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中考英语复习(二)
动词应用
动词是英语中最重要的一类词,是各地中考题中必有内容,分值约为 10 分。常见题型为单项选择、用所给 动词的正确形式填空或短文填空等。 首先要求学生在平时的学习中灵活运用动词, 了解动词的有关基础知识, 如动词的分类、 动词的时态和语态。 动词的非谓语形式(不定式、动名词、分词等),熟记动词的变化形式(第三人称单数,过去式、过去分词、现在分 词等)。其次还要掌握一些解题技巧。
  1、从时间状语或上下文判断时态。
  2、从主语与动词的关系判断语态。
  3、分析句子结构,确定所给动词是充当谓语动词还是非谓语动词。
  4、快速识别?些固定搭配的用法。 A. 解题技巧 选用动词的适当形式填空主要是测试动词的时态、语态、非谓语动词的用法和其他方面的掌握程度。谓语动 词有时态、语态的区别;非谓语动词包括不定式、动名词和分词(现在分词和过去分词)。因此,做此类试题首先 要判断是谓语动词还是非谓语动词,然后确定其正确形式。下面按四个方面将如何确定动词的时态、语态、非谓 语动词等形式的方法分述如下:
  1.确定时态的方法 确定时态的方法 A)从句中所含的时间状语来判断: ①一般现在时常用的时间状语有:sometimes,often, always,usually,every Tuesday,in the morning 等等。 ②一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用:last year,yesterday,ago,last Monday morning,just now 等 等。 ③一般将来时常有表示将来含义的时间状语:tomorrow,next week,this evening 等等. ④现在进行时常与 now 连用,或用 look,listen 创设现在进行时的语言环境。 ⑤过去进行时常与表示“具体的过去时间”连用。如: at eight last night,at that time,this time yesterday 等。 ⑥现在完成时常用的时间状语有:already,just,ever,never,yet 以及 since/for 引导的时间状语。 ⑦过去完成时常与表示“与过去时间比较已经完成”,含有“过去的过去”之意的时间连用。如:by the end of last year,by l990 等。 ⑧过去将来时,常出现在主句为一般过去时的宾语从句里,且常与表示“过去将来”的时间状语连用。如: the next week/month 等. B)①根据上下文联系和时态呼应来判断时态。如;Listen! Who is singing? ②在复合句中,可根据从句的时态判断主句的时态。如: He has been to many places since he came to China. 也可根据主句的时态决定从句的时态。 如宾语从句中若主句是一般过去时, 宾语从句一般要用过去某种时态。 如:Bill asked if they could(can)come. ③当主句为一般将来时,从句为 if,when,as soon as,until 等引导的状语从句时,从句常用一般现在时表 示将来。如: If you don't hurry,you'll miss the train.
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C)根据习惯表达来判断时态。如:表示客观真理的句子常用一般现在时。如:He said the earth goes round the sun.
  2.确定语态的方法 确定语态的方法 当句子主语是动作的承受者,含有“被动”之意时,要用被动语态。被动语态的谓语由“be+及物动词的过 去分词”构成。be 要随着时态和主语的人称和数而变化。中考所涉及的被动语态只有一般现在时、一般过去时和 情态动词的被动语态,只要熟练掌握,一般没有什么困难。
  3.确定非谓语动词的用法 确定非谓语动词的用法 对于动词不定式,主要掌握其几种基本用法。对动名词和分词只要掌握教材中所出现的常用句型搭配。并把 这些动词分清、记牢,同时要注意在用中学。 ①跟动词不定式作宾语的动词有:want,try,forget,hope,decide,choose,agree 等。 ②跟动名词作宾语的动词有:keep,go,like,finish,enjoy,hate 等。 ③动词 stop,remember,forget 等动词既可接不定式也可跟动名词作宾语,意义不同。如: He stopped talking. He was so tired that he stopped to have a rest. ④动词 let,see,hear,make,feel 等后面的宾补在主动语态中常用不带 to 的不定式作宾补,但改被动语态 时,则要带 to。如: They made him work 10 hours a day. He was made to work 10 hours a day.
