职称英语考试综合类 A 级试题及答案
部分:词汇选项(第 1~15 题,每题 1 分,共 15 分) 第 1 部分:词汇选项 下面共有 15 个句子,每个句子中均有 1 个词或短语画有底横线,请从每个句子后面所 给的 4 个选项中选择 1 个与画线部分意义最相近的词或短语。 答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位 置上。 1 The union representative put across her argument very effectively. A explained B invented C considered D accepted 2 He talks tough but has a tender heart. A heavy B strong C kind D wild 3 It is no use debating the relative merits of this policy. A making B taking C discussing D expecting 4 Our statistics show that we consume all that we are capable of producing A waste B buy C use D sell 5 The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters. A function B ability C power D volume 6 Our lives are intimately bound up with theirs. A tensely B nearly C carefully D closely 7 Her faith upheld her in times of sadness A supported B excited C inspired D directed 8 The book provides a concise analysis of the country’s history. A clean B perfect C real D brief
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9 It is laid down in the regulations that all members must carry their memb ership cards at all times. A suggested B warned C stated D confirmed 10 The council meeting terminated at 2 o’clock A began B continued C ended D resumed 11 A red flag was placed there as a token of danger. A sign B substitute C proof D target 12 However bad the situation is, the majority is unwilling to risk change. A reluctant B eager C pleased D angry 13 It has been said that the Acts provided a new course of action and did n ot merely regulate or enlarge an old one. A limit B control C replace D offset 14 The secretary is expected to explore ideas for post-war reconstruction o f the area. A deny B investigate C stress D create 15 The steadily rising cost of labor on the waterfront has greatly increase d the cost of shipping cargo by water. A gradually B suddenly C excessively D exceptionally 部分:阅读判断(第 16~22 题,每题 1 分,共 7 分) 第 2 部分:阅读判断 阅读下面这篇短文,短文后列出 7 个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断。如 果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把 A 涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题 卡上把 B 涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把 C 涂黑 Principles of Governing Persuasion
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If leadership consists of getting thing done through others, then persuasio n is one of the leader’s essential tools. Many executives have assumed that th is tool is beyond their grasp, available only to the charismatic(有魅力的) and the eloquent. Over the past several decades, though, experimental psychologists have learned which methods reliably lead people to concede, comply, or change. Their research shows that persuasion is governed by several principles that ca n be taught and applied. The first principle is that people are more likely to follow someone who is similar to them than someone who is not. Wise managers, then, ask peers to hel p make their cases. Second, people are more willing to cooperate with those who are not only like them but who like them, as well. So it’s worth the time to uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise. Third, experiments confirm the intuitive truth that people tend to treat yo u the way you treat them. It’s sound policy to do a favor before seeking one. Fourth, individuals are more likely to keep promises they make voluntarily and clearly. The message for managers here is to get commitments in writing. Fifth, studies show that people really do defer to (服从) experts. So before they att empt to exert influence, executives should take pains to establish their own ex pertise and not assume that it’s self-evident. Finally, people want more of a commodity when it’s scarce; it follows, then, that exclusive information is mo re persuasive than widely available data. 16 Experiments have confirmed the assumption of many executives. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned 17 People are more likely to cooperate with those who like them. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned 18 Managers do not employ those who are quite different from them. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned 19 There is no need for a manager to find out the merits of his employees. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned
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20 Experiments have shown that, contrary to our expectation, people tend to treat you the way you treat them. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned 21 There are as many wise managers as there are stupid ones. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned 22 Exclusive information is more persuasive than widely known data. A right B Wrong C Not mentioned 部分:概括大意与完成句子(第 23~ 30 题,每题 1 分,共 8 分) 第 3 部分:概括大意与完成句子 阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有 2 项测试任务: (
  1)第 23~26 题要求从所给的 6 个选项中为第 2,3,5 和 6 段每段选择 1 个正确的小标 题; (
  2)第 27~30 题要求从所给的 6 个选项中选择 4 个正确选项,分别完成每个句子。请 将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。 Keeping Cut Flowers 1 While everybody enjoys fresh cut flowers around his house, few people kno w how to keep them for as long as possible. This may be done by keeping in mind a few simple facts. 2 An important thing to remember about cut flowers is that they are sensiti ve to temperature. For example, studies have shown that cut carnations(康乃馨) retain their freshness eight times longer when kept at 12oC than when kept at 2 60c. Keeping freshly harvested flowers at the right temperatures is probably th e most important aspect of flower care. 3 Flowers are not intended by nature to live very long. Their biological pu rpose is simply to attract birds or insects, such as bees, for pollination (授 粉). After that, they quickly dry up and die. The process by which flowers cons ume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide (二氧化碳), called respiration (呼吸), ge nerates the energy the flower needs to give the flower its shape and colour. Th
