中国人民大学 2004 年英语专业考研基础英语试题
I.Vocabulary and Written Expressions. (10 Points) .
Directions; Write in the blank the letter of the item which best completes each sentence.

  1. Tough-talking ward councilor Tony Jones warned yesterday that the drive to clean up the Oxford Road area is being __by the criminal justice system itself. A. hampered B. prohibited C. restricted D. reserved
  2. It is a source of continuing frustration that sometimes, after huge amounts of resources have gone into securing successful __, career criminals often seem to be free after little more than a third or half of their sentences. A. convictions B. decisions C. vanquisher D. agreements
  3. The police and others are doing their best to clamp down on crime and disorder the intrusion of burglary, the source of drug dealers ruining lives, the threat of intimidation, violence and petty __. A. violation B. vandalism C. vanquisher D. variance
  4. At a meeting attended by more than 600 lecturers and support staff last week, workers passed a vote of no__ in senior management. A. consensus B. objection C. confidence D. continuation
  5. At the height of her fame during the Second World War, she was one of the world\'s most influential women. But in later years, a gaunt relic of her former__ , she was a forlorn propagandist for her husband\'s ostracized and diminished regime. A. reputation B. celerity C. background D. celebrity
  6. That he was able to __his responsibilities with such competence and apparent ease was partly due to his experience in the Royal Navy. A. discharge B. charge C. obtain D. answer
  7. The Galbraiths were a gregarious and family, probably descended from the Ancient British royal house of Strathelyde. A. proliferate B. promotive C. prolific D. propagable
  8. In 1945 he worked for Hambro\'s Bank, touring the Middle East to report on __diamond trading. A. elicit B. illiberal C. illuminant D. illicit
  9. Despite his professional __and his strength of character, he had a warm sensitivity for the feelings of others, partly stemming from his memories of hardship at Dartmouth. A. imminence B. immanence C. emanation D. eminence
  10. Opposite the Italian journalists, Vladimir Putin, dressed and statesmanlike, answered a question about one of the country\'s notorious billionaires. A. immaculately B. immeasurably C. justifiably D. unkemptly
II. Error Correction (20 Points)
Directions: In this passage there are altogether 10 mistakes. Try to detect the mistakes and write out your corrected answers in the numbered brackets.
It used to be supposed that changes in the moral climate took decades to occur. Ideas filters down from whichever opinion makers were possessed of social influence; ( 1 ) or they were imposed by those charged of social control who had the confidence or the capacity to determine public attitudes. ( 2 ) The introduction of mass education initially made little change here, since the content of the education, and the surviving social deference of the recipients, secured a continuing measure of stability. Moral ideas and moral practice are not, anyway, in a precise correlation: statistics of illegitimate births from preceding centuries, as moral declamation was universally adverse, indicate a gap between prescribed teaching and human practice. ( 3 ) But moral change was slow and ordered; it took a very long time for that was conventionally acceptable to change witness the stigma attached to divorce only 50 years ago. ( 4 ) Now that has all changed. The reason is to be sought not so little in the collapse of institutional religion or in the moral incoherence of the western liberal intelligentsia whose ideals have no discernible philosophical basis so much as the means now available for the dissemination of ideas of all sorts. ( 5 ) It is due to the power of television. Ideas and moral precept are abstract, the nightly presentation, in dramas and "analysis" of public events by selected experts, is not. ( 6 ) Both on the screen and in the classroom a version of unstructured Humanism would seem to prevail: moral virtue determined by whatever current educated opinion deems conducive to modern canons of politically correct ideas. ( 7 ) Soaps are extremely effective means of conveying moral propaganda, modern morality plays which link day-to-day developments in particular lives-lives which are, like in the entertainments of the past, to be followed or avoided, according the assigned roles in the tension of good and evil. ( 8 ) The great difference from the past is that there is now so much entertainment which it is immediately available, and that it falls upon people with no other source of moral exhortation. ( 9 ) The heroes are the tolerant, commonsense moralists who ostensibly respect all viewpoints and decry "old-fashioned" moralists with their outmoded restrictions. The demons are those practitioners of whatever, for the moment, attract public obliquity-paedophiles, drug users, racists or whatever. ( 10 )
III. Cloze Test (20 Points)
Directions: Fill in each of the blanks in the following passages with one suitable word.
Passage 1 It is on a Saturday afternoon on the Great Wall of China or on a Sunday morning in Beijing\'s Forbidden City that you see the most striking effect of the communist regime\'s "one-child" policy. Here, among the 1 of local tourists surging from one viewpoint to the next, you notice little knots of adults standing in admiring, attentive semi-circles 2 a single child. Typically, there will be six of them the parents and both sets of grandparents and the complacent 3 of their attention will look every inch the "little emperor" he (or she) is proclaimed to be. But such indulgence 4 problems for Shen Yurong, principal of Guangmin, a showpiece kindergarten in central Beijing. "The one-child policy leads to individualism," she explains. "Because the children have no brothers or sisters, we have to teach them how to 5 and co-operate with others. They have to learn from the start to bond into a community, 6 they
