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  14)听力理解的考点集汇,讲解和训练 十四、听力理解及其解题方法 【考点扫描】 考点扫描】 听力理解题的要求主要是:
  1、 能听懂基本上没有生词,贴近学生生活的语言材料;
  2、 能听懂并正确的辨别所听到的句子;
  3、 能听懂声音材料中涉及到的主要信息或重要细节;
  4、 能听懂对话或短文中谈论的要点、中心意思,并根据题目要求做出合理的判 断,如:推理出对话发生的时间、地点、对话人物关系和身份等。 【名师解难】 名师解难】 一. 训练方法 可能很多同学认为面对听力,总有一种无从下手的感觉。其实尽管中考的听力很难靠猜题和压题来复 习,但是中考中的听力测试部分不是随意设计的,它遵循《英语课程标准》的规定和要求,因此同学们只 要注意方法,多听多练,就会发现听力部分并没有想象中的那么难。那么我们如何利用好这一年的时间, 争取在听力水平上有所提高呢?
  1. 首先要充分利用好英语老师在课堂上的语言。一般的英语老师在英语课堂上 都是尽可能的利用英语来组织教学,无论老师说多说少,同学们都可以把这当成练习听力的好机会。 在听得不大明白的情况下,要仔细听上下文,从老师前后的语言中来猜测、判断语意,或是根据老师 的手势、眼神、动作等来分析,千万不要因为听不大懂而放弃。如果能利用好老师的课堂上的语言, 对你的听力会有不少的帮助。
  2. 在平时的学习和生活中,充分利用国内或国外的优秀的英语广播和电视节目等,选择比较适合自己水平 的节目,看比较简单的英语原声电影,等等。现在有很多电视频道和广播都有针对中学生开辟的栏目, 同学们不妨每天定期收看,并作好听力记录,把能够听懂的东西记录下来,也可以把不明白的句子或单 词记录下来(尽可能地记录),等节目结束后去揣摩或问老师。坚持下来,就会在无形中既提高了听的 能力,还能有助于增长词汇量和知识,是帮助学习者打下牢固听力基础的较好方法,并建立语言沟通能 力的自信心的有效途。
  3. 在泛听的基础上,必须安排一定的时间进行专项、综合和强化性听力训练。选择难易适度的材料,先易 后难,先慢后快地进行。 二. 解题技巧
  1. 先看题后听音 先看题后听音:在做听力题时,一定要做到听前先把听力试卷全部看一遍,尤其是听对话和听短文这两 种类型,以大概掌握主题内容,缩小听力范围;
  2. 把握全文 把握全文:听第一遍时,不要急于做答,应仔细把全文听完,尽可能弄明白文章的大意;
  3. 边听边记 边听边记:听的过程中,可以适当地做一些记录,如:时间、地点、数字、人物、天气等等,同时把可 能正确的答案做上记号。
  4. 抓关键词:无论谈话的主题是什麽,总会涉及到这类主题的专门用语。抓住这个关键词,谈话地点,人 抓关键词: 物关系就好确定了。
  5. 不因前误后 不因前误后:有时一个词或一个句子没有听懂,不必着急。将没听清楚的词或句子放过去,不要影响了 下一道题。 【中考范例】 中考范例】 陕西省的听力的题目分为三个部分,下面我们按照题目地类型分别加以说明:
  1. 听句子,选答语 这类题目要求考生在听完一个句子的录音后,从书面的三个备选项中,找出所听到的句子的答语。 这类题型在考察中一般属于较易题,考察的重点为大纲中日常交际用语表中所列项目。请看 2004 年陕西省 听力部分第 1 题:

