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专题六 英语短文改错专题
【命题趋向】
短文改错是一项主要测试考生的判断能力, 观察能力、 纠错能力语言基础知识及语言的综 合运用能力。 短文改错的趋势:
  1.改错短文以记叙文和说明文为主 。
  2.文章内容贴近学生生活,没有生僻词汇和复杂的结构,文章简单易懂,错误设置也很简 单,多为学生平常作文中常出现的错误。
  3.短文一般 100 词左右,错误有 9 处。
  4.常见错有三种:错词、多词、 缺词。错词占 60%左右
【错误类型】

  1. 错词
  2. 多词
  3. 缺词
  4. 正错 错词 2007 年全国卷 I 2007 年 全 国 卷 II 7 7 多词 1 1 缺词 1 1 正错 1 1
【考点透视】
一.错词的热点
  1. 动词?时态 语态 非谓语 ;主谓关系。
  2. 联系词?关系代词和关系副词;连词;连接词。
  3. 名词?可数名词 、不可数名词,可数名字的单复数变化。
  4. 介词?介词和动词的搭配错误。
  5. 形容词/副词?词类错用。
  6. 冠词?定冠词和不定冠词的错用。
  7. 代词?人称代词;物主代词;反身代词。
  8. 惯用法?固定句型,固定短语。 二.多词和缺词热点
  1. 冠词
  2.介词
  3.副词
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  4.代词
  5.关联词
  6.小品词 to
【短文改错主要特点】

  1. 语言材料取自于学生的习作。
  2. 短文为贴近学生生活的话题或学生身边事。
  3. 短文难度符合学生水平。
  4. 语言简单易懂。
  5. 没有生僻的语言现象或繁难的语句结构。
【例题解析】
一.错词
  1.动词错误: (
  1) 时态和语态、主谓一致的错误。 【
  1】整体时态: *Then I ask him “Grandma ,how come you have so much lines on your hand” 全文为故事,故 ask 改为 asked。 *High over the water ,they discover a hole in the balloon .The hole became bigger and bigger. 全篇使用过去时态,故改 discover- -discovered 【
  2】主谓一致 *Having fun with their friends make them happy . 动名词短语做主语,谓语动词用单数形式 makes。 *But the most wonderful thing about jack were his musical ability。 主语为 the most wonderful thing 故此,系词为 was *But not all information are good to society . 主语不可数,所以动词用 is。 (
  2.)动词错误: *In American big cities ,thousands sell tickets to watch football or basketball games .(buy) 根据句子意思,数千人买票去看比赛。故 sell 改为 buy。 (
  3)非谓语动词 【
  1】动名词错误 *I am looking forward to see all of you again in the near future.(seeing) 解析:to 为介词,故此 see 改为 seeing * Not only play football makes us grow up tall and strong but also gives us a sense of fair play and
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team spirit . 解析:主语应为动名词,故 play football 改为 playing football 【
  2】现在分词 *The air keeps the balloon up was escaping quickly and the balloon was coming down . 解析:分词做定语,故 keeps 改为 keeping *I found a small house standing in a field with a light shone from the sitting room. 解析:with a light shone 改为 with a light shining。a light 和 shining 为主动关系。 【
  3】不定式 *I just want to thank you for helping me becoming a different person.(become) 解析:help sb do sth 故改 becoming 为 become *He did not want share things with others . 解析:want to share sth . want 后可跟不定式做宾语。 【
  4】过去分词 *I have some records giving to me as birthday gifts . 解析:have sth done , some records 和 give 是被动关系,故改为 given。
  2.连词错误: *I came into the living room and saw one of them just go through the kitchen door but turn on the light . 解析:根据句意, “我看到他们中的一个人走进厨房,并且打开灯。 ”两个分句子之间是并列 关系。故改 but 为 and *We would return at night to hear that he`d picked up from the radio in the day . 解析:考查宾语从句,pick up 缺宾语,故改 that 为 what *The classes helped me understand what the world works 解析:根据句子意思, “这些课程有助于我了解世界是怎么运转的”故改 what 为 how。 *He was silent for a moment. So he answered slowly: “Each of these lines stands for a trouble” 解析:根据句子意思,So 改为 Then/And
  3.形容词/副词错用: *You always gave me specially attention . 解析:名词应该被形容词 special 修饰。 *It is real a good chance to have met all of you here . 解析:副词 really 修饰系词,故改 real 为 really。 *My hometown has taken on a new look .How great it has changed ! 解析:great 修饰动词,故改为:greatly
  4.冠词错误:
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*This is my first visit to a American family .(an) 解析:American 第一个音标的音素是元音,故用 an . *Each player must obey captain ,who is the leader of the team . 解析:有定语修饰,the 特指 captain . *Suddenly ,I caught a sight of my English teacher in the crowd . 解析:固定搭配 catch sight of .故此去掉冠词 a。
  5.代词错误: 【
  1】反身代词 *I just smiled to me and thought ,… 解析:主语和宾语相同,故此 me?myself 。 【
  2】形容词性物主代词 *Besides ,the foreign teachers here work hard and try his best to make the activities lively and interesting .(his --their) 解析:主语是第三人称复数,因此 try one`s best 【
  3】it/that/them /us *I thought that was dull to watch a game in which players kicked a ball to each other . 解析:that 不可以做形式主语,故改为 it。 *It was about noon when we arrived at the foot of the mountain .The three of them were very excited .前后人称错误。故此改 them 为 us .
