Subject-verb Concord
Grammar Unit 2 20
Subject-verb Concord
Word forms co-occurring in a clause are sensitive to each other. Agreement between subject and predicate verb in person and number. The number of errors was surprising. The committee are unable to reach a decision. Either my sister or my father is coming.
Guiding Principles
Grammatical Concord A verb must agree with its subject in person and number. Singular subjects take singular verbs, and plural subjects take plural verbs. Inflected forms often agree in their values of number, person, or gender, as can be seen gender from the examples. I try. He tries. They try. I was. They were. I am. You are. He is.
Notional Concord (agreement in meaning) Usually grammatical agreement and notional agreement coincide. He laughs. We laugh. But in some sentences a subject takes a singular form but has a plural meaning. And situation can be reversed. Compare. Her family are all avid skiers. (notional) Everyone has gone to the movies. (grammatical)
Principle of Proximity (Agreement by Proximity) The noun that is adjacent to the verb can exert more influence than the noun that is the grammatical subject. No one except his own supporters agree with him. Either John or his brothers are bringing the dessert.
Formal number a cat, a teacher, friends…, etc. Notional number government, fifteen miles, forty-five dollars…, etc.
arthritis, diabetes, etc.
Arthritis is a disease causing pain and swelling in the joints of the body.
physics, linguistics, economics, politics, etc
Physics is an important subject in middle schools.
the United States, the United Nations, the Netherlands, etc.
The United States is a country of people with varied origins. The Himalayas have a magnificent variety of plant and animal life.
archives, arms, clothes, contents, fireworks, goods, minutes, morals, remains, stairs, suburbs, thanks, wages, etc.
The contents of this books are fascinating.
clippings, diggings, earnings, surroundings, sweepings, etc. The clippings of the hedge are usually burnt.
means, series, works, headquarters…etc A headquarters was set up to direct the operation. Their headquarters are in Paris. The only means to achieve success is to appeal to arms. All means have been tried out to increase agricultural production. A new species of mammal has been found. Altogether, about 450 species of flatfish are known.
Collective noun
collective nouns as plurals police, people, cattle, poultry, vermin collective nouns as non-counts equipment, furniture, merchandise, foliage, machinery collective nouns as both singulars and plurals audience, committee, class, family, public For example, A. That group of soldiers is a top-notch fighting unit. B. That group of soldiers have good performance.
Coordinate subject
and / both…and The fishing and the hunting there were good. Both Linda and her son have gone to Canada. Ham and eggs is a good breakfast. The hammer and sickle was flying from a tall flagpole. Good and bad taste are inculcated by example. What I say and think are no business of yours.
Every boy and every girl in this room is entitled to a copy. Many a man and woman in this community finds himself or herself in need.
or / nor / either…or/ not only…but also Principle of Proximity My sister or my brother is likely to be at home. Either my father or my brothers are coming. Neither the Kansas players nor the coach was overconfident. Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been changed.
subj. + as well as, rather than, etc. as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, in addition to, with, along with, together with, except, etc. His brother rather than his parents is to blame. My wife, more than anyone else in the family, is anxious to go there again. The manager with some workers was working during the holidays. The barn, in addition to the house, was burned.
Expressions of quantity
Definite quantity: three months, five kilos, six miles… Six months is too short a time, he warned. He thought that six-five dollars was not too much to ask. There were six dollars in each of the stockings.
Two thirds of the land has been reclaimed. Over sixty percent of the city was destroyed. Thirty-five percent of the doctors were women. Forty minus fifteen leaves twenty-five. Forty divided by eight is five. Seven and five makes/make twelve. Five times eight is / are forty. One in ten students has / have failed the exam. One out of twenty was / were badly damaged.
Indefinite quantity: all of…, some of…, none of…, half of…, most of…, lots of, plenty of, etc. Some of the money has been stolen. Some of the books were lost. All of the cargo was lost. All of the crew were saved. Half of the building was damaged. Half of the students are girls.
a portion of, a series of, a pile of, etc. A portion of the reports is missing. A series of accidents has been reported. a kind / sort / type of, etc. There is a kind of rose in the garden. That type of men is dangerous. These kind of men are dangerous. (informal) many a…, more than one… Many a man has done his duty. More than one game was lost.
Nominal clause
what, who, why, how, whether, etc. What caused the accident is a complete mystery. What caused the accident and who was responsible for it remain a mystery to us. What was real to him were the details of his life. What are often regarded as poisonous are sometimes safely edible.
Non-finite clause
To clime mountains requires courage. Playing tennis is a very good exercise. Reading Ibsen and solving a quadratic equation are entirely different assignments.
Relative clause
John is one of those people who go out. Selfishness is the one of her many faults which defeats itself. John is the only one of those people who goes out. He is one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths. (BrE)
Cleft sentence
It is I who am to blame. In the informal situation: It is me that is to blame. It is me that was injured in the accident.
Existential sentence
Notional subject There are three routes you can take. There is a note left on the desk. When the notional subject is a coordinate construction, principle of proximity works. There is more grace and less carelessness. There is a house and three trees in the picture.



