语法讲解: 一、一般现在时 一般现在时主要用来表示每天、每周等经常一直如此,长期进行下去的动作,其着眼点不在 描述具体的动作, 而是通过提出不断反复的动作, 来说明某一真理或某一经常性习惯性的举 动。 一般现在时的几种主要用法:
  1)一般现在时表示客观事实、客观存在的普遍真理、用于一般现在时的时间状语常见的有: often, usually,always,sometimes, seldom,ever,never,every day (week,month,year), once a year,now and them,from time to time。例如: The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。 Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。
  2)表示格言或警句 Pride goes before a fall.骄者必败。 注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。
  3)表示现在习惯性的、经常重复的或定期发生的动作或存在的状态。 I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。 We go to school every day except on Sunday.除星期天外,我们每天都上学。
  4)表示能力、性格、个性等。例如: I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。 Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。 注意:
  1)表示“感觉”和“状态”或“关系”等的动词(如be,like,love,hate,want,think, remember,find,sound,forget,refuse,see,allow,prove,have,matter,taste,look,feel) 常用一般现在时,不用现在进行时。例如: Carl and Wang Bing are students.卡尔和王斌是学生。 In the evening I love sitting by the fire and playing my guitar.在晚上,我喜欢坐在篝火旁弹着吉 他。
  2)有时用这个时态表示“按计划、规定,时刻表”要发生的动作,句中(都带有时时间状 语),但限于少数动词,如:begin,come,leave,go,arrive,start,stop,return,open, close等。例如: The meeting begins at seven.会议在七点钟开始。 The train leave at 17:
  3)书报的标题、小说、戏剧、图片等情节介绍常用一般现在时。例如: China Declares Manned Spaceflight Successful中国宣布载人航天飞行圆满成功 Laura Bush Arrives in Moscow劳拉?布什抵达莫斯科 Francis slips past, passes the ball to Yao Ming, who jumps, catches and shoots it into the basket.弗 朗西斯穿过去,把球传给姚明,姚明跳起来,接住球投进篮里。
  4) 在由if, unless, even if等引导的条件状语从句和在由when, before, after, until, till, as soon as, by the time, each time, the moment, immediately等引导的时间状语从句中, 常用一般现在时表示将来时间。例如: I'll come to help you if I'm free tomorrow.如果我明天有空的话,我将帮助你。 Unless you try, you will never succeed. 你若不尝试,就决不会成功。 Next time I go there, I ' ll ask him about it. 下次我去那里时,我要问问他这件事。
Please let me know immediately you get the results. 你一得到结果,就请马上告诉我。 I'll telephone you as soon as he comes back.他一回来我就打电话给你。 When they leave school, they will go back to the country.他们离校将去农村。 另外,还要注意其动词形式的变化。该时态主要由动词原形表示,但第三人称单数后要加词 尾-s,be和have有特殊的变化形式。例表如下: 构成 示例 读音说明 一般情况在词尾末加-s ,包括以 “元音字母+y”结尾的词 work?works run?runs play?plays miss?misses finish?finishes teach?teaches lose?loses pledge?pledges go?goes love?loves hate?hates make?makes -在清辅音后读[s], 在浊辅音后读[z] 在元音后读[z] -es读[iz]
在以ch,sh,x,s等辅音字母结 尾的词末加-es, 如词尾为-e,只 加-s
以o结尾的词加-es 如词尾为 e,只加-s
-es在元音后读[z] -s的读音取决于 e 前的辅 音,如该字母是清辅音,则 读[s],如是浊辅音则读[z] -ies读[iz]
以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词, study?studies 先变y为i,在加-es
  1) 在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 例如: 时间状语有: yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。例如: Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?