  4.其他方面 其他方面 包括习惯用法、 句型、 短语等有关动词基本形式的测试。 如一些常见句型: takes sb. some time to do sth. It /too … to do sth.等。介词后面应用动词 ing 形式。系动词、实义动词在情态动词、助动词后面及在祈使句里用原形。此 处,还应注意一些常见的短语。如:well done,had better do sth.等。这些方面的知识主要靠平时积累,并且多 做有关练习,加以巩固记忆,在用中学,才能熟练掌握。
动词填空专项训练
阅读下列短文并用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。 阅读下列短文并用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。 ”(
  1) Joan Chen is famous both in China, where she grew up, and in the United States, where she now (live). How did Joan become a famous actress(演员) in two countries? It's an interesting story. Joan Chen was born in Shanghai in 19
  61. When she (be) 14, some people from a film company came to her school and (encourage) her to study acting. She was happy about this chance. At the age of 18,
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she won the Golden Rooster(金鸡奖), China's top film award. In late 1970, she (move) to America. Her parents hoped she would study medicine. Instead she looked for work as an actress. She had to start all over again. One day she went to speak to a director, but the interview (not go) well. As she walked away, a man in a car noticed her. The man was Dino Dalaurentiis, the film's producer. He offered her a leading part. A year later, she starred in Bernardo Bertolucci’s The Last Emperor. ”(
  2) ” I come from Russia. I (come) to London six months ago to learn English. I(not meet) many English people yet, only my teachers. I started learning English at school in Russia when I was eleven, so I have learned it for nearly ten years. At first in London, I didn't understand anything, but I studied hard (improve) my English. I have just taken an exam. When I (pass), I will move into the next class. I'm excited today because my parents are coming tomorrow to stay with me for a few days and I haven't seen them for a long time. They (not speak) English. ”(
  3) The Topps were on the road because five months before, a nephew had told Joe there (be) work to be done in the Napa Valley and he and Nancy decided (try). Breaking up their home in Fort Wayne, Indiana, they packed up the kids and Snoopy and (set) out for California. But once there, the dream Joe hoped for (not come) true, Nancy and the kids were very homesick, and their money was used up. Now it was January and the gamble (冒险)lost, they (be) on their way back to Fort Wayne. The truck had taken them as far as Roek Springs, Wyoming. But now there was nothing (do) but (sell) it to a junk dealer(废品商)for twenty-five dollars and get a free ride to the bus station. Two pieces of bad news greeted them at the station. Four tickets to Fort Wayne came to much more money than they had, and dogs (not allow) on the bus. ”(
  4) Salt (be) very common in our everyday life, but have you ever (hear) of some stories about salt? Talking about salt, perhaps nobody can (tell) exactly when people first began (use) it. But it (know) to us all that salt has been used in many different ways all through history. People who (live) over 3,000 years ago ate salted fish and salted meat. In ancient Egypt(古埃及), salt (use) to keep dead bodies. Stealing salt was regarded as a serious crime (罪行) different times. In the eighteenth century, for example, if a at person (catch) stealing salt, he would be put into prison at once. Altogether 10,000 people were thrown into prison during that century for stealing salt. About 250 years ago, in the year 1753, anyone taking more salt than he was given would have his arms (cut) off. ”(
  5) ” One day Tony was crossing the road when he (hit) by a car. He fell and (break) his arm. An ambulance soon (arrive) and took Tony to a hospital. There a doctor operated on his arm. Then he put the arm in a cast(石膏). Tony could not move it at all. “You must keep your arm in a cast for six weeks," the doctor said. “That (give) the broken bone a chance to heal." At the end of six weeks Tony went back to the hospital. The doctor (cut) the cast with a large saw. Then he (take) Tony's arm out of the cast.“Can you move your arm, Tony?" he asked. ” Tony tried to move his arm. At first it was difficult, but soon he was able (move) it a little.“Yes, it's fine," he said. “Thank you very much." “In a few days it (be) as good as a new one.“ The doctor said. “Just exercise it a little." ”“Will I be able to play the guitar?" Tony asked. The doctor smiled, “Of course you will," He said. “You'll have no problem."
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”“That (be) good news," Tony said. “Because I (not can) play at all before." ”(
  6) Sometimes we should say “No" when we (ask) help. For example, when a friend or relative asks us to use our influence(影响)to (borrow) money from a bank, we should refuse. Also, when our ability is limited, we had better (refuse) others' requests(要求) politely. However, why do we (fail) to say “No"? We feel that if we turn down a request from a friend or relative, we will become unpopular. We want to show that we are able and sometimes we even have our private, selfish goal. ” In fact, it is unwise (不明智的)for us to do so. We ourselves (get) into trouble and we will lose friends and could even be punished by law. So we have to say “No" when we are unable (carry) out the task(任务) asked of us. ”(
  7) ” I had only been at home for about ten days when a friend of mine asked me (join) him on a journey to the East Indies. I still wanted (see) more of the world, and as he was offering to give me double the usual pay, I (try) to persuade (说服)my wife to let me (go). The voyage (航行)took eight months, and after (stop) for a short time in Malaysia, we (arrive)in the Gulf of Tongking. ”“I’ll have to (stay)here for a while on business,“ my friend, the captain, told me. “But you can take the ship and some of the sailors. Go and see what you can buy and (sell) in the islands around here." That sounded interesting to me, so I agreed. ” Unfortunately, we sailed straight into a terrible storm, which drove us many mileseastward. Then, by a very unlucky chance, we were seen and chased(追赶) by two pirate(海盗) ships. Our ship was not fast enough to escape , and the pirates caught us. They decided (keep)the sailors to help sail the ship, but they (not need) me. I suppose I was lucky they did not kill me. Instead, they left me alone in a small boat in the middle of the ocean, with only enough food for a few days, while they sailed away. ”(
  8) ” John James Audubon was born in 1785 and (die) in 1851, but his name (talk) about today. Audubon (be) a scientist who loved nature. He wanted (show) people the importance of nature in their lives. He was especially interested in birds, and painted many beautiful pictures of them. ” In 1950, the National Audubon Society (find) by people who were also interested in birds and wanted to go on with Audubon's nature studies. Even now, when people think of the Audubon Society, they usually think of birds. But the society does other things besides (watch) birds. ” The members of the society try to improve the environment as much as they (can). They let people (know) about the laws(法律) that are needed. They have helped to pass many laws that protect birds and animals, and people, too. They teach young people how (protect) their environment. They try to make their own communities(社区) cleaner, better places (live) in. ” John James Audubon knew that nature was important. He didn't know how important his work would become. ”(
  9) My father died a month ago. He had been as healthy as anyone expects a 38-year-old man to be. He'd gone to (sleep) one night and just never got up in the morning. ” My father always had a ready smile and a kind word. When I was lit
 

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