哈尔滨师范大学




题 学
目 生
中学英语教学中词汇常见问题及研究 张喜玲 讲师) 常宏 (讲师) 2008 级 2008 英语教育 英语教育系 英语教育系 教育 西语学院
指导教师 年 专 系 学 级 业 别 院
哈尔滨师范大学
2011 年 4 月
TERM PAPER
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT HARBIN NORMAL UNIERSITY
TITLE: The Research of Common Problems in Vocabulary Teaching of Middle School STUDENT: Zhang Xiling TUTOR: CHANG Hong (Lecturer) ) GRADE: Grade 2008 MAJOR: English Education DEPARTMENT: English Department COLLEGE: Faculty of Western Languages and Literatures
April, 2011 HARBIN NORMAL UNIVERSITY
The Research of Common Problems in Vocabulary Learning of Middle School
Zhang Xiling Abstract: Vocabulary is the basic element of language. To enlarge students’ vocabulary is the premise to improve their ability of listening, speaking, reading and writing .So vocabulary teaching plays an important role in the process of the middle school English teaching .Nowadays, when many junior high school students learn English vocabulary, they lack in effective strategies, and there are the great differences between Chinese and English in many aspects, which gives students a lot of difficulties to learn vocabulary. As teachers should pay high attention to this question, and this paper following the English vocabulary teaching principle, by analyzing some existing problems in the junior middle school English vocabulary teaching and undergoing validity strategy of research and practice in vocabulary teaching, enables the student to master the scientific and effective learning strategies, to form good learning skills, to improve the comprehensive ability of the language and to lay the good foundation for life-long learning .
Key words: English teaching in middle schools; vocabulary; common problems Introduction Language includes three basic units which are sound, word and grammar .Word is an indispensable part of language learning. It is essential to communication. The famous American linguists Wilkins (19
  72)once said that “without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” Little children learn to speak in isolated words and then in chain gradually master more accurate structural framework in which to use these words. And they must continually be learning words as they learn structures and as they practice the sound system. Vocabulary teaching and learning is an important task for both teachers and students, and beneficial for the students in the long run, the teacher will arouse the students’ interest on English and help them to develop a solid foundation of language acquisition ability. If teachers do not to do so, it might result in the students’ discourage toward them and might cause them to disgust English. Therefore teachers should pay more attention to the vocabulary teaching and learning.
I. The Problems of vocabulary teaching
  1. There is a gap between teaching requirement and the basic of students
  1.1 The text syllabus, the curriculum as well as the teaching syllabus have set clear and high requirements of how many words a student should master, and master them to what degree. The new curriculum standards of primary school students contact vocabulary topic range is given priority to total amount control in 600 ~ 700 words, these words are not all requirements of "sihui" (including reading, speaking, listening and writing). But junior English key vocabulary emphases on words in a scene of conversational direct sentences applying, in using consolidate pronunciation, intonation and rhythm and other projects. Pupils to after high school, the number of "sihui" word memory requirements for the student chaos to the pronunciation of the phenomenon, appear even Chinese note spelling, and this leads to elementary and junior high school disjointed phenomenon. According to the new course standard request, in the third year, junior high school graduates in the language knowledge and skills reserve requirements to achieve the new standard of the grade 5 levels, but due to various reasons, most the junior middle school graduates of knowledge accumulation truly reach category five level, even many graduates only three or four levels. The high school English teaching in the teaching material, teaching requirements, teaching methods, thinking level and learning methods have undergone mutations. From the point of high school students' knowledge reserved situation, the student's language reserved and new course standard requirements exist certain disparity; and implementing the teaching content has the certain difficulty. These large spans of changes make high school students temporarily difficult to adapt to, especially in vocabulary. There are words not belonging to "sihui" vocabulary in middle school, but those have been listed as old words in high school, according to the majority of students, even some kids feel difficult.
  1.2 Large teaching vocabulary focuses too much on vocabulary presentation. The curriculum reform practice tells us: The abrupt increase vocabulary of the teaching material used is the bottleneck effect. This is mainly that junior middle school curriculum’s pace of reform was inferior to the high school. In 2005 Beijing Normal University publishes the teaching material. Although it only reduces the text glossary vocabulary, the text content basic has not changed, and it has obliterated the individual word merely, revised the individual practice. From the point of glossary study, it will be more difficult to study the text for students. In the fresh target of teaching material, letter and pronunciation only account for the very short length, and then very quickly changes over to the novel spoken language training. However, the word is composed of the letter, and the essential factor of a sentence. As for the neglects of the foundation English teaching, which is similar to the castle in the air, students lose the tool of further studying English. With more and more new words are introduced, students feel afraid. These new worlds are too much and keeping with the times. They can not deal with them and be reluctant to learn them. In the fresh target of eight grade final volume's first unit, the new word introduced that reaches more than 70 unexpectedly. Most students shrink back at the sight, and give
way before difficulties.