  2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如: He was already in the habit of reading widely in his boyhood.他童年时就养成了广泛阅读的习 惯。 We went swimming every day last summer.去年夏天我们每天去游泳。 He often came to see me when I was in hospital.在我住院期间,他经常来看我。
  3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"。例如: It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。 It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了" ,例如 It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。 would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。例如: I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。 I would rather you didn't do anything for the time being.我宁愿你暂时先不要采取什么措施。
  4)wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时 表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如: I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。 比较:Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。 ) Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着) Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。 ) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚 离去) 注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。
  1)动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如:
Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗? I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。
  2)情态动词 could, would。例如: Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗? (
  3)在以as soon as,when,before,until引起的时间状语从句以及if条件的状语从句中,当 主句为一般将来时或祈使句时,从句通常要用一般过去时代替过去将来时。例如: We would not leave until the teacher came back.老师回来我们才会离开。 She told me she would not go if it rained the next day.她告诉我如果第二天下雨的话,她就不去 了。 动词情况 构成方式 例词 一般情况 以 -e 结尾的动词 以辅音字母 -y 结尾的动 词 以一个辅音字母结尾的重 读闭音节的动词 不规则动词 加-ed 加-d 变y为i加-ed 双写辅音字母加-ed play?played, work?worked, look?looked live?lived,hope?hoped, arrive?arrived study?studied,cry?cried,reply?replied stop?stopped,regret?regretted, pat?patted,nod?nodded,drag?dragged
不规则变化(见附表) begin?began,
  1) 一般将来时是由“will / shall + 动词原形”构成的。shall 只限于第一人称,主要见于英 国英语,现在的趋势是第一、二、三人称的单复数形式均用 will 表示。在口语中,shall 和 will 常缩写成“'ll”, 紧接在主语之后。 其否定式 shall not 和 will not 常简略为 shan't 和 won't。 Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢? When will you know your exam results? 你什么时候能知道考试结果? I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long.我看得出你很忙,所以我不会呆太久的。 注意:在 you and I 或 both of us 等短语后,只用 will,不用 shall。 You and I will arrive there next Monday.我和你下周一都要到达那里。 Both of us will graduate from middle school next year.我们俩明年中学毕业。
  2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。 a. 表示经过事先考虑与打算、按计划或安排将要发生的动作。例如: I ' m going to finish the report this afternoon.今天下午我将会写完这份报告。 ??What are you going to do when you grow up?长大以后你打算干什么? ??I ' m going to be a teacher. 我要当一名教师。 The play is going to be produced next month。这出戏下月开播。 b.表示根据某种迹象推测出即将发生的动作。例如: Look at the dark clouds in the sky. It ' s going to rain. 瞧那天上的乌云,天要下雨了。 Watch out!We are going to crash!当心!我们要撞车了! There is going to be a lot of difficulty in doing this. 做这件事会有许多困难。
  3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如: We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。 The new railway is to be opened to traffic on National Day. 这条新铁路将在国庆节通车。 We are to begin the experiment next month. 我们安排下个月开始这项试验。
  4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。例如: We are about to leave, so there is no time to visit him now.我们就要离开,所以现在没有时间 去看他。 He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。 注意:be about to do 不能与 tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。
be going to / will 用于条件句时,be going to 表将来,will 表意愿。例如: If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.如果你打算旅 行,你最好尽快作好准备。 Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.既 然你愿意脱了你的衣服,我们在镜子前面试一试新衣服。 be to do 和 be going to 区别 be to do 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事,be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。例如: I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我去踢球。 (客观安排) I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我想去踢球。 (主观安排)
  5)一般现在时表将来 一般现在时表将来 (
  1) 下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一般现在时可以表示将来, 主要用 来表示在时间 上已定或安排好的事情。例如: The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。 When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。 (
  2)以 here, there 等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如: Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。 There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。 (
  3)在时间或条件句中。例如: When Bill comes (不是 will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。 I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。 (
  4)在动词 hope, take care that, make sure that 等的宾语从句中。例如: Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.不要担心这次考试,我确信你会通过的。 I wonder what will happen.我不知道将会发生什么事。 I don't think the test will be very difficult.我想这次测验不会太难。 (
  5)用于“祈使句 + and /or + 陈述句”中 Work hard and you will succeed.如果你努力,就会成功的。 Go at once and you will see her.马上去,你就会见到她了。
  6)用现在进行时表示将来 ) 表示最近按计划、安排即将发生的动作,它只限用于少数动词,如:play, have, sleep, wear 等, 或表示位移的动词 (短语) 如: , go, come, leave, start, begin, move, drive, fly(乘飞机) ,go off, get to, arrive, return, see off, stay, take(带走) ,take off(起 飞)等,并常与表示将来时间的状语连用,如:tomorrow, next week, in a few days 等。 例如: We are having an English evening tonight. 今晚我们要开一个英语晚会。 Jane and Betty are going on separate holidays in a few days’ time. 简和贝蒂准备几天后各自去 度假。 Where are you spending your holidays this summer?今年夏天你将在哪里度假? 四、现在进行时 现在进行时的表示形式为be+动词的现在分词,而助动词be随着主语的单数的变化而变化
  1、现在进行时描述现在时刻进行着的动作。具体地说,以发言者发言的时刻为标准,动作 在发言前不久开始,在发言时刻正在进行。从时间上看“现在时刻”,着眼于描述动作。例 如: We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。
  2、现在进行时可用于目前和目前阶段正在进行的动作。但从说话时刻来看,该动作未必一 定正在发生(也许正在发生)。例如: We are having a wonderful time.我们(当时)玩得很痛快。
Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。 (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状 态。 )



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