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e making of seeds also depends on this energy. While all living things respire, flowers have a high level of respiration. A result of all this respiration is heat, and for flowers the level of heat relative to the mass of the flower is v ery high. Respiration also brings about the eventual death of the flower. Thus the greater the level of respiration, the sooner the flower dies. 4 How, then, to control the rate at which flowers die? By controlling respi ration. How is respiration controlled? By controlling temperature. We know that respiration produces heat, but the reverse is also true. Thus by maintaining l ow temperatures, respiration is reduced and the cut flower will age more slowl y. 5 Another vital factor in keeping cut flowers is the quality of the water i n which they are placed. Flowers find it difficult to “drink” water that is d irty or otherwise polluted. Even when water looks and smells clean, it almost c ertainly contains harmful substances that can endanger the flowers. To rid the water of these unwanted substances, household chlorine bleach (含氯漂白剂) can be used in small quantities. It is recommended that 15 drops of chlorine bleach (at 4% solution) be added to each litre of water. The water and solution should also be replaced each day. A Control of Respiration B Beauty of Fresh Cut Flowers C Role of Respiration D Most Important Aspect of Flower Care E Need for Clean Water F Ways of Stopping Respiration 23 Paragraph 2 24 Paragraph 3 25 Paragraph 4 26 Paragraph 5 27 A few simple facts will help you keep cut flowers 28 Respiration plays a key role 29 The aging of cut flowers can be slowed down
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30 Another important way to prolong the life of cut flowers is A by keeping its original shape and colour B in the life of the cut flower C to produce carbon dioxide D for as long as possible E by controlling temperature F to replace the water and solution every day 部分:阅读理解(第 31~45 题,每题 3 分,共 45 分) 第 4 部分:阅读理解 下面有 3 篇短文,每篇短文后有 5 道题,每道题后面有 4 个选项。请根据文章的内容, 从每题所给的 4 个选项中选择个最佳答案,涂在答题卡相应的位置上。 第一篇 “Salty” Rice Plant Boosts Harvests British scientists are breeding a new generation of rice plants that will b e able to grow in soil containing salt water. Their work may enable abandoned f arms to become productive once more. Tim Flowers and Tony Yeo, from Sussex University’s School of Biological Sc iences, have spent several years researching how crops, such as rice, could be made to grow in water that has become salty. The pair have recently begun a three-year programme, funded by the Biotech nology and Biological Sciences Research Council, to establish which genes enab le some plants to survive salty conditions. The aim is to breed this capability into crops, starting with rice. It is estimated that each year more than 10m hectares(公顷) of agricultur al land are lost because salt gets into the soil and stunts(妨碍生长)plants. The problem is caused by several factors. In the tropics, mangroves(红树林) that create swamps(沼泽) and traditionally formed barriers to sea water have been cut down. In the Mediterranean, a series of droughts have caused the wate
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r table to drop, allowing sea water to seep(渗透)in. in Latin America, irri gation often causes problems when water is evaporated(蒸发) by the heat, lea ving salt deposits behind. Excess salt then enters the plants and prevents them functioning normally. Heavy concentrations of minerals in the plants stop them drawing up the water t hey need to survive. To overcome these problems, Flowers and Yeo decided to breed rice plants t hat take in very little slat and store what they do absorb in cells that do not affect the plants‘ growth. They have started to breed these characteristics i nto a new rice crop, but it will take about eight harvests before the resultin g seeds are ready to be considered for commercial use. Once the characteristics for surviving salty soil are known, Flowers and Y eo will try to breed the appropriate genes into all manners of crops and plants. Land that has been abandoned to nature will then be able to bloom again, prov iding much needed food in the poorer countries of the world. 31 Which of the following statements about Flowers and Yeo is true? A They are students at Sussex University. B They are rice breeders. C They are husband and wife. D They are colleagues at an institution of higher learning. 32 Flowers and Yeo have started a programme A to find ways to prevent water pollution. B to identify genes that promote growth in salty soil. C to breed rice plants that taste salty. D to find ways to remove excessive salt from soil. 33 Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of the problem discus sed in the passage?
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A Natural barriers to sea water have been destroyed. B the water table has gone down after droughts. C Sea level has been continuously rising. D Evaporation of water leaves salt behind 34 The word “affect” in Paragraph 6 could be best replaced by A “influence” B “effect” C “stop” D “present” 35 The attitude of the author towards the research project is A positive B negative. C suspicious D indifferent. 第二篇 Ford’s Assembly Line When it comes to singling out those who have made a difference in all our l ives, you cannot overlook Henry Ford. A historian a century from now might wel l conclude that it was Ford who most influenced all manufacturing, everywhere, even to this day, by introducing a new way to make cars-one, strange to say, that originated in slaughterhouses(屠宰场)。 Back in the early 1900‘s, slaughterhouses used what could have been calle d a “disassembly line”。 Ford reversed this process to see if it would speed up production of a part of an automobile engine called a magneto. Rather than h ave each worker completely assemble a magneto, one of its elements was placed on a conveyer, and each worker, as it passed, added another component to it,
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the same one each time. Professor David Hounshell of the University of Delawar e, an expert on industrial development, tells what happened. “The previous day, workers carrying out the entire process had averaged o ne assembly every 20 minutes. But on that day, on the line, the assemble team averaged one every 13 minutes and 10 seconds per person.” Within a year, the time had been reduced to five minutes. In 19
  13, Ford w ent all the way. Hooked together by ropes, partially assembled vehicles were t owed(拖,拉) past workers who completed them one piece at a time. It hasn‘t long before Ford was turning out several hundred thousand cars a year, a remar kable achievement then. And so efficient and economical was this new system tha t he cut the price of his cars in half, to $2
  60, putting them within reach of all those who, up until that time, could not afford them. So
 

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