  1. A. I think so. 录音材料:
B. Thanks a lot.
C. I hope so.

  1. Wish you good luck in this exam! 在解答本题前,同学们通过快速浏览书面选择项,通过特定情景用语的分析,就可将问题的内容基本 推测出来。对方向你表示良好地祝愿,你的回答当然是表示感谢。答案为 B。 II. 听对话,选答案 这类题目让考生听一组对话,在听完对话后,接着由第三者根据对话的内容提出问题,要求考生在 领会谈话要旨的基础上,从书面三个备选项中挑选能回答所听到问句的正确答案、或是让考生辨别说话人 的职业或者两人之间的关系以及推断谈话发生的场合或地点等。请看 2004 年陕西省听力部分第 6 题:
  6. A. Weather. 录音材料:
  6. W: I am going to London on business. Can you tell me if it rains a lot there? M: Yes, it often rains there.? Question: What are they talking about?? 该题中的女士问的是下雨的事,男士回答的也是下雨的事。他们谈论的话题当然是天气。答案为 A。 III. 听短文,选答案 听短文要注意听大意,要善于捕捉整体信息,切莫一个词一个词地听,也不要听一句就翻译一句,更 不必因一个词或一个短语没听懂就停步不前,一定要带着短文后的要求和指令去听。听的短文通常是结构 紧凑的故事,选用大多是围绕 who , when , where , what , how 或 why 所设的问题。因此,在听的时候应紧 紧围绕选项内容作些速记,记下关键词语,理清线索,抓好前后联系,最后才准确做出答案。请看 2004 年 陕西省听力部分第 16-20 题:
  16. Where did Jack work? A. On a farm. B. In an office. C. In a factory. B. Business. C. Season.

  17. How often did he get his money? A. Every month. B. Every week. C. Every half month.
  18. What happened this month? A. Jack got more money. B. Jack got less money. C. Jack got enough money.
  19. From this passage we know that . A. the manager believe Jack B. Jack wasn’t an honest (诚实的) man C. Jack was an honest man
  20. Could Jack go on working in this factory? A. The story didn’t tell us. B. Yes, he could. C. No, he couldn’t. 录音材料: Jack worked in a factory, and at the end of last month he got his money in a paper bag. He opened the bag and found it was wrong. He got fifty more dollars. He put the money carefully in his pocket and said nothing to others. A month later, he got his money again. He found it was wrong again this time. There was not enough money in his paper bag. Then he went to see the manager.?
“That’s right,” said the manager after Jack told his story. “I made a mistake last month. For one mistake, I can close my eyes. But for two, I can’t. Thank you, Jack. I’ve known you already. I have to choose another man instead
of you.
I think you should know what do to in the future.”
本题在听短文,选择正确答案的题型中属于较容易题。同学们在听本题前,通过快速浏览试题所给的 5 个问题及选项,根据所提供的信息,可以推测出短文所涉及的内容是 Jack 的工作问题。5 个问题分别涉 及到 Jack 在那里工作,多长时间拿一次工资,工资出现了多少的问题,Jack 诚实不诚实,从而决定了他是 否能留下来继续工作。带着这些问题开始听录音。第一遍听音时只听不记,把注意力集中在有关问题的内 容上,把握全文大意。第二遍听音时边听边看边记,重点把短文中有关内容与相关的题目对上号,分析判 断后就能很快选出正确的答案,即:
  1.C
  2.A
  3.B
  4.B
  5.C。 【满分演练】 满分演练】 (
  1) 听对话,选答案
  1. A. It’s Friday..
  2. A. Yes, I’d love to.
  3. A. Sure.
  4. A. Me too.
  5. A. Yes, I will.
  6. A. That’s a good idea.
  7. A. No, you can’t.
  8. A. Me too.
  9. A. From 8:00 to 11:00
  10. A. No, she hasn’t. 听力材料:
  1. What’s the date today?
  2. Do you enjoy listening to music or reading books?
  3. Can I ask for leave tomorrow afternoon?
  4. You speak English very fluently.
  5. Shall I get a taxi for you?
  6. Let’s go to the concert, shall we??
  7. Would you like to have a game with us?
  8. I’m so happy that you could be here at Christmas time.
  9. Could you tell me what time the plane leaves??
  10. She has never been abroad, has she? B. It’s April 23rd? B. No, I don’t. B. Certainly not. B. You’re welcome. B. Yes, please.? B. I’ll take your advice. B. Sure, I’d love to B. Thank you. B. Five hours. B. Yes, he hasn’t. C. It’s fine today. C. I enjoy reading books. C. Thanks.? C.. Thank you. C. Thank you. It’s lovely. C. It’s hard to say. C. Yes, I want. C. That’s all right.? C. At 8:
  00.? C. Yes, never.?

  2) 听对话,选答案
  1. A. Go to the cinema. B. Watch TV.?
  2. A. In a classroom
  3. A. To Beijing.
  4. A. Dumplings.
  5. A. 7:45 B. In a hospital. B. To Tianjin. B. 8:
  15.? C. Go to a concert.? C. In a clothes shop. C. To Beijing and Tianjin.?
B. Bread and milk.C. Bread only. C. 7:
  30.

