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中考英语词汇与语法满分快车道书稿
第五章 形容词 副 词
形容词用来修饰、说明名词或不定代词,表示人或物的性质、特征和状态。而副词是用 来修饰动词、形容词、其他副词或整个句子,有时也能修饰名词,表示时间、地点、方式、 程度、动作等。
第一节 知识点概述
一、形容词
(一)形容词在句子中的作用

  1.作定语。如: a beautiful park 一座美丽的公园 a powerful socialist country 一个强大的社会主义国家 something serious 严重的事
  2.作表语。如: The play Tea-house(茶馆)is both moving and interesting. It is getting warm.
  3.作宾语补足语。如: Who left the window open? We should keep the reading-room quiet.
  4.“定冠词 the + 形容词”表示一类人或物,作“主语或宾语”,意思为“……的一 种人”,“……的东西或事情。” 如: The new will take the place of the old . (新事物将代替旧事物) Man loves the true, the good, the beautiful; and hates the false, the ugly, the bad. (人们爱 真、善、美, 恨假、丑、恶)
  5.有些形容词只能作表语 如: ill, glad, asleep, afraid, alive (活着的),alone(单独的)
  6.使役动词加-ed 和 ?ing 都可构成形容词,加-ed 形容词表示“人感到如何”,加-ing 形容词则用来描写事物, 如: We were excited, / the exciting news.
  7. 有些名词加后缀可变成形容词, 如: lovely friendly, windy, crowded, careful, careless, wooden, sunny, rainy 等
  8.形容词和介词有固定搭配, 如: different from, the same as, far from, near(close)to , afraid of, full of 等 有的还可和连系动词一起构成短语 be (become) interested in, be good (poor) at be pleased with, be bad for, be harmful to 等
  9.形容词用在感觉动词后面, 如:look, seem, taste, small, feel, 可用作表语。 Look fine, seem true, taste good
(二)形容词在句子中的位置
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  1.形容词一般放在被修饰的名词之前。两个或两个以上形容词修饰一个名词时,形容 词排列的次序一般应考虑下面二种情况。 (
  1)与被修饰名词关系比较密切的形容词位置靠近名词, 如:an exciting American film, (
  2)音节少的形容词位置在前,音节多的形容位置在后
  2.在下列情况下,形容词应后置 (
  1)修饰不定代词复合词 something, anything, nothing 等,如:anything
important,
nothing easy (
  2)同表示数量的词组连用, 如:twenty feet long, five gears old
  3.几个形容修饰一名词时,一般顺序为大小(little 除外),一般描述,年龄(little), 形状,色彩,由来,用途, 如: a fine round maple(枫木)writing table, a famous old English country house
二、副词
(一)副词在句子中的作用
副词在句子中主要用作状语,许多副词皆由形容词加-ly 构成,如:careful-carefully.以 辅音字母结尾的,则把-y 改成-ily,如:angry-angrily, 如形容词以-ic 结尾的,加-ally,如: historic-historically。如形容词以 -e 结尾,就须去掉 e, 再加-ly, 如 true-truly, simple-simply 副词主要被分为以下几种:
  1.时间副词,如:often,early,usually,now
  2.地点副词,如:here,above,outside,below,there
  3.方式副词,如:hard,fast,badly,well
  4.程度副词,如:very,quite,much,still,even,almost
  5.疑问副词,如:how,when,why
(二)副词在句子中的位置

