第9章怎样写议论文(
  4)
第四节 怎样写议论文
一、议论文写作指导

  1. 议论文概述
议论文亦称说理文,议论文就是讲道理、论是非。作者通过事实材料和逻辑推理来阐明自己的观点,表明赞成什么或反对什么。一篇完整的议论文必须含有论点、论据和论证三个要素。论点是作者对议论的问题所持的看法或主张。有的议论只有一个论点,叫中心论点;有的议论除中心论点外,还有几个从属的分论点。论据是作者用来证明论点的理由和根据。它可以是事例,也可以是理论,也可以是数据。论证是用论据证明论点的推理过程和方法。
论点必须正确、鲜明;论据必须确凿、典型、恰当,有说服力,必须与论点之间有本质的、必然的联系。

  2. 议论文写作技巧
议论文的论证方法有归纳法、演绎法、对照法等。归纳法就是通过一些个别事例,归纳它们的共同属性,综合它们的共同本质,得出一个带有普遍性的结论。归纳法又叫例证法,即以事实为依据,证明自己观点的正确性。演绎法就是引用一些经典著作的原话,或用公认的、众所周知的科学原理和道理推断出一个新论点。演绎法又叫引证法,即以理论为依据,证明自己观点的正确性。对照法是把两种相似的事物放在一起加以比较,从而得出与之有关的结论。
议论文所用的时态较广。被动语态和虚拟语气也较常运用。
从实际生活中列举事实或数据,并根据它们得出自己合乎逻辑的观点和结论。但必须注意在结论时留有余地,切忌言过其实。
议论文大多采用三段式的结构??引言、正文和结论。除了三段式的结构外,还须注意以下内容:
A. 作者的意见、看法与事实,或根据性质分类,或根据重要性列举,或依照数目的大小安排;
B. 根据时间先后,或依照紧急性的程度,排列行动次序;
C. 按照先近后远的顺序,依次发表论点或反驳论点。
总之,文章的结构必须层次分明,条理清晰,具体形式可视内容变通。
议论文应用与读者平等交流的语气,态度应诚恳友善。言词猛烈和声嘶力竭决非是成功的议论文。反之,晓之以理,而又动之以情才是成功的关键。尽管对于初学写作的人来说,要做到这一点不很容易,但我们应朝这个方向去努力。
尽量避免逻辑上的错误。在议论文的写作中,下列错误并不鲜见:
A. 把假定当做结论;
B.把部分情况概括成全部;
C.将复杂的问题简单化??“非此即彼”和”非黑即白”的错误,在推断时应考虑多种可能及选择,是避免这种错误发生的良方;
D.因果关系的谬误。如,A boss believes that an employee does poor work because he is lazy.
这句话就打击了一大片。事实上,身体原因、技术原因都可能影响工作;
E.兴之所至信手写作,使得议论文不对题,不着边际。
议论文是较高层次的写作,在初中阶段目前虽尚没有明确的要求,但未雨绸缪,先了解一个大概,对今后的学习是大有裨益的。
二、议论文佳作欣赏
【范例
  1】
请以“Friends”为题写一篇120词左右的议论文,内容要点如下:

  1)交友的重要和好处。

  2)广交朋友,珍重友情。

  3)择友要慎重,良友给我们以很好的影响,反之则会把我们引入歧途。
参考范文
Friends
Friends are very important to us. A person can not live alone in this world. Whether we are children or adults, we all need friends because friends can help us solve our problems, offer us friendship and encourage us to take part in various social actactivities.
A person has to make as many friends as he can. The more friends he has, the happier he will be. When we make friends, we shall realize fully the influence our friends can have on us in our daily life. Besides, we must keep in mind that real friendship is not easily won.
We should be careful of making friends. Good friends will help us to be good while bad friends will tempt(诱惑) us to do the opposite. Therefore, we should make friends with those who are honest, modest and dependable.
【范例
  2】
请以“Health and Sports”为题完成一篇短文。
要求:(
  1) 围绕主题句适当展开;

  2)文章中必须用到所提供的词组;

  3)完成的文字部分字数在100字左右。
拟用句型:(
  1)...help sb. to do sth.

  2) how +busy/hard...+主语+动词!
拟用词组:(
  1)make one's mind

  2) the circulation of the blood(血液循环)
参考范文
Health and Sports
Good health is very important to everyone. A healthy person can always be energetic and enjoy his life. Poor in health, a person cannot achieve much success even though he is well educated.
Sports help everyone to keep healthy. Physical exercise can increase the circulation of blood and develop our muscles. We all know that the best medicine for losing weight is to take exercise. Sports can also make our minds sound. While playing we take our minds off work or study, and thus our minds get relaxed.
Since sports can make us healthy both in body and in mind, we should go in for sports every day no matter how busy we are. Do remember this: Good health is the best wealth.
【范例
  3】
学校里有个别学生抽烟,有人说抽烟是件乐事。请就此以Please Give Up Smoking为题写一篇100?120词的文章。
提示:(
  1) 抽烟导致多种疾病;

  2) 抽烟导致犯罪;