   一.请你根据下面的提纲,以"我的家乡"为题,写一篇 100-字的短文。 提纲: (1) 家乡的地理位置; (2) 解放前的情况; (3) 解放后的变化; (4) 对家乡的感情。 满分作文: My Home Town My home town is a beautiful place. It stands beside a wide river and is ric h in fish and rice. But in the old days it was a poor ...


   带着译文的是 09 年 12 月新增的题目 1) Why I Like Learning English 为什么喜欢学英语 Why I like learning English? Firstly, English is very useful. English is the most widely used language in the world. If we make a visit to foreign countries or do business with foreigner ...


   大学英语四级语法精要 大学英语四级语法精要 Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等) 动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等) 1. 时态 1)现在完成进行时态 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始, 1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到 现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束. 现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束. I’ve been writing letters for an hour. ve I’ve bee ...


   一、意连 I.按时间先后排列 II. 按位置远近排列(spatial arrangement) 。 III. 按逻辑关系排列(logical arrangement) " 按重要性顺序排列 e.g. 限制使用塑料袋的意义 环境-反复使用-耐用 b. 按一般到特殊排列 e.g. 购买小轿车的原因 便利-快速-美观 b. 按一般到特殊排列 e.g. 购买小轿车的原因 便利-快速-美观 二、形连 " " example 转换词 指代词 列举: for example, for instance, ...


   Shandong Foreign Languages Vocational College 外语系 公萍 主要内容 一、课程教学大纲 二、教材与教学内容 三、教学方法与手段 四、学情及学习方法指导 五、课程资源 六、课程特色 一、课程教学大纲 课程性质与定位 课程目标 课程教学进度安排 课程重难点及解决办法 1.课程性质与定位 课程性质与定位 非外语系大 一学生公共 基础必修课。 基础必修课。 旨在对学生 进行全面的 口语技能训 练,培养学 生日常英语 交际能力。 交际能力。 2.课程目标 ...


   弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 大学英语六级语法精华 时间:2009-5-13 10:36:33 来源:可可英语 作者:alex 第 1 页:从句 第 2 页:时态 第 3 页:不定式 第 4 页:主谓一致 第 5 页:情态动词 第 6 页:倒装 第 7 页:虚拟语气 第 8 页:被动时态 第 9 页:介词 第 10 页:连词 (可可网开通英语六级频道) 从句分为定语从句、状语从句、名词性从句。其中定语从句又可以分为限制性定语从句及非 限制性定语从 ...


   完全选自题库,必背) 大学英语 B 级统考英语作文 63 篇(完全选自题库,必背) 1. 1. 了解对方毕业后的情况。 了解对方毕业后的情况。 2. 你的近况。 你的近况。 3. 邀请对方方便时来访。 邀请对方方便时来访。 2. 1. 告诉对方你最近将出去旅游。 告诉对方你最近将出去旅游。 2. 了解对方所在地的旅游点。 了解对方所在地的旅游点。 3. 请对方给予帮忙安排。 请对方给予帮忙安排。 3. 1.接到朋友的来信; 接到朋友的来信; 接到朋友的来信 2.你对旅游的安排计划及理由; 你 ...