  1.时间副词和地点副词的位置 (
  1)表示确定时间的副词和地点的副词,一般放在句尾,如句中同时有地点副词和时 间副词,地点副词通常在前,时间副词在后。 (
  2)表示不确定时间的副词通常放在行为动词前,但要放在 be 动词,助动词,情态动 词后, always, 如: usually, often, never, ever, seldom, sometimes, rarely, generally 等。
  2.修饰形容词和副词的程度副词,除 enough 后置外,一般放在被修饰词的前面。副词 在此作状语。 如: be well enough, go fast enough
  3.修饰动词的方式副词有以下几种 (
  1)修饰不及物动词时,该副词要后置信,如:sing well (
  2)修饰及物动词时,可放在被修饰词之前或宾语之后;如宾语较长也可放在动词和 宾语之间。如:study English hard,see clearly the words on the blackboard (
  3)及物动词和副词(如:down,on,off,in,out,up 等)组成的动词词组,其宾语 是名词,该名词可放在副词之前或之后:如是代词,该代词一定要放在副词前。 He cut down the tree. / He cut the tree down. / He cut it down.
  4. 修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后,如:The man there is my father.
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第二节 实战演练
一、例题选讲
例1 He studies English A. C. good best D study 是行为动词,后面要用副词 well。 . B. D. carefully sadly . B. D. better well
答案: 提示: 例2
The little baby looks A. C. lovely heavily A
答案: 提示:
本题掌握连系动词后接形容词作表语的用法。look 意为看上去,连系动词 后接形容词表示人的情绪特征或状态。 选项 A 中的 lovely 是形容词, 其他 各项是副词。本句意思是“这小孩看上去真可爱”。 an artist. B. D. not so well as as better as
例3
Her brother can draw A. C. as well as as better as A
答案: 提示: 例4 This is A. C.
本题是副词的同级比较用法。 同级比较中, 形容词或副词要用原级。 as…as 形式可用于肯定或否定结构中,而 so...as 用于否定结构中。 building in our city.
older eldest D
B. D.
elder the oldest
答案: 提示: 例5 He is my A. C.
这道题要求掌握对最高级的用法。由于此题后面提供的是 in our city,所 以前面要用最高级。 brother. B. D. elder old
older oIdest B
答案: 提示: 例6
elder 或 eldest 是用于兄妹兄弟之间长幼关系的比较,在此表示“我的哥哥 比我年长”,要用 elder。 the two. B. D. in of
Li Ping is the tallest A. C. at on
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答案: 提示: 例7 A. C.
D of 用于名词复数和具体数量,表示“在……之中”。in 之后跟名词,主要 表示地点、场所或范围,指“在……之内”。 you able to come here this afternoon.
Will Can D
B. D.
Have Are
答案: 提示:
able 是形容词, 不能单独作谓语, 必须和动词 be 连用。 able to 表示 be “能” 。
二、复习时需要注意的要点
形容词的词序 在名词前出现几个形容词作定语时,常常涉及词的排列顺序问题。例如:a fat old lady 不能说成 an old fat lady,a small black leather handbag 不能说成 a leather black small handbag 等。 形容词的词序问题比较复杂, 前置形容词的排列顺序由它们和被修饰名词之间的关系决 定,关系密切的靠近被修饰词,关系较远的离之稍远。 形容词就是按限定词、一般性描绘、大小、长短和高低、形状、年龄和新旧、颜色、 国籍、地区和出处、物质和材料、用途和类别这一顺序来修饰名词的。
第三节 巩固练习
I 选择填空:
  1.These apples taste . A. well B. good C. to be nice D. pretty
  2.A PLA man took to a hospital by himself A. an ill boy B. a sick boy C. a boy ill D. a seven years old boy
  3.What news ! A. an exciting B. exciting C. an excited D. excited
  4.The trip was and everyone was with it.
A. pleasant, pleased B. pleased, pleasant pleased, pleased D. pleasant, pleasant

  5.The music of the film sounds . A. sweetly B. lovely C. terribly D. loudly
  6.What was the reason for your absence? A. true B. good C. real D. bad
  7.What make you ? A. kindness B. good C. happy D. happily
C.
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  8.Jack was to go to school last year. A. enough old B. enough young C. old enough D. young enough
  9.This is a new road. It is . A. five kilometer long B. a five-kilometres-long C. a five kilometers long road D. a five-kilometre-long road.
  10.Is this room that one? A. so large as B. some large as C. the same large as D. the same size as
  11.This is a story about a woman teacher. A. true real B. real true C. truly really D. really truly
  12.His child broke the new glass, But he doesn’t get . A. angrily B. angry C. well D. good the new, ?
  13.The young A. like, don’t they B. likes, doesn’t he C. like, don’t the young D. likes, doesn’t he?
  14.Can you retell the text in English, It is not for you. A. easy, hardly B. easily, hard C. hard, easily D. easy, hard
  15.Don’t you think it’s good to be true? A. too B. enough C. very D. much
  16.He is to go to school. A. good enough B. enough good C. well enough D. Enough