become aggressive or shy." For a lesson in community bonding, you just have to watch Guangmin\'s 360 pupils, 7 two to six, performing their twice-daily exercise routine. Divided into classes, each 8 by three adults, the entire school assembles in the playground to the broadcast blare of jolly music. Then, still with almost military precision, they march on the spot, do stretching exercises and run through a repertoire of kung fu movements. Finally, each class plays a few supervised games? 9 balls into baskets, running relay races and then it is back to the classroom, where they slid down quietly to carry out their allotted 10 Passage 2 English literature has extracted and emphasized one very splendid thing; you never hear of it in patriotic speeches or in books about race or nationality, but it is the great contribution of the English temperament 1 the best life of the world. So far as it can be defined, it may be called the humane use of caricature. It consists in calling a man ugly as a compliment. If we wish to appreciate 2 we must remember the part 3 by satire and epigram in the largest part of human literature. Almost everywhere laughter has been used as a lash; if we were told about a man\'s wig or wooden leg, it was 4 by an enemy. Men reminded a man maliciously of his bodily weakness, especially if it was 5 with his worldly power. 6 , for instance, the case of two of the greatest riders and conquerors among the children of men. Julius Caesar was bald, and he could not 7 it all with his laurels. It\' was always morally as well as physically his unprotected spot. His enemies could say: "You have __8__Gaul, but you are bald. You have faced Pompey in arms and Cicero in argument, but 9 all that you are bald. "And he felt it himself, I think, for he was a vain man; the head of Caesar was like the 10 of Achilles.
IV. Reading Comprehension (20 Points)
Directions: Give a brief answer to each of the questions listed at the end of the following passage.
My own sex, I hope, will excuse me, if I treat them like rational creatures, instead of flattering their fascinating graces, and viewing them as if they were in a state of perpetual childhood, unable to stand alone. I earnestly wish to point out in what true dignity and human happiness consists ?I wish to persuade women to endeavor to acquire strength, both of mind and body, and to convince them that the soft phrases, susceptibility of heart, delicacy of sentiment, and refinement of taste, are almost synonymous with epithets of weakness, and that those beings who are only the objects of pity and that kind of love, which has been termed its sister, will soon become objects of contempt. Dismissing, then, those pretty feminine phrases, which the men condescendingly use to soften our slavish dependence, and despising that weak elegancy of mind, exquisite sensibility and sweet docility of manners, suppose to be the sexual characteristics of the weaker vessel, I wish to show that elegance is inferior to virtue, that the first object of laudable ambition is to obtain a character as a human being, regardless of the distinction of sex, and that secondary views should be brought to this simple touchstone. This is a rough sketch of my plan, and should I express my conviction with the energetic emotions that I feel whenever I think of the subject, the dictates of experience and reflection will be felt by
some of my readers. Animated by this important object, I shall disdain to cull my phrases or polish my style; I aim at being useful, and sincerity will render me unaffected; for, wishing rather to persuade by the force of my arguments than dazzle by the elegance of my language, I shall not waste my time in rounding periods, nor in fabricating the turgid bombast of artificial feelings, which, coming from the head, never reach the heart. I shall be employed about things, not word! And, anxious to render my sex more respectable members of society, I shall try to avoid that flowery diction which has slided from essays into novels, and from novels into familiar letters and conversation. These pretty superlatives, dropping glibly from the tongue, vitiate the taste, and create a kind of sickly delicacy that turns away from simple unadorned truth; and a deluge of false sentiments and overstretched feelings, stifling the natural emotions of the heart, render the domestic pleasures insipid, that ought to sweeten the exercise of those severe duties, which educate a rational and immortal being for a nobler field of action. The education of women has, of late, been more attended to than formerly, yet they are still reckoned a frivolous sex, and ridiculed or pitied by the writers who endeavor by satire or instruction to improve them. It is acknowledged that they spend many of the first years of their lives in acquiring a smattering of accomplishments: meanwhile strength of body and mind are sacrificed to libertine notions of beauty, to the desire of establishing themselves?the only way women can rise in the world?by marriage. And this desire making mere animals of them, when they marry they act as such children may be expected to act?they dress, they paint, and nickname God's creatures. Surely these weak beings are only fit for a seraglio!?Can they be expected to govern a family with judgment, or take care of the poor babes whom they bring into the world? If then it can be fairly deduced from the present conduct of the sex, from the prevalent fondness for pleasure which takes place of ambition and those nobler passions that open and enlarge the soul: that the instruction which women have received has only tended, with the constitution of civil society, to render them insignificant objects of desire?mere propagators of fools! ?If it can be proved that in aiming to accomplish them, without cultivating their understandings, they are taken out of their sphere of duties, and made ridiculous and useless when their short-lived bloom of beauty is over. I presume that rational men will excuse me for endeavoring to persuade them to become more masculine and respectable. Indeed the word masculine is only a bugbear: there is little reason to fear that women will acquire too much courage or fortitude, for their apparent inferiority with respect to bodily strength, must render them, in some degree, dependent on men in the various relations of life; but why should it be increased by prejudices that give a sex to virtue, and confound simple truths with sensual reveries? Women are, in fact, so much degraded by mistaken notions of female excellence, that I do not mean to add a paradox when I assert, that this artificial weakness produces a propensity to tyrannize, and gives birth to cunning, the natural opponent of strength, which leads them to play off those contemptible infantile airs that undermine esteem ever whilst they excite desire. Let men become more chaste and modest, and if women do not grow wiser in the same ratio, it will be clear that they have weaker understandings. It seems scarcely necessary to say, that I now speak of the sex in general. Many individuals have more sense than their male relatives; and, as nothing preponderates where there is a constant struggle for an equilibrium, without it has naturally more gravity, some women govern their husbands without degrading themselves, because intellect will
always govern.
Questions:

  1. Why does the author
 

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