   大学英语四级考试 百科名片 大学英语四级考试 英语四级,即 CET-4,College English Test Band 4 的缩写。是由国家教育部 高等教育司主持的全国性教学考试; 考试的主要对象是根据教育大纲修完大学英 语四级的大学本科生或研究生。大学英语四、六级标准化考试自 1986 年末开始 筹备,1987 年正式实施。目的是推动大学英语教学大纲的贯彻执行,对大学生 的英语能力进行客观、准确的测量,为提高我国大学英语课程的教学质量服务。 国家教育部委托“全国大学英语四、六级考试委员 ...


   关于大学英语四六级 ??学习部:陈宇 陈田 未来职业规划向导 第三期 一,考试介绍 二,考试条件 三,报名时间 四,报名方式 五,考试时间 六,准备考试 考试介绍 大学英语考试是教育部主管的一项全国性的英 语考试, 语考试,其目的是对大学生的实际英语能力进 行客观,准确的测量,为大学英语教学提供测 行客观,准确的测量, 评服务. 评服务.大学英语考试是一项大规模标准化考 试,在设计上必须满足教育测量理论对大规模 标准化考试的质量要求,是一个"标准关联的 标准化考试的质量要求,是 ...


   大学英语导学课 外国语学院?大学外语部 外国语学院 大学外语部 1、大学英语教学模式 大学英语教学模式 2、大学英语教学平台的使用 3、大学英语资源库简介 4、网络教学环境 网络教学环境 5、大学英语课程评估模式 6、大学英语期末口语考试形式 大学英语期末口语考试形式 7、大学英语的学时和学分 大学英语的学时和学分 8、选修课的介绍 选修课的介绍 9、教材、辅助学习资料、报刊杂志的介绍 教材、辅助学习资料、 教材 10、英语实践活动 英语实践活动 一、大学英语教学模式 基于计算机网络的: 基 ...



   在职硕士研究生课程班 (市 委党校教学点 ) 2010 年同等学力英语考试复习备考问答 Q1:同等学力英语考试复习从何时开始最好? 2010 年同等学力英语考试将在明年 5 月举行.根据我们以往辅导的经验,对于大部分 参考的学员来说,越早动手,效果越好,最后的成绩也越理想.因为日常的工作压力使得大 家英语学习的时间很少, 再加上很多学员英语已经丢掉多年, 所以英语的复习必须有足够的 时间作保证.英语有句谚语"The early bird catches the worm." ...


   英语达人告诉你, 英语达人告诉你,如何用美剧真正提升你的英语水平 2010-05-25 01:21:23 1. 不是所有的美剧都适合学英语 如果喜欢看如《24 小 时》这样的动作片, 那你基本会讲一口流利的"To""轰"" 啊"之类的开枪爆炸声英语.如果你喜欢看如《豪斯医生》这种专业性很强的片子,那 你基本会讲一些如 MRI,CT,Tumor 之类的连自己都不明白的江湖郎中英语.如果 看的是《越狱》,基本不用举手,别人就知道你是黑手 ...


   年初中毕业考试英语 英语试卷 北京市西城区 2010 年初中毕业考试英语试卷 初中毕业考试英语学科共 100 分。 口试部分满分 10 分,由学校在平时组织完成。 笔试部分考试时间为 60 分钟,满分 90 分钟,包括七道大题。 一、单项填空(共 16 分,每小题 1 分) 从下列各题所给的四个选项中选择可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. My parents brought a lovely dog for my birthday. A. I B. me C. my D. mine 2. B ...

英语必修五 unit 3测试题 答案

   Unit 3 Life in the future 听录音, Ⅰ. 听录音,根据所听内容选择正确答案 听第 1~5 段对话,分别完成第 1~5 题 1. What does the man mean? A. He doesn’t want to buy a printer now. B. He lost the money he was saving lately. C. He doesn’t have enough money to buy a printer now. 2. What d ...


   2010年10月英语口语演讲比赛策划书 为了鼓动同学们对英语的热爱,提高英语水平,让更多同学充分发挥自己英语方面的潜能,公卫学院计划举办我院第一届英语口语演讲比赛。具体安排如下: 一、时间:10月11号(星期一)晚7:00??8:30 二、地点:东配楼一教室(5104备用) 三、人员需要 评委(外语部老师或者新东方老师), 大众评委(由大一每班推选五人组成,预计25人), 主持人两名(一男一女,由同学自己先报名,然后选拔), 嘉宾(由学习委员通知,大一要求参加,大二大三大四鼓励参加) 四、宣传 ...