  17.These dishes are much.
A. very, very B. very, much C. very, very much
delicious .I enjoy them
D. very, much D. hard, hard

  18.It’s to work, but he still works . A. hard, hardly B. hardly, hardly C. hardly, hard
  19.What do you do on Sundays? A. sometimes B. usually C. always D. yet

  20.He didn’t get there to catch the train. A. too early B. early enough C. fast enough D. late
  21.I’ll stay here Monday. A. till B. for C. in D. by
  22.He’s lived here . A. three years ago B. for three years ago C. since three years ago D. since three years

  23.Which is , Spain or Australia? A. more developed B. more developing C. most developed D. most developing
  24.Is it raining ? A. hardly B. hard C. big D. heavy
  25.This book is , but I am not in it. A. interesting ,interested B. interested, interesting C. interested, interested D. interesting, interesting
II. 根据全句的内容将括号内的汉语译成英语:
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  1.It is (非常奇怪)that our monitor is absent.
  2.There is (有些奇怪)in hen manner to her teacher today.
  3.It is not (容易)for the boy to write a (五百单词的)article in half an hour.
  4.Please wait here, I’ve got (有趣的事)to tell you.
  5.-May I leave early, Miss Wang? (有什么重要的事吗?)
  6.Every nation, (无论大小),has its customs and culture.
  7.Many men and women, some (七十多岁了,) do morning exercises in the park every day.
  8.The (振奋人心的) news made us (振奋人心). (周报)
  9.Shanghai Students’ Post is a
  10.It’s not my bike, It must be (别的什么人的). III. 选择正确的形容词填入空格
  1. asleep, sleep, ( 1 )?Where’s my cat? -Oh, it is . (
  2) Mother is singing a song.
  2. ill, sick (
  1)Could I ask for leave? I want to visit a aunt in a hospital. (
  2) Tom doesn’t like school, He often pretended that he fell in the morning.
  3. alive, living (
  1) In spite of the cold winter, these fish were still . (
  2) He is known to be the most famous writer.
  4. elder, older (
  1) Her daughter has just married. than I. (
  2) Though we were born in the same year, he looks
  5. only, alone (
  1) Zhang Ming is the student in our class who has ever been to America. (
  2) This can’t made him become a great runner.
  6. pleasant, pleased (
  1) Li Hua’s parents were (
  2) The Wangs live in a
  7. interesting, interested with his school. flat, with waxed(打腊的) floor and nice furniture.
(
  1)How we have seen the film! (
  2)Was Jack become in playing the violin when he was teens?
  8. true, real (
  1) Let me tell you a story. (
  2)Mr. Ma is a man. IV. 选择正确的副词填入空格
  1. really, yet (
  1) He hasn’t received any invitation . (
  2) The boy has learned how to write .
  2. ago, before
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(
  1) (
  2)
  3. (
  1) (
  2)
  4. (
  1) (
  2)
Tom told his mother that he saw a sheep in the street three days . Ten minutes ,he came to help me. either, too You like playing video games. I like playing video games, . He doesn't want any pears, I don't want any pears, . in, after He can finish reading the novel three days. He can be back three o’clock.

  5. just, just now (
  1) Where’s my umbrella? It was . (
  2) He’s been to Nanjing.
  6. How far, How long (
  1)is it from your home to the cinema? (
  2)does it take you to get to the school?
  7. How long, How soon (
  1)- will she come back?
 

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