1.交际法教学的核心 口语是基本的语言表达形式。语言教学的中心任务就是培养学生通过听 读获得信息,通过说、写表情达意、交流信息。而交际法教学为实现这一任务提 供了可能。交际法教学的核心思想是培养学生的交际能力,即培养学生在实际生 活中运用英语的能力。这一核心思想在英语教学中具体体现为重视语言的使用, 如何恰当、得体地使用课堂用语,对学生交际能力的培养有着十分重要的作用。
  2. 课堂用语的使用 首先,教师在使用课堂用语时,应充分考虑到学生的生理、心理及英语 能力的特点,使用语言应简单易懂。要达到交际的目的,教师首先要将信息传递 给受话者, 而不在于语言是多么华丽。 语言知识的掌握较易, 而语言的活用则难。 启发诱导学生时,针对不同年龄的学生,我们应采用不同的课堂用语。其次,教 师在使用课堂用语时,应注意设置情景,使用副语言课堂用语,尽量避免使用汉 语。这些非语言课堂用语的使用,为教学提供了各种情景和真实的交际场面,有 利于创造英语环境,促使学生真接用英语进行思维,增加学生使用英语的机会。 第三,在不同场合,教师应选用不同的课堂用语。教师的课堂用语亲切幽默能使 学生精神放松、热情高昂,课堂气氛也随之融洽。在使用课堂用语时,教师应特 别注意口气要婉转,以创设轻松和谐的气氛,消除或减少学生的紧张情绪。在课 堂交流时,教师应避免对学生挖苦讽刺,尤其对那些腼腆内向型的学生,当学生 不会回答或答错了的时候, 教师应马上讲一些鼓励的话语或简单的方式再问同一 问题。老师使用恰当的课堂用语,可以摆脱一些尴尬冷场的局面,使学生重新找 回了自信,增强了学习的信心。
  3.英语教学课堂用语的误区 教师上课以英语作为与学生交流的主要语言工具,这就为学生营造了一 个学用结合的现实语言氛围,有利于锻炼和提高学生的语言交际能力。从这个意 义上说,英语教师的课堂用语会直接成为学生学习英语的典范。准确、流畅、符 合英语国家的文化习惯,这是对教师课堂用语的最基本要求。英语教师要使用正 确恰当的课堂用语,必须努力走出以下几个误区: 误区之一???贬义词的使用过于随意。 随意使用 foolish, stupid, stubborn, idiot 等贬义词容易刺伤学生的自尊心,使学生对教师产生抵触情绪,大 大降低了学生英语课堂学习的积极性和进取心。 误区之二???否定词的使用简单生硬。英语课堂教学的双边活动较多, 教师应有科学、准确的判断,但使用否定词时不宜过于简单生硬。 误区之三???概括词的使用以偏概全。有的教师发现学生经常迟到,就 说“You are always late.”;发现学生拼写错误多,就评论说“You are always careless.”这样的概 括用语过于肯定、以偏概全。 误区之四???夸大词的使用名不符实。在英语课堂上应尽可能少用夸 大词,教师用语应体现严谨、精当的要求。特别是一些夸大的否定往往会起到不 好的作用。 误区之五???命令词的使用事与愿违。课堂教学中教师的主导作用并 不等同于要扮演发号施令者,相反,命令口气词语的过多使用会带给学生一种教 师居高临下、粗暴专断、不可冒犯的感觉。 作为一名英语教师,如何才能走出这些误区呢? 首先,要树立师生平等互尊的观念。其次,英语教学课堂用语应遵循“以
表扬和鼓励为主”的原则,精心呵护学生的自尊与自信。第三,教师课堂用语要 字斟句酌,力求精确妥当。 中篇:课堂用语常见错误 / 易混淆的用法
  1.课前的热身练习应称为 warm-up,而不是 Warming-up ,例如 a warming-up of the weather.(天气变暖。)
  2.“今天的作业是什么?”地道的英文表达为:What are today’s assignments?
  3.Revise for the examination.(温书迎考。)注意这里的 revise 是不及物 动词。“复习当天的功课”可译为 “Review the day’s lessons.”