  3) 抽烟影响学习。
参考范文
Please Give Up Smoking
Now we often see some students smoke in school. They think smoking is a pleasure. How silly they are!
Reports show every year several millions of people die of smoking all over the world. Smoking now is the source of a lot of illnesses.
Smoking is also the way leading the youth from bad to worse. In order to get money for smoking, some students take away the money from their parents' wallets. Some of them even steal money from others.
As we know, the smokers can not go on with their work without cigarettes. What's more, the more they smoke, the more the cigarettes do harm to them.
Smoking is our dangerous enemy. Please give up smoking as soon as possible.
【范例
  4】
以“Making Children Healthier and Happier”为题,至少写八句话,要求意思明确,内容连贯,无语法错误,方框中的词语供选用。
much homework, no any time, rest well, problem, ready to do, try to do, help, become
参考范文
Making Children Healthier and Happier
Many people now think that teachers give students too many tests in class and too much homework after school. So children have no any time for other activities. Some of them even have little time to rest or sleep well. Teachers and parents often talk to each other about this problem.
They are ready to work on it together. Teachers should try to make the tests easier and make the homework less. What is more, parents should help their children develop good study habits. Then the students will become healthier and happier.
简评
目前,教师和家长经常谈到如何解决“提高教学质量和减轻学生负担”这个问题。本文最后提出的两点建议,值得我们尝试:教师出题要有选择、少而精,家长要帮助学生培养良好的学习习惯。大家都来关心学生,才能让学生身心健康地成长和发展。
三、学生习作与点评
【题目要求】
以学习方法(The Ways of Studying)为题,写一篇约100词的议论文。包括以下四个方面:

  1) 阅读最好的时间是早晨;(
  2) 必须有耐心;

  3) 学习必须聚精会神;(
  4) 看书必须经常问“why”。
【学生习作】
The Ways of Studying
The aim of students coming to school is to study. But study requires a right way; otherwise you will waste either time or money. The followings are the ways of studying.

  1. The best time for reading is the morning, because in the morning the air is fresh and the mind is clear. We can therefore get a good result.

  2. In studying we must have patience. If you have not well known a chapter, you must read it again and again. Sometimes you should read the second chapter, till you have known the first one①.

  3. When you are studying, you must concentrate on the book. You can not study only by mouth and you can not be absent of mind, or you can get nothing from the book while you are reading.

  4. You must always ask“why”. If it is not well understood, write down it② and ask your teachers, your parents or your classmates. You ought to understand it thoroughly, thus your knowledge can be improved.
Though there are many ways of studying but③ the above mention④ will be quite enough if you can practise them.
【名师点评】
本文介绍了四点学习方法,语言简洁明了,论述恰当。但需注意以下几处地方:
①...till you have known the first one.该句中的known使用不当,应将其改为realized或understood。
②...write down it...该句中的down为副词,write down这个词组与代词it/them连用,必须将其放在中间。
③汉语中的“虽然……但是……”英译为Though...,不可与but连用。因此原句中的but应去掉。
④the above意为上面提到的,mention这个词不必使用。所以原文中的mention可省略。
【改后文章】
The Ways of Studying
The aim of students coming to school is to study. But study requires a right way; otherwise you will waste either time or money. The followings are the ways of studying.

  1. The best time for reading is the morning, because in the morning the air is fresh and the thought is clear. We can therefore get a good result.

  2. In studying we must be patient. If you don' t know a chapter well, you must read it again. Sometimes you should read the next chapter, till you have understood the first one.

  3. When you are studying, you must concentrate on the book. You can not study only by mouth and absent of mind. Or you can get nothing from the book while you are reading.

  4. You must always ask “why”. If it is not well understood, write it down and ask your teachers, parents or classmates. You ought to understand it thoroughly, and your knowledge can be improved.
Though there are many ways of studying, the above will be quite enough if you can practise them.
4

  1.下面有一篇关于空气污染的短文。请你根据每段文章前面的提示,完成你想叙述的内容。
要求:(
  1)词数100?120个词。

  2)已写出的三句话不计入字数。
Air Pollution
Air pollution is one of the major problems of the modern world....
Scientists are looking for ways to stop air pollution....
However, we still have a long way to go before we have a clean world ....

  2.请以你校学生的名义写一篇短文,陈述反对在你校附近兴建一座化工厂的理由。短文须包括以下内容:

  1)大部分同学都反对兴建。

  2)尽管该厂可能为本市赚不少钱,但弊大于利。

  3)可能造成饮用水污染和空气污染。

  4)侵占游戏场所。
注:(
  1)可以补充若干理由,不要仅仅翻译以上各点。词数120-1
  50。

  2)参考词汇:construction n.建设,chemical works 化工厂。
参考答案

  1.
Air Pollution
Air pollution is one of the major problems of the modern world. Millions of tons of waste and poisonous gases are sent into the air within the smoke. They often make the air in big cities very dirty. During cold winter months, many old people die from the polluted air. Trees and vegetables are often killed by the bad air.
Scientists are looking for ways to stop air pollution. In some places, laws have been passed to prevent factories and cars from sending out poisonous gases. Much has been done to make the smoke clean before it goes into the air. Many trees and grasses are planted in many places.
However, we still have a long way to go before we have a clean world. We must keep on fighting until we do away with pollution. We are sure that we'll win the battle if everyone knows how serious the danger is and does something to stop it.

  2.
Most students of our school, besides me, are against the construction of a chemical works near our school. Although the works will make a lot of money for our city, we think it will do us more harm than good. The drinking water will be badly polluted. Of course, they have planned to do something to stop the water from being polluted, however, it is far polluted, too. We will never be able to breathe fresh air. Why has the chemical works been the only place where we students play games and have sports after school? Where will we go if it is used?
 

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