,有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that, as 和关系副词 when, where, why 等引导。 二、关系代词引导的定语从句 1 who 指人,在从句中作主语。如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 正在和父亲握手的那个人是警察。 That is the man who teaches us English. 那就是教我们英语的那个人。 2 whom 指人, 在从句中作宾语,常可省略。如: Mrs. Smith (whom) you met yesterday is a friend of mine. 你昨天碰见的那位史密斯夫人是我的一位朋友。 3 whose 通常指人,也有指事物,在从句中作定语。如: This is the scientist whose name is known all over the country. 这就是那位闻名全国的科学家。 Nobody wants the house whose roof has fallen in. 没有人要这个房顶已倒塌的房子。 4 which 指事物,在从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时,常可省略。如: A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words. 词典是解释词语的书。 The young man was very happy to get back (领会) the gold ring (which) he had lost on the train. 5 that 指事物, 也可指人,在从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时,常可省略。如: She is the only one among us that knows French. There are some films (that) I’d like to watch. 三、关系副词引导的定语从句 1 when 表示时间,其先行词往往是表示时间的名词(如 time, day, hour, year 等)。如: October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. From the time when he was little, he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 2 where 表示地点,其先行词多是表示地点的名词(如 place, room, house, street, area 等)。如: This is the place where my brother was born. Is this the room where we were living last winter? 3 why 表示原因, 常用在先行词 reason 后面。如: Idon’t know the reason why she looks unhappy today. The reason why he said that is quite clear. 四、关系代词前面带介词的定语从句 关系代词 which, whom 在定于从句中作介词的宾语时,从句常由“介词+which/ whom”引出。 Great changes are taking place in the city in which they live. This is the teacher from whom we have learnt a lot. The policeman with whom Mr. Henry is talking in the office is a friend of mine. 这类从句中的介词也可放在从句的末尾,这时关系代词可以省略。 The situation (which) we had got into was very dangerous. The man (whom) we sent the present to is a doctor of laws. 定语从句也可以由“名词(代词、数次)+介词+which(whom)”引出。 The house the windows of which were damaged has now been repaired. We have two spare rooms upstairs, neither of which has been much used in the past two years. 五、关系代词 as 引导的定语从句 as 也可以用作关系代词,既可以单独引出定语从句,有可与主句中的 the same 或 such 相呼应,从句中谓语动词常 省略。如: We jumped for joy at the news, as was natural. 我们听到消息时高兴地跳了起来,这时很自然的事情。 He is not the same man as he was. 他和从前不一样了。
I hope t get such a dictionary as he is using. 我希望得到像他正在使用的那样的一本字典。 We still give you such information as will help you in your work. 我们将向你们提供有助于你们工作的资料。 六、关系代词 that 与 which 的用法区别 which 可引导非限定性定语从句,that 不能。 He had failed in the exam, which made his father very angry. which 之前可以有介词,that 之前不能有介词。 This is the house in which Lu Xun used to live. 这就是鲁迅过去居住的房子。 that 和 which 都指物时,在一下 4 种情况下,用 that 而不能用 which。 (
  1)当先行词是 all, everything, nothing, something, anything, much, little, few 等不定代词时 That is all that I want to say. There was little that I could do for you. (
  2)先行词被序数词修饰时 The first place that they visited in Gansu was Wangxiangdong (
  3)先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 This is the very dictionary (that) I want to buy. Mr. Smith is the only foreigner (that) he knows. 七、限制性 定语从句和非限制性定语从句 (一)限制性定语从句 有些定语从句对先行词具有限制作用,使该词的含义更具体、更明确,这种定语从句称为限 制性定语从句。这类从句不能省掉,否则句子的意义就不完整。如: Do you remember the teacher who taught us English at middle school? A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words. Those who wish to go to the park must be at the gate by 7:00 a.m. He is the man (whom) I want to see. 他就是我想见的那个人。 注:限制性定语从句与主句之间不能用逗号隔开。限制性定语从句修饰的是名词或代词。限制性定语从句中的关系代 词在从句中作宾语时可以省略。 (二)非限制性定语从句 定语从句有时跟先行词的关系并不十分密切,只是作一些附加说明,不起限制作用,这种 从句称为非限制性定语从句。这类从句往往用逗号与主句隔开。如: Mr. Zhang, who came to see me yesterday, is an old friend of my father’s We walked down the village street, where they were having market day. 注:有时这类定语从句所修饰的不是前面某一个词,而是代表整个主句所讲的内容,通常用逗号与主句分开。如: He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, which pleased her a lot. They are coming back to us, which means that they have been refused elsewhere. 八、使用定语从句应注意的问题 关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词用单数还是复数应由先行词决定。 The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently. The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow. 定语从句有时不直接紧靠着先行词,中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。 There is an expression in his eyes that I can’t understand. The days are gone forever when the Chinese people were looked down upon. 引导定语从句的关系副词可以用“介词+which“来代替。 October 1, 1949 was the day on which (=when) the People’s Republic of China was founded. 当定语从句中谓语动词是带介词或副词的短语动词时,短语动词的各个固定的部分不要拆开。 The dictionary which you are looking for is on the desk. The sick man whom she is looking after is her father. 她正在照料的病人是她父亲。 注意介词与关系代词的位置:介词咋关系代词前,只能用 which 和 whom,且不能省略;介词在句尾,关系代词可用 which, that, whom, 口语中也可用 who, 且可省略。 This is the room in which we lived last year. (This is the room we lived in last year. The room (which/ that) I live is very nice. The man (whom/who/that) you were talking about has come to school. 关系代词和关系副词在从句中充当一个成分,因此,使用时要注意在从句中避免句子成分的重复出现。 如:
请给我看一看你昨天买的那本词典。 Let me have a look at the dictionary that you bought it yesterday. (误) Let me have a look at the dictionary that you bought yesterday. (正) This is the house where I lived in two years ago. (误) This is the house where I lived two years ago. (正) 九、定语从句与同位语从句的区别 定语从句与同位语从句在使用中常常混淆,我们可以从以下几个方面区分它们: 一般说来,定语从句的先行词由名词或代词构成,同位语从句的先行词常常是抽象名词。 Those who want to go please sign their names here. We express the hope that they will come to visit China again. 定语从句修饰,限定先行词的意义,与先行词为修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,与先行词是同位关 系。 The train that has just left is for Beijing. The truth that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导;同位语从句主要由链接词 that 引导,有时也可用 where, who, whether 等引 导。 Do you know the place where he was born? Then he raised the question where they were to get the machine needed. 引导定语从句的关系代词往往可以省略;引导同位语从句的链接代词往往不能省略。 The news (that) he told me is exciting. The news that he has been elected president of the United States is true. 同位语从句与先行词一般可以发展成一个完整的句子,谓语动词用 to be。 He heard the news that his team had won. 此句可以发展为一个表语从句: The news was that his team had won. I.Transform the following sentences into attributive clause. A Model: The boy is my brother, He helped me. 1 The fan is on the desk. You want it. 2 The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday. 3 The magazine is mine. He has taken it away. 4 The students will not pass the examination. They don’t study hard. 5 The woman is our geography teacher. You saw here in the park. B Model: The pen is quite good. I am using it. The pen (which, or that) I am using is quite good. The boy that (who) helped me is my brother.
1 The letter is from my sister. I received it yesterday. 2 The lay was wonderful. We saw it last night. 3 The train was late. It was going to Nanjing. 4 The boy is my brother. He was here a minute ago. 5 The tree is quite tall. He is climbing it. C Model: This is the boy. His football was lost. 1 Here is the girl. Her brother works in this shop. 2 That's the child. We were looking at his drawing just now. 3 This is the boy. His sister is a famous singer. This is the boy whose football was lost.
4 I want t talk to the boys Their homework hasn’t been handed in. 5 Is that the woman? Her daughter is in my class 6 Do you know the boy? His leg was broken when he fell out of a tree. II. Finishing the following sentences. A. Model This is the best film that has been shown this year (今年放映过). 1 Here is the pen 2 He is the most careful boy 3 I have lost the watch 4 Wheat is a plant B. Model: The man 1 The teacher 2 The girl 3 The man 4 The boys 5 The young man (你昨天丢的). (我所知道的). (我父亲给我的). (中国北方都种植的). (昨天在这里的) is a scientist. (站在我附近的) saw what happened. (告诉我消息的) is not here now. (在这间屋子工作的) is a chemist. (住在这所房子了的) are physics students. (从我身边走过去的) is the assistant of our chemistry lab.
6 The woman (教我们历史的) is named Zhang Lili. III. According the meaning of the following sentences, fill in the first blank with proper proposition, and the second blanks with pronoun (use whom or which). I spoke just now is the manager that I told you about. 1 The person he was writing broke. 2 The pencil 3 Liu Qiang, I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much. 4 The two things Marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms of English. 5 Her bag, She put all her books, has not been found. 6 The stories about the Long March, This is one example, are well written. IV Rewrite the following sentences with attributive clause Model: He works in a middle school. There is a river in front of the school. He works in a middle school, in front of which there is a river. 1 He used to live in a big house. In front of it grew many banana trees. 2 They passed a factory. At the back of the factory there are many banana trees. 3 The soldier ran to the building. On the top of it flew a flag. 4 In the evening they arrived at a hill. At the foot of the hill there was a temple(庙). 5 She came into a big room. In the middle of it stood a large table. V. Use “when, where” connect the follow sentences into attributive clauses. 1 I’ll never forget the day. I joined the PLA on that day. 2 The days are gone. During those days we used “foreign oil”. 3 I still remember the day. On that day the old scientist took us to the physics lab for the first time. 4 The time finally arrived. They had to leave at that time. 5 His father has been working in this factory since that time. At that time it was only a small workshop. 6 October 1, 1949 was the day. The People’s Republic of China was founded on that day. 7 It happened on a day in November. The weather was very wet and could that day. 8 She often came to see me during those days. I was sick at that time.
VI. Fill the blanks with the best choice given below. ( )1 Some of the roads were flooded(淹没), makes our journey more difficult. A. that B. it C. which D. who are metals. ( )2 There are 103 elements found in nature, A. most of which B. most of them C. most of what D. most of which ( )3 You can take an seat is free. A. which B. where C. in which D. that ( )4 His English, used to be very poor, is mow excellent. A. that B. which C. it D. whom we live is not large. ( )5 The house A
 

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