词形变换类题型的几个考点
一、可数名词单数变复数类:
  1.规则变化: (
  1)一般情况加-s, 如: girls, books, pens, bags, boys, days 等。 (
  2)以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾加-es, 如: buses, boxes, watches, brushes 等。 (
  3)以 o 结尾的名词,无生命的名词多加-s,有生命的名词多加-es。 (
  4)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词, 变 y 为 i 加-es, 如: city→ cities, story→stories (
  5)以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变 f 或 fe 为 v 加-es。如:leaf→leaves, knife→knives, shelf→shelves 等。 (roof→roofs)
  2.不规则变化的名词要熟记: man→men, woman→women, child→children, foot→feet, tooth→teeth, mouse→mice, people→people, sheep→sheep, Chinese→Chinese deer→deer Japanese→Japanese 二、名词变形容词类:
  1.在动词或名词后加后缀-ful, 如: care→careful; use→useful; thank→thankful; help→helpful; beauty→beautiful; wonder→wonderful forget→forgetful
  2.在名词后加-y, 如: luck→lucky, cloud→cloudy; wind→windy; rain→rainy; sun→sunny, snow→snowy noise-noisy health→healthy
  3.在名词后加-y, 如: friend→friendly love→lovely day→daily
  4.方位名词加-ern,如: east→eastern west→western south→southern north→northern northeast→northeastern
  6.在名词后加-less, 变成否定含义的形容词。如: use→useless hope→hopeless care→careless 三、形容词加后缀变成名词
  1.形容词加-ness 变成名词,如: happy→happiness ill→illness weak→weakness kind→kindness good→goodness careless→carelessness
  2.形容词加-ty 变成名词,如:
赵开飞 Page 1 10/6/2010
safe→safety difficult→difficulty
  3.形容词加-th 变成名词,如: true→truth warm→warmth young→youth
  4.形容词加-ence / ance 变成名词,如: important→importance dependent→dependence different→difference 四、形容词变副词类: 形容词修饰名词、 代词等作定语或表语; 副词修饰动词、 形容词或副词作状语。
  1.一般形容词词尾加-ly 变成副词,如: slow→slowly clear→clearly quick→quickly quiet→quietly careful→carefully sudden→suddenly real→really
  2.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,要变 y 为 i 加-ly,如: easy→easily happy→happily heavy→heavily lucky→luckily busy→busily angry→angrily;
  3.以元音字母加辅音字母+e 结尾的重读开音节,直接加-ly,如: polite→politely safe→safely wide→widely
  4.以元音字母+e 结尾,去 e 加-ly,如: true→truly
  5.以辅音字母加-le 结尾,去 e 加-y,如: terrible→terribly possible→possibly
  6.形容词与副词同形,如: fast→fast early→early high→high hard→hard
  7.形容词与副词异形,如:good→well
  8.注意:hard 作形容词时意思是“困难的;硬的;生硬的”等;作副词时意思是 “努力地” 。hardly 是否定副词,意思是“几乎不” 。 五、动词变名词类:
  1.动词加-er 变成名词,如: work→worker farm→farmer teach→teacher sing→singer speak→speaker play→player read→reader drive→driver write→writer ride→rider dance→dancer run→runner; win→winner cook→cooker wash→washer travel→traveler
  2.动词加-or 变成名词,如: visit→visitor invent→inventor operate→operator conduct→conductor
赵开飞 Page 2 10/6/2010

  3.动词加-tion 变成名词,如: operate→operation invent→invention liberate→liberation 六、基数词变序数词类: 主要掌握好 1-12 和
  20、
  30、
  40、
  50、
  60、
  70、
  80、90 及
  21、
  22、23 这几个 序数词的形式: one→first twenty→twentieth two→second thirty→thirtieth three→third forth→fortieth four→fourth fifty→fiftieth six→sixth sixty→sixtieth seven→seventh eighty→eightieth eight→eighth ninety→ninetieth nine→ninth twenty-one→twenty-first ten→tenth twenty-two→twenty-second eleven→eleventh twenty-three→twenty-third twelve→twelfth 七、形容词与副词的原级、比较级和最高级类
  1.形容词和副词的比较级、最高级构成 (
  1)单音节词与部分双音节词规则变变化: ① 一般词尾加 er, est; 如:fast faster fastest ② 以辅音字母加 y 结尾变 y 为 i 加-er, -est;如:easy easier easiest ③ 以一个元音加一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写这个辅音字母再加-er, -est;如: hot hotter hottest ④ 以 e 结尾加-r,-st;如:fine→finer, nice→nicer (
  2) 部分双音节词或以形容词加-ly 变成的副词和多音节词, 在其前加 more, most 变成比较级和最高级。如: interesting→more interesting,most interesting beautiful→more beautiful,most beautiful slowly→more slowly,most slowly quickly→more quickly,most quickly (
  3)不规则变化: good→better→best well→better→best many→more→most much→more→most little→less→least far→farther/further→farthest/furthest. ill→worse→worst bad/badly→worse→worst old→older/older→oldest/eldest
  2.原级: as+形容词或副词的原形+as “和……一样……” ,
赵开飞 Page 3 10/6/2010
not as / so+形容词或副词的原形+as “和……不一样……” 。 八、人称代词变化类: 要熟练掌握和运用主格、宾格、形容词性物主代词及名词性物主代词。 见下面表格: 数 格 人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 单 主格 I you he she it 数 宾格 me you him her It 复 主格 we you 数 宾格 us you
they
they
数 类别 人 称 第一人称 第二人称 单 形容词性 物主代词 my your his 第三人称 her its 九、常见的反义词:
  1.动词 buy ? sell die ? live ask ? answer pull ? push
  2.形容词 little ? much free ? busy good ? bad dead ? living easy ? difficult open ? closed
赵开飞 Page 4
数 名词性 物主代词 mine yours his hers its
复 形容词性 物主代词 our your
数 名词性 物主代词 ours yours
their
theirs
take ? bring love ? hate start ? finish go ? come short ? tall / long full ? empty white ? black cheap ? expensive wet ? dry strong ?weak
remember ? forget rise ? fall miss ? catch lend ? borrow right ? left / wrong few ? many careful ? careless clean ? dirty same ? different light ? heavy
10/6/2010
习题精选

