巧用英语时态表, 巧用英语时态表,掌握英语谓语形式 一、英语时态名称的记忆 时态 一般 进行 完成 过去 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 现在 一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 将来 一般将来时 将来进行时 将来完成时 过去将来 一般过去将来时 (略) (略)
二、英语时态形式的记忆:(以动词 work 为例) 时态 一般 进行 完成 过去 现在 将来 过去将来
worked was/were working had worked
work works am/is/are working have/has worked
shall/will work shall/will be working shall/will have worked
should/would work
(略) (略)
可以分两个步骤记忆:
  1、一般现在时: work(当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词也要用第三人称单数形式。) 、一般现在时: 现在进行时: 现在进行时: be + working (be 随主语人称和数的变化而变化。) 现在完成时: 现在完成时: have + worked (have 随主语人称和数的变化而变化,worked 是 work 的过去分词。) 这三种基本时态形式位于时态表的中心位置,是必须首先记住的。其它形式可推导而出。
  2、记住了上面三种时态的形式后,可以设想把时间提前至过去,这三种时态的形式就相应地左移一格成 为一般过去时:worked (worked 是 work 的过去式);过去进行时 was / were + working;过去完成时 had + worked (worked 是 work 的过去分词)。 把时间错后至将来,这三种时态的形式也就相应地右移一格成为 一般将来时: 一般将来时: shall / will + work; 将来进行时: 将来进行时: shall / will + be working; 将来完成时: 将来完成时: shall / will + have worked。(shall 仅用于主语是第一人称时,will 可用于主语是任 何人称时。)当然,根据 shall / will 的用法要求,紧随其后的动词或助动词要用原形形式。 简而言之,把这三种现在时态形式左移变成三种过去时态形式,只需把第一个动词变成过去式即可(一 般现在时谓语只有一个动词,也可把它看成为第一个动词)。与此类似,过去将来时的变化是在一般将来时 的基础上把第一个动词变成过去式。把这三种现在时态形式右移变成三种将来时态形式,只需在前面加一助 动词 shall / will (紧随其后的动词或助动词用原形形式)即可。 三、英语被动语态形式的记忆(以动词 ask 为例) 时态 一般 进行 完成 过去 现在 将来 过去将来
was/were asked was/were being asked had been asked
am/is/are asked am/is/are being asked have/has been asked
shall/will be asked
should/would be asked
英语动词的被动语态是由助动词 be 加及物动词的过去分词构成。助动词 be 同系动词 be 一样有人称、数 和时态的变化。英语动词在既有被动语态变化又有时态变化时,一定要先变被动语态再变时态,它的时态变
化就是将助动词 be 再作各种时态形式的变化。主张先理解记忆现在的三种被动语态的时态形式,再以同样方 法推导出被动语态其它的时态形式。 四、结合英语时态表掌握句子的否定式、一般疑问式的变化规律 句子的否定式、一般疑问式也是每册初中教材学习时态时的必讲内容。而实际上这个问题非常简单,完 全可以结合英语时态表中谓语的特征来完成。 变化方面 谓语物征 否定句变化 一般疑问句变化
谓语只有一 根据主语人称、数和谓语时态的要求,在谓 根据主语人称、数和谓语时态的要求,在句首加 个动词 语动词前加 don't, doesn't, didn't 后面的 Do, Does, Did,其后面的动词使用原形。更改句首 ( be 除外) 动词使用原形。 大小写和句尾标点符号。 谓语有两个 或两个以上 在谓语的第一个动词后面加 not. 动词 把谓语的第一个动词提前至句首, 更改首大、 小写 和句尾标点符号。
注:
  1、There be ...句型和以 be 为系动词的主系表句型,适用于第二种谓语特征的变化方式。
  2、谓语是情态动词(have to 的疑问式例外) + 动词原形,也适用于第二种谓语特征的变化方式。
  3、为便于记忆,不妨称此法为谓语特征分析法。 五、谓语特征分析法在特殊疑问句、反意疑问句中的运用 由于特殊疑问句的句子结构是特殊疑问词或词组 + 一般疑问句语序,故除对主语提问的特殊疑问句外, 都可按一般疑问句变化规律用谓语特征分析法快速确定谓语形式。 反意疑问句是由陈述句 + 反问部分构成。反意疑问句的反问部分虽说情况比较复杂,但仅就基础内容而 言,情况还是较为简单,要求也较低。故基础内容中反意疑问句的反问部分基本上仍可用谓语特征分析法快 速确定反问部分中该用的动词,那就是:前面的陈述句如果变成一般疑问句是用什么动词开头,后面的反问 部分就用什么动词反问。 六、一般疑问句和反意疑问句的简略回答 用谓语特征分析法掌握了一般疑问句和反意疑问句中谓语的构成方法后,它们的简略回答就更容易了。 那就是用什么词开头的一般疑问句就用什么词来回答(或同属 be 系列的单词:am, is, are, was, were)。 反意疑问句的反问部分用什么词开头,也就用什么词来回答(或同属 be 系列的单词)。例如:

  1. -Are you a worker? -Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.
