英语四六级写作中词汇量不足的应急措施
在四六级作文中,词汇量不足是影响成绩的一个重要因素。一个意思往往因 为一个单词不会而表达不清,一个好的句子也会因为一个词汇想不起来而不能完 成。如何应付这种情况使作文顺利进行下去?下面是三种简便易行的应急措施可 能对你会有所帮助。
  1.试用笼统词 英语语言中笼统词有 have, take 等,笼统词的重要特点在于意义广泛,搭 配性强,构成词组后可以替代众多具体动词。虽然不能精确表达一个动作,却能 大致表达意思。在一些具体动词写不出来的时候,用这些笼统词取代,也能收到 异曲同工的效果。 例如:我经历了一个极其艰苦的时代。 I experienced a terrible hard time. 这一句中, experience 被遗忘时, have 代替, 用 成为: had a terrible hard I time. 其效果及表达的意义决不亚于第一句。这样的例子还很多。如: Do you understand my meaning, sir? = Do you take my meaning, sir? I will preside over the meeting. = I will take the meeting. I will subscribe to the local newspaper. = I will take the local newspaper. They occupied the city. = They took the city. The boy resembles his father. = The boy takes after his father.
从以上的例句不难看出,具体词音节较多,使用频率不高,容易遗忘,而笼 统词则不然。因此,在作文应试中,笼统词取代具体词,不失为一种应急良策。
  2.联想有关词汇 当遗忘产生时,或遇到未曾学过的词时,应采取放射性思维,发挥想象力, 想出一切与之有关的单词,利用语言的内在联系,多层次,多角度地运用语言。 一般情况下,联想可按下列思路进行:1 联想同义词;2 联想反义词。 英语语言中众多的同义词在许多情况下是可以通用的。利用这一规律,由于 某个单词受阻而影响全篇写作的情况便不会出现。试看下列句子: I had a nightmare last night. = I had a bad dream last night. Nightmare 使用频率不太高,因此不太好记。而其同义词 bad dream 却很容 易记。 以后者取代前者丝毫不影响原句的意义。 再比如: don understand this I ‘t word. 也可以说成 I don’t know this word. 另外: He is stupid. = He is foolish. = He is a fool. = He is silly. The food is delicious. = The food is tasty. = The food is nice to eat. They discontinued the work at five. = They stopped the work at five. His temper is nasty. = His temper is terrible. = He has a bad temper. 英语语言中词与词之间是有联系的,词与词之间语义的“共核”现象即所谓 的同义词。丰富的同义词给我们提供了极大的方便。
同样,用其反义词来取代某一遗忘了的词也是可行的,请看下面的例子: He is stubborn. = He is not tame. The knife is blunt. = The knife is not sharp. This is expensive. = This is not cheap. She is talkative. = She is never quiet.
  3. 试用解释性语句 语言的功能在于表达,而表达的方式是多种多样的。当一个词影响到??以沟 通。英语当中多功能解释性语句,就可以起到这一作用。请看下面的句子: He is a dumb. = He is a person who can not speak. He refused. = He said “no”. I‘ve never seen such a stubborn person. = I’ve never seen such a person who never listens to other‘s advice. 解释性语句能帮助我们巧妙地避开一些大词,难词,又能使意思表达流畅, 不失为一聪明之举。比较下面两篇文章: (
  1)Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all detest is, but all being domineered by it. It represents a trial; the grade its verdict. Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can dominate one‘s future. I am not exaggerating; for you all know it
is true. If we want to obtain a diploma, we must first pass the exams. If we do not have a diploma, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may concern their future. But as long as examination is on its peak of power, we must be philosophical of it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings, but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams, we may indulge ourselves in other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and thoroughly? (
  2)Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all dislike it (hate it), but all being ruled by it. It is a trial; the grade its decision. Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can control one‘s future. I am telling the truth, for you all know it is true. If we want to get a graduation paper, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may have something to do with their future. But as long as examination is on its highest point of power, we must have a calm attitude to it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings, but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams, we may
spend our time on other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and deeply? 比较两篇文章,第一篇短小精干,用词准确,不失为一篇优秀作文。而第二 篇全篇采用最普通的词汇,意思同样清楚,也不失得体,流畅。 四六级作文的评分标准一般侧重于能清楚地表达意义, 段落, 层次有系统性, 语法正确,而并不过分强调用词的精确度。因此作文应试的要领应该是快捷、清 楚、流畅。所以,就考试而言,碰到难词或遗忘词时,过分地把时间花在“钻牛 角尖”上是不明智的,而应该采取灵活的思维方法、迂回的战术,运用简单、易 记的词汇及表达方式,从而能够运用有限的词汇作出美妙的文章,轻松自如地驾 驭语言, 把握时机, 以聪明克服缺陷, 以机智灵巧克服学究式的笨拙, 以少胜多, 最大限度地发挥自己的潜能。
 

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