  4. drill in spelling 表示“拼写练习”, A 注意 drill 的使用。 再如: substitution drill(替词练习),sentence pattern drill (句型操练)。
  5.Out of question 毫无问题 Out of the question 不可能
  6.Take the chair 主持会议 take a chair 坐下 (Please sit down!只能用在命令淘气的小孩坐下)
  7.A hundred and one 许许多多 One hundred and one 一百零一
  8.She was with a child 她带着一个小孩。She was with child 他怀孕了。
  9.They are students of our school 他们是本校的部分学生。They are the students of our school 他们是本校的全体学生。
  10.I have lived here for more than a year 我在这里已一年多了。(一年又 几个月)I have lived here for more than one year 我在这里已不止一年了。 (可能是两年或 三年)
  11.Teacher 不能用于称呼。在中小学称呼老师一般用 Mr. ××/ Miss ××/Ms××等。称呼大学老师一般用 Professor××。
  12.在回答 “Would you like to watch a football match?”时, 应先作肯定回答, 然后委婉谢绝: love to, but I’m busy at the I’d moment.
  13.比较地道的问候与回答:Good morning, Miss Chen. How are you? // Very well, thank you, Mr. Lin, and how are you? // I’m very well, too, thank you.
  14.放学后,老师对学生说:Can I come to your house tomorrow? 注意用 come 而不用 go。
  15.老师表扬学生:Your English is very good. 学生的回答应该是:Thank you, I’m glad you think so.
  16. 在教师节时, 学生送给老师一束花。 老师说: Thank you. It’s beautiful. 学生的反应是:I’m glad you like it.

  17.The followings are some of the main ones to respond to thanks: (
  1)You’re welcome. (最常用的表达法) (
  2)Not at all. (英国英语) (
  3)Don’t mention it. (英国英语) (
  4)It’s a/my pleasure. (serve as response to “thank you”for a job well done.) (
  5)I’m glad to be of help. (serve as response to “thank you”for a job well done.) (
  6)That’s all right. (非正式场合使用) (
  7)That’s OK. (非正式场合使用)
  18.学生 A 不小心撞到学生 B,学生 A 说:I’m terribly sorry. 学生 B 的 回答应该是:That’s all right.
  19.学生 A 说:Well, what did you think of his writing.? 学生 B:Oh, I thought it is great. Didn’t you think so, Peter? 学生 C (Peter 认为他写得不好):Yes, in a way. But I’ve seen better.
  20.问:Excuse me, do you know how to answer this question, please? 答:Sorry, I’ve no ideas.
  21.问:Do you mind passing this book to me? 答:No, not at all.
  22.给人带路时应说:This way, please. 下篇:课堂教学用语举例 l. 上课 (Beginning a class) (
  1) Let's start now./Let's begin our class/lesson. (
  2) Stand up, please. (
  3) Sit down, please.)
  2. 问候 (Greeting) (
  4) Hello, boys and girls/children. (
  5) Good morning, class everyone /everybody /children/boys and girls. (
  6) Good afternoon, class /everyone /everybody /children /boys and girls. (
  7) How are you today?
  3. 考勤 (Checking attendance) (
  8) Who's on duty today?/Who's helping this morning/today? (
  9) Is everyone/everybody here/present? (
  10) Is anyone away?/Is anybody away? (
  11) Is anyone absent?/Is anybody absent? (
  12) Who's absent?/Who's away? (
  13) Where is he/she? (
  14) Try to be on time./Don't be late next time. (
  15) Go back to your seat, please. (
  16) What day is it today? (
  17) What's the date today?
(
  18) What's the weather like today? (
  19) What's it like outside?
  4. 宣布 (Announcing) (
  20) Let's start working./Let's begin/start a new lesson./Let's begin/start our lesson. (
  21) First, let's review/do some review. (
  22) What did we learn in the last lesson? (
  23) Who can tell/remember what we did in the last lesson/yesterday? (
  24) Now we're going to do something new/ different./Now let's learn something new. (
  25) We have some new words/sentences.
  5. 提起注意 (Directing attention) (
  26) Ready?/Are you ready? (
  27) Did you get there?/Do you understand? (
  28) Is that dear? (
  29) Any volunteers? (
  30) Do you know what to do? (
  31) Be quiet, please./Quiet, please. (
  32) Listen, please. (
  33) Listen carefully, please. (
  34) Listen to the tape recorder/the recording. (
  35) Look carefully, please. (
  36) Look over here. (
  37) Watch carefully. (
  38) Are your watching? (
  39) Please look at the blackboard/picture/map... (
  40) Pay attention to your spelling/pronunciation.