  2. -Does he like Chinese tea? -Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.
  3. -Have you finished the novel? -Yes, I have. / No, I haven't.
  4. -He is a bus driver, isn't he? -Yes, he is. / No, he isn't.
  5. -Tom came to school late this morning, didn't he? -Yes, he did. / No, he didn't.
  6. -Lily hasn't lost her watch, has she? -Yes, she has. / No, she hasn't.
用情态动词(can, may, must)开头的一般疑问句,在作否定回答时选择合适的情态动词较为困难。我 们可以用右栏图示轻松地记忆掌握。 先按下列单词及它们的否定式的第一、第二个字母在字母表中的顺序排列,再加上谁回答谁的替换符号 便容易记忆了。(注意 must 代替 may, need 代替 must, 这种后代前的关系以及 can 除了可回答自己外,还 可回过去来回答 may 的特点。)

  1. -Can you drive a truck? -No, I can't.
  2. -May I go now? -No, you can't. / No, you mustn't.
  3. -Must you go so soon? -No, I needn't.
  4. -Need we buy any new desks? -No, we needn't. (Yes, we must.)
注意:肯定回答必须用 must。 七、谓语特征分析法在其它句型中的运用 研究下面几组对话,不难发现:答语中谓语动词的选用也是和如将其上句变成一般疑问句后句首第一个单词 相一致的(或同属 be, do, have 系的单词)。

  1. -It's warmer today. -So it is.
  2. -John bought a new bike. -So he did.
  3. -I like walking in the open air. -So do I.
  4. -He works hard. -So he does, and so do you.
  5. -Lucy has been to England twice. -So she has.
  6. -Lucy can ride a bike at the age of four. -So she can.
十六种时态的谓语形势 一般时态 现在 过去 将来 过去将 来 do/does did shall/will do should/would do 进行时态 am/is/are doing was/were doing shall/will be doing should/would be doing 完成时态 have/has done had done shall/will have done 完成进行时态 have/has been doing had been doing shall/will have been doing
should/would have done should/would have been doing
八种时态介绍: 一 一般现在时态:表示现在经常发生或习惯性的动作。时间状语: every …, sometimes, 一般现在时态: usually 等。 1 由 be 的 is am are 表示,之后接名词,形容词或介词。 表示,之后接名词,形容词或介词。 陈述句:I am an office worker. He is so lazy. They are at home now. 否定句: I am not Tim. She is not very beauiful. They are not in the office. 一般疑问句:Are you an office assistant? Is she beautiful? 特殊疑问句:What is your job? What colour is your bag?Where are you now?
always, never, often,
2 由实意动词 V 构成,引导疑问句和否定句,用 do 或 don’t。第三人称时用 does 或 doesn’t,有 does 出现动词 构成,引导疑问句和否定句, 。 用原形;第三人称陈述句 V 后加 s 或 es. 陈述句:I work in Shanghai. He works at home.Davy never watches TV at home.