  1. The mother didn’t know why her daughter was crying . (noise) in yesterday’s football match. (play)
  2. He was one of the best
  3. Guangzhou is in the part of China. (south) th
  4. September 10 is Day. (teacher)
  5. Beijingers are true to the world. (friend)
  6. Look! How Kate is laughing! (happy) walk from the station to the hotel. (minute)
  7. It’s only ten , boys and girls. (you)
  8. Please take care of
  9. I don’t think this is my pen, though it looks like . (I)
  10. Mrs Read learned Chinese as her language. (two) than any other month in our country? (hot)
  11. Do you think July is
  12. Of all the students in our class, Lucy talks but does most. (little) names. (run)
  13. Here are ten of the
  14. It snowed last night and now the streets are covered with snow. (heavy)
  15. You shouldn’t ride your bike so fast at the . (turn) to these cakes, children. (you)
  16. Help
  17. Please keep your eyes . (close) student in our class. (old)
  18. John is the
  19. Mike will have his birthday party at home tomorrow. (twelve)
  20. How many are there in your class? (girl) . (my)
  21. This sweater is Lucy’s and that one over there is
  22. Now people use computers very . (wide) or vegetables? (meat)
  23. What would you like, some
  24. the help of our teacher, we couldn’t pass the exam. (with)
  25. We can not decide who should open the present . (one)
  26. We always go to the library a week. (one)
  27. The house next to the street are very . (noise)
  28. More and more have come to visit China these years. (foreign)
  29. In a few time, those mountains will be covered with trees. (year)
  30. Everyone knows that if Dick works , he will do much better. (hard)
  31. Those flowers are beautiful. (real)
  32. Uncle Wang is one of the most popular in this factory. (work)
  33. She worked so that nobody knew she was there. (quiet)
  34. Meimei is one of the best in her class. (student)
  35. We can find many in the picture. (sheep)
赵开飞 Page 5 10/6/2010

  36. He sat down and warmed his at the fire. (foot)
  37. fall in autumn. (leaf)
  38. Our building is eighty high. (foot)
  39. Do you usually come to school on ?(foot)
  40. March 8 is Day. (woman)
  41. The sick woman is getting . (ill)
  42. Are you in sports? (interest)
  43. Teachers should speak to their students in a way. (friend) do the work by yourself, can you? (hard)
  44. You can day. (cloud)
  45. Today is a
  46. We are very to the teacher for his help. (thank)
  47. The house caught a fire. The wounded man was carried to . (safe) boy was not born in . (German)
  48. The
  49. Edison was a great . During his life he had many .(invent) ill yesterday. (bad)
  50. I was
答案:
  1. noisily
  2. players
  6. happily
  7. minutes’
  11. hotter
  12. least
  16. yourselves
  17. closed
  21. mine
  22. widely
  26. once
  27. noisy
  31. really
  32. workers
  36. feet
  37. Leaves
  41. worse
  42. interested
  46. thankful
  47. safety
  49. inventor, invention

  3. southern
  4. Teachers’
  8. yourselves
  9. mine
  13. runners’
  14. heavily
  18. oldest
  19. twelfth
  23. meat
  24. Without
  28. foreigners
  29. years’
  33. quietly
  34. students
  38. feet
  39. foot
  43. friendly
  44. hardly
  48. German, Germany
  50. badly

  5. friends
  10. second
  15. turning
  20. girls
  25. first
  30. harder
  35. sheep
  40. Women’s
  45. cloudy
赵开飞
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10/6/2010
 

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