  6. A. He was ill in bed all day.?B. He had toothache yesterday.? C. He was hurt in a traffic accident.?
  7. A. By bus.
  8. A. Eight. B. By car. B. Nine. C. By taxi.? C. Five.?

  9. A. Your sister.
  10. A. Emily is not in.
B. The man’s sister.
C. Alice’s sister.?
B. The man has got a wrong number.
C. She knows Emily very well.? 听力材料:
  1. M: What do you want to do tonight, Jenny? W: I want to go to the cinema. What about you, Jim? M: Just watch TV at home. Q: What is Jim going to do tonight?
  2. M: This shirt is too expensive. Do you have a cheaper one? W: How about this one? It’s only five dollars. M: But I don’t like the colour. Q: Where are the two speakers?
  3. M: I want to take a business trip tomorrow. W: How long will you be away, Dad? M: Five or six days. W: And where are you going? M: To Beijing first, and then to Tianjin. Q: Where’s the girl’s father going?
  4. M: What do you usually eat for breakfast? W: I used to eat dumplings, but now I’m used to eating bread and milk. Q: What does the lady now eat for breakfast?
  5. M: It’s a quarter to eight. Let’s hurry. W: Well, your watch is 15 minutes fast. My watch is only half past seven. Q: What time is it by the girl’s watch?
  6. M: Why didn’t Peter come to school yesterday, do you know, Alice? W: It is said he got the flu and stayed in bed all day. Q: What was the matter with Peter yesterday?
  7. M: Excuse me, where is the nearest hospital? W: It’s far from here. You can catch the No. 8 bus. But there is no bus now. You’d better take a taxi. Question: How will the man go there?
  8. M: Did you speak at the meeting? W: Yes, I was the third one. Then five other people spoke after me. Question: How many people made their speeches??
  9. M: What’s your sister’s name, Alice? W: Her name is Betty. Question: Who is Betty??
  10.M: May I speak to Emily? W: Emily? Oh, no. There is nobody named Emily here. Question: What does the woman mean?? (
  3) 听短文,选答案
I
  1. What did the man have to do in the morning? A. He fed the chickens. B. He cleaned the bath-room. C. He carried water for the family.
  2. Why did the man go to school on foot? A. No bus ran in the direction. B. The school was near. C. His family was poor.
  3. What did the man do every Sunday? A. He was taken to church three times. B. He stayed at home all day. C. He played in the street.
  4. What can we learn from what the speaker said? A. He is a retired teacher of history. B. He thinks children were happier in the past. C. He lives on a farm far away from cities. 听力材料: Now, you want to know about life in the past, right? I can tell you. When I was a boy, things were different. I had to get up at six every morning. That was not very bad in summer, but in winter it was cold. And we didn't have any hot water in the house. We had to wash in cold water. We didn't have a bath-room. My dad had some chickens. I had to feed them every morning and then I had to walk to school with my little sister. It was two miles to school and two miles back in the evening. And we had to go to bed at seven o'clock every night. We couldn't watch TV because there wasn't any. On Sundays we had to go to church three times-morning, afternoon and evening. And we couldn't play outside on Sundays. But it wasn't too bad. We had some good times. We could go out and our parents didn't have to worry about us. There weren't so many cars on the roads then, so the streets were safe to play in. And there were not many robbers and thieves in those days. We had to work hard and we weren't able to buy all those things in the shops today. Life was hard, but it was simple and people were happier. II
  1. A. Three. B. Four. C. Five.?

  2. A. Because of the food. B. Because of their homework. C. Because of watching TV too long.?
  3. A. Surf the Internet.
  4. A. Boring.
  5. A. Watching TV less. 听力材料: Are you a TV lover? Can you think of your life without TV? Many people think if you turn off your TV, your life will be colourful. They also suggest children should watch less TV. TV can give children big problems. First, it’s bad for your studies, you spend too long on TV, you can’t do well in school. Second, it’s bad for your health, because you watch too long on TV, you can’t do well in school. Second, it’s bad for your health, because you watch too much TV, you’re getting overweight. Your eyesight is getting worse. Third, it’s bad for your family l
 

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