英语语法--副词及其基本用法 副词及其基本用法 副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。 一、副词的位置:
  1) 在动词之前。
  2) 在 be 动词、助动词之后。
  3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。
注意: a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. b. 方式副词 well,badly 糟、坏,hard 等只放在句尾。 He speaks English well.
二、副词的排列顺序:
  1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。
  2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully.
  3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。
注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错) (对) I very like English. I like English very much.
注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat. 兼有两种形式的副词
  1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地" He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely.
  2) late 与 lately late 意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近" You have come too late. What have you been doing lately?
  3) deep 与 deeply
deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film.
  4) high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion.
  5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方" He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world.
  6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地" You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely; say what you like. 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物 的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。
  1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 一般单音节词 未尾加-er,-est 以不发音的 e 结尾 的单音词和少数 以- le 结尾的双 音节词只加-r,-st 以一个辅音字母 结尾的闭音节单 音节词,双写结 尾的辅音字母, 再加-er,-est big(大的) hot 热的) bigger hotter biggest hottest 原级 tall(高的) great(巨大的) nice(好的) large(大的) 比较级 taller greater 最高级 tallest greatest nicest largest ablest
nicer larger
able(有能力的) abler
"以辅音字母+y" easy(容易的) 结尾的双音节词,busy(忙的) 改 y 为 i,再加 -er,-est 少数以-er,-ow clever(聪明的)
easier busier
easiest busiest
cleverer cleverest
结尾的双音节词 未尾加-er,-est
narrow(窄的)
narrower narrowest
其他双音节词和 多音节词,在前 面加 more,most 来构成比较级和 最高级。
important(重要的) more important most important easily(容易地) more easily most easily
as + 形容词或副词原级 + as
  1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so… as。 He cannot run so/as fast as you.

  2)当 as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。 as +形容词+ a +单数名词 as + many/much +名词 This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much paper as you can..

  3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。 This room is twice as big as that one. Your room is the same size as mine.

  4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ then + of This bridge is three times as long as that one. This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. Your room is twice the size of mine 比较级形容词或副词 + than You are taller than I. They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.
注意:
  1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother.

  2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger that any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

  3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

  4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters 可修饰比较级的词
  1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等

  2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

  3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。
典型例题:
  1) Are you feeling ? Yes,I'm fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good
D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite 修饰原级,well 的比较级为 better.

  2)The experiment was easier than we had expected. A. D. more B. much more C. much
more much much 可修饰比较级,因此 B,C 都说得通,但 easier 本身已是比较级,不需 more,因此 C 为正
答案:C. 确答案。

  3)If there were no examinations, we should have at school. A. the happiest time C. much happiest time 答案:D。 B. a more happier time D. a much happier time
many,old 和 far
  1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词 many more +可数名词复数

  2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

  3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。 在美语中,father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。 I have nothing further to say. the + 最高级 + 比较范围
  1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错) (对) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

  2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 Africa is the second largest continent.

  3) 句型转换: Mike is the most intelligent in his class. Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

  4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing.
和 more 有关的词组
  1) the more… the more… 越……就越……
The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make.
  2) more B than A 与其说 A 不如说 B less A than B He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work.
  3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor. no less… than… 与……一样……
He is no less diligent than you.
  4) more than 不只是,非常
She is more than kind to us all.
典型例题
  1)The weather in China is different from. A. in America B. one in America C. America
D. that in America 答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C 不能选。A 没有名词,后句成分 不全,排除。B 和 D 中,B 中的 one 常用来代替可数名词,而 that 可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选 D。

  2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced tractors in 1988 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as
答案 C. 此句意为"这个厂 1988 能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为 C。 This ruler is three times as long as that one
 

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