否定句: I don’t like the food in KFC. Davy doesn’t like the food in KFC either. 一般疑问句: Do you want a cup of coffee? Does she live near the subway station? 特殊疑问句:What do you want? Where does she live? How do they go to work? 3 由情态动词 can, must, may 构成。may 没有否定形式。 构成。 陈述句: I can drive a car. He must tell the truth. We may get there on foot. 否定句:I can’t swim at all. You mustn’t(表示禁止) smoke in the office. 一般疑问句: Can you wait a minute? Must I stay at home? May I use your phone? 特殊疑问句: How can I get there? What must I do now? 二 一般过去时态。在过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 一般过去时态。 时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago,the day before yesterday,in 19
  97。 1 由 be 的过去式是 was 或 were 表示。Is\ amwas;arewere. 表示。 陈述句:I was a big boss.He was beautiful. We were in Beijing last year. 否定句: I was not at home at that moment. We were not at work yesterday. 一般疑问句: Were you a teacher? Was she in the office last week? 特殊疑问句:Where were you last night? When were you in that company? 2 由 V 的过去式构成陈述句,疑问句和否定句用借助于 did,有 did 出现动词用原形。 的过去式构成陈述句, 出现动词用原形 用原形。 有 陈述句:I worked in Sunmoon.We studied English there. He lived in HongKong. 否定句: I didn’t work here. They didn’t see me. She liked English a lot. 一般疑问句: Did you go to America? Did he work in Sunmoon? 特殊疑问句:Where did you work? What did he say to you? How did you know my name? 3 由情态动词的过去式构成,can?could. 由情态动词的过去式构成, She could walk when she was one year old. I could not speak English one year ago. 三 一般将来时态:即将发生动作或状态。时间状语有:tomorrow,next year,the month after next,in two hours. 一般将来时态: 1 任何人称 任何人称+will+动词原形 动词原形. 动词原形 I will fly to KongKong tomorrow. He will go with us. We will arrive in Shanghai next week. I will never believe you again. He will not come tonight. We will not buy a car next year. Will you go there by train? Will he come tomorrow? Will they live a five-star hotel? What will you do after class? Where will he live? How will they come here? 2 is/am/are+going to+V 原形 原形,表示计划打算做什么事情。 I’m going to go to Kongkong by air. We are not going to buy a house here. Are they going to change their jobs? How are you going to tell him? 过去将来时态; 四 过去将来时态;在过去将会发生的动作。 构成:任何人称+would +V 原形 was/were going to +V 原形 He said he would come in in Shanghai. I sai I would buy you a car one day. They told me that they were not going to go abroad. 现在进行时态: 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。 常用的时间的动作: now, at the (this) moment 五 现在进行时态: 构成:is/am/are+Ving I’m waiting for my boy friend. He is doing the housework at home now. He is not playing toys. We are enjoying ourselves.
Are you having dinner at home? Is Tim cooking in the kitchen? What are you doing now? Where are they having a meal? 过去进行时态: 六 过去进行时态:过去一段时间正在发生的动作。 构成:was/were+Ving I was doing my homework at that time. He was not sleeping at 11 o’clock last night. What were you doing at that moment? We were having a party while my neighbour is sleeping. 现在完成时态: 七 现在完成时态:用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的确和现在有联系。动作或状态发生在 过去但它的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。简单的说,就是动作已经发生对现在造成 明显的影响。常用的时间 for two /weeks/years;for several days; since 2004/ Apr. 23/last week /the accident 构成:have/has +done(过去分词) I have already told Davy. Davy has known this matter. He has lived here for nearly 10 years. I haven’t finished my homework.Tim hasn’t come yet.We haven’t heard any news about him How long have you worked in this company? 特别注意:
  1. have/has always been+名词/形容词/介词:总是或一直是什么样子。。 。 He has always been a good father. I have always been busy. They have always been in America. 2 have/has been to:表示去过或到过。。 。 I have been to Canada. Have you been to Hongkong? Where have you been? I have never been here. 3 have/has gone to:去了。。 。 He has gone to Beijing. They have gone to the cinema. 过去完成时态:发生在过去的过去。 八 过去完成时态:发生在过去的过去。 构成:had + do
 

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