  1.3 English teaching materials does not adapt to teaching content. New teaching materials of vocabulary, reading, and communication patterns are more difficult than old textbooks. In the Middle school, the type of "compressed biscuit" layout increase of students learning difficulties. And with the transition in designing teaching material lacking the necessary gradient, students access to a lot of vocabularies from the starting, and most of words are too long. Many English phrases, complex English tenses and a lot of daily expressions are intensive. The arrangement of contents jumps too fast and involves too wide knowledge. We can not imagine that middle school students, who are in immature mental development level and bad in foundation, learn transition textbooks in two months, and achieve the teaching goal of "sihui". Moreover, the current edition of the teaching material pays more attention to practicability and interestingness, but parts of which are a far cry from the middle school students’ life experience and cultural background. That fails to make students accept words quickly. Many high school students on the Internet, reading English newspapers and listening, watching English programs also have different degree of difficulty, they have limit to get outside information which is not conducive to help them understand the content of the material in deep. As a result, from the beginning most students sense that learning English is very arduous, and lose interest in learning in only a few weeks, appearing "differentiation" phenomenon.
  2. Teachers' vocabulary teaching idea obsolete and teaching method is inflexible.
  2.
  1. Knowing a word is just like knowing a friend. Memorizing a word's forms and meanings is like knowing a friend's appearance and name. But it is just a superficial part of the word and can not give learners a deep impression of this "friend", since a word carries much more information, includes collocations, connotations, and grammatical features and so on. But many students seem to pay no attention to them. They have a strong wish for "instant success" of passing the exams, and they think "Learning words is memorizing words". China is known as an "examination country", so most of the students in China are urged by parents to study hard and pass the exams in order to get a good job in the future. Education ideology is the forerunner of education teaching behavior. Education idea does not adapt so that education does not adapt .The new round curriculum reform is not restricted to change a set of textbooks, but to renew ideas of education. Although the new curriculum reform has been for several years, few teachers can grasp the new curriculum concept comprehensively and accurately. The new curriculum reform asks for much high level to the teachers. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of English teaching, we should focus on the reformation of the old teaching system; junior middle school English teachers should try to convert their roles for the needs of the students. We teachers should consider students’ development of whole aspects and learning of whole life. Generally speaking, some teachers hold the old view and idea to the English teaching. In the teaching process, some teachers, according to the new standard of lexical requirement, lack of flexibility and handle all vocabularies in the teaching materials.
There are no interesting teaching activities, and vocabulary memory is not effective learning method instruction. The whole vocabulary learning process can only rely on students’ own personal understanding and mechanical repetition. Such teaching ignore students' learning and memory characteristic, and the flexible language skills training of the student .Students will can not cultivate the autonomous learning ability. At the same time, with influenced by various level irregular test and reference materials, some teachers gave up new course standard requirements in their minds, in order to pursue test scores of the students. That virtually increases on student learning vocabulary threshold and aggravate the students' burden, As a result, they can not find much pleasure in English learning and become lazier in study. At present, English curriculum syllabus of ordinary junior middle school points out that English study of junior middle schools should be based on stimulating and cultivating students’ interest in learning English. So it is very important and necessary to try to make vocabulary teaching interesting and affective for the students。However, the common vocabulary teaching model is: firstly, teachers write the new words they want to teach on the blackboard or ask the students to memories the words mechanically. These methods may save time and get the anticipate effect quickly. But this strategy is a single vocabulary teaching method and lack of context. It will often neglect the study of the relationship in English vocabulary system. The relationship between words is as important as the meaning of the word in isolation. So it often causes the phenomenon that students learn vocabulary quickly and then also forget it quickly. It will also cause students’ slowness in comprehension and inappropriateness in exploiting the English words. Being taught in these ways without a change, students might have difficult in working out meanings of some words indifferent contexts. Of course, this method will fail to arouse students’ interest in learning English and develop the students’ ability in language application.
  2.2 Traditional English teaching methods lead to “dumb English. The phenomenon of dumb English has appeared for tens of years. People feel sorry to find there are so many students are good at finishing off a difficult test paper but fail to open their mouths to communicate with the others. They are the production of traditional teaching methods and exam-oriented teaching. In the long history of China, people preferred reciting. They believed that more reciting could make one master some knowledge easily. So many teachers ask their students to reciting all the knowledge they teach in class. They believe that if the students can remember all the knowledge points, they will master English easily. It’s true that many students who can recite all the knowledge points to get higher marks. However, students are only the passive container of teachers’ teaching; they just go after their teachers. They are the same model of the same teaching method. Many students only listen to the teachers in class. Teachers are busy giving the grammar explanation, text explanation, etc. They don not have the time to let their students practice speaking in class. Teachers are center of the class in their opinions. At last, students get used to the teaching method. They only close their mouths in class, and just listen and take notes. As a result of that, many students dare not to open their mouths in public. They do not have the opportunity to practice in class, so
they do
 

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