  6. 课堂活动 (Classroom activities) (
  41) Start!/Start now. (
  42) Everybody together./All together. (
  43) Practice in a group./Practice in groups./In groups, please. (
  44) Get into groups of three/four. (
  45) Everybody find a partner/friend. (
  46) In pairs, please. (
  47) One at a time./Let's do it one by one. (
  48) Now you, please./Your turn (Student's name). (
  49) Next, please. Now you do the same, please. (
  50) Let's act./Let's act out/do the dialogue. (
  51) Who wants to be A? (
  52) Practice the dialogue, please. (
  53) Now Tom will be A, and the other half will be B. (
  54) Please take (play) the part of ... (
  55) Whose turn is it? (
  56) It's your turn.
(
  57) Wait your turn, please. (
  58) Stand in line./Line up. (
  59) One by one./One at a time, please. (
  60) In twos./In pairs. (
  61) Don't speak out. (
  62) Turn around.
  7. 请求 (Request) (
  63) Could you please try it again? (
  64) Could you please try the next one? (
  65) Will you please help me?
  8. 鼓励 (Encouraging) (
  66) Can you try? (
  67) Try, please. (
  68) Try your best./Do your best. (
  69) Think it over and try again.好好想想,仔细考虑一下 好好想想, 好好想想 (
  70) Don't be afraid/shy.
  9. 指令 (Issuing a command) (
  71) Say/Read after me, please. (
  72) Follow me, please. (
  73) Do what I do. (
  74) Repeat, please./Repeat after me. (
  75) Once more, please./One more time, please. (
  76) Come here, please. (
  77) Please come to the front.到台上来/Come up and write on the blackboard/chalkboard. (
  78) Come and write it on the blackboard. (
  79) Please go back to your seat. (
  80) In English, please. (
  81) Put your hand up, please. Raise your hand, please. (
  82) Put your hands down, please./Hands down, please. (
  83) Say it/Write it in Chinese/English. (
  84) Please take out your books.请拿出你的书 (
  85) Please open your books at page ... ?打开课本第几页/Find page .../Turn to page ... (
  86) Please answer the question/questions./Please answer my question (s). (
  87) Please read this letter/word/sentence out loud./Please read out 读出 this letter/word/sentence. (
  88) Please stop now./Stop now, please./Stop here, please. (
  89) Clean up your desk/the classroom, please. (
  90) It's clean-up time./Tidy up your desk/the classroom. (
  91) Put your things away./Clean off your desk./Pick up the scraps. (
  92) Clean the blackboard.
(
  93) Plug in the tape-recorder, please. (
  94) Put the tape-recorder away. (
  95) Put the tape 磁带 in its box/cassette. (
  96) Listen and repeat. (
  97) Look and listen. (
  98) Repeat after me. (
  99) Follow the words. (1
  00) Fast./Quickly!/Be quick, please. (1
  01) Hurry!/Hurry up, please. (1
  02) Slow down, please. (1
  03) Slowly. (1
  04) Bring me some chalk, please.
  10. 禁止和警告 (Prohibition and warning) (1
  05) Stop talking./Stop talking now, please. (1
  06) Don't talk./Everybody quiet, please. (1
  07) Don't be silly. (1
  08) Settle down. 1l. 评价 (1
  09) Good, thank you. (1
  10)Good!/Very good./Good job./Good work./Good example. (1
  11) A good answer./Nice work. (1
  12) Excellent./Great!/Well done./Very good./I like the way you ... (1
  13) That's interesting! (1
  14) Don't worry about it./No problem. (1
  15) OK!/That's OK. (1
  16) I don't think so. (1
  17) That's not quite right, any other answers?/That's close./That's almost right. (1
  18) Not quite, can anyone help him/her?/Try again. (1
  19) A good try.
  12. 布置作业 (Setting homework) (1
  20) For today's homework . . . (1
  21) Practice after class./Practice at home. (1
  22) Say it out loud, before you write it down. (1
  23) Copy/Print/Write each word twice. (1
  24) Remember/Memorize these words/sentences. (1
  25) Learn these words/these sentences/this text by heart. (1
  26) Do your homework./Do the next lesson./Do the new work.
  13. 下课 (Dismissing the class) (1
  27) Hand in your workbooks, please. (1
  28) Time is up. (1
  29) The bell is ringing. (1
  30) There's the bell. (1
  31) There goes the bell.
(1
  32) Let's stop here. (1
  33) That's all for today. (1
  34) Class is over. (1
  35) Goodbye./Bye./See you next time.
  •  
 

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