  6.名词单复数和名词的所有格的错误 *She marked strictly on student`s performance .(students`) 解析:根据句意,学生们的表演,故改为 students` performance *Physics is one of the most difficult subject for us (subjects ) 解析:one of 说明后面为复数形式。 *We practice three times every week and often watch football match on TV together . 解析:常常看比赛,故此 match 改为 matches. * I have no papers to write on . 解析:纸不可数,所以改为 paper
  7.介词错误 *He left Shanghai at a cold night. 解析:一天的部分被修饰时,介词用 on, *I am a new comer of a small town. 解析:根据句子意思,来自一个小镇 come from a small town . * I was caught by the rain last night
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解析:固定短语 be caught in the rain 遇上雨。
  8.语意错误 *Thousands sell tickets to watch football or basketball games . 解析:句子意思:数千人卖掉票去看足球或者篮球比赛。故此错误,sell?buy *Not all people like to work and everyone like to play . 解析:句子意思:并非所有的人都喜欢工作,并且所有的人喜欢玩。语意错误,应该为转折 关系,and?but 二.多余词 多词一般为:冠词/连词/介词/系词 be 助词等。 【
  1】连词多余: *They did not want breakfast because that they were going out early in the morning . 解析:连词多余,故此去掉 (that),原句是状语从句。 【
  2】介词多余: *The crowd waiting for to greet them in England was very surprised .(for) 解析:没有宾语,所以去掉 for。 【
  3】冠词多余: *Suddenly I caught a sight of my English teacher in the crowd. 解析:固定短语,catch sight of :偶然看见。 【
  4】系词/助词多余: *My mother was asked : “Have you taken medicine ?” 解析:根据句意,是妈妈问:故为主动语态。
三:缺词
缺词一般为:冠词/连词/介词/系词 be 助词/ 【
  1】缺介词 *He was looking for a glass ^the cupboard (in) 解析:根据句意,in the cupboard 做状语。 【
  2】缺冠词 *However ,the popular teacher is at^ same time the one who should be strict with students .(the) 解析:形容词 same 和 the 搭配使用,故给 same 前加 the。 【
  3】缺连接词 *In one class ,I learned^ it rained (why) 解析:根据句子意思可知,缺连接词,句意为: “在一节课上,我知道了下雨的原因” 。
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  4】缺系词 *What ^your favorite sport ? (is) 解析:句子中缺系词,在 What 加 is .
专题训练与高考预测
此题要求改正所给短文中的错误对标有题号的每一行做出判断, 如无错误, 在刻行右边横线 上画一个勾(√);如有错误(每行只有一个错误),则按下列情况改正;该行多一个词:把 多余的词用斜线()划掉,在该行在边横线上写出该词,并也用斜线划掉。 该行缺一词:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),在该行右边横线上写出该加的词。 该行错一个词:在错的词下面划一横线,在该行右边横线上写出改正后的词 注意:原行没能错的不要改 Passage 1 Miss China Guan Qi, a 21-years-old college student from Jilin Province, had won the Miss China 2003 beauty pageant in Sanya, Hainan Province, on September
  21. Besides judged on their looks, the 32 competitors were tested on their write ability, English skills, team-work and generally knowledge. Miss Guan Qi impressed the judges who present with her excellent replies during the question or answer section. She will represent(代表) Chinese in the final of Miss World to be holding in Sanya on December
  6. Passage 2 Today I showed some foreign friend around our city. We started off in car from the Friendship Hotel at 8:00 a. m. We first got to Jinshan Park. We are all struck by its beautiful flowers on show. Then, we visited the City Museum. We saw plenty of valuable things, from that we learned a lot
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about the city. After that, they drove to Jinshan Temple. That is a beautiful place of interest in our city, but there we enjoyed seafood Restaurant and we returned back at noon..All the foreign friends were pleased with my arrangement. We did have the wonderful time today. Passage 3 Dear Mr. Brown , I am writing to thank you with your kind help . 1 Before you came to teach us ,I had not interest in 2 English .My pronunciation was terribly .I could 3 only speak a few words .But one and a half year later , 4 I now think English fun to learn .I got a lot from your encouraging words.I will always remember what you had pleasant journey home and will come to china and send you the photos we take together 10 passage 4 There are advantage for students to work while 1 Studying at school .One of them was that they can earn money .For the most part , students working to earn money for their own use .Earning their own money allow them to spend on anything as if they please . they would have to ask their parents for money or for permission to do things by up for our college or future use . passage 5 Dear Mr. Brown , I am writing to thank you with your kind help . 1 Before you came to teach us ,I had not interest in 2 English .My pronunciation was terribly .I could 3 only speak a few words .But one and a half year later , 4 I now think English fun to learn .I got a lot from your 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 5
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the wonderfully scenery of the sea. We had a delicious lunch at the
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said ,“If you try to ,you can be No 1 !”I hope you`ve 7 again sometimes in the future .I will write again 9
the money .Some students may also to save 9
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encouraging words.I will always remember what you
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said ,“If you try to ,you can be No 1 !”I hope you`ve had pleasant journey home and will come to china again sometimes in the future .I will write again 9 and send you the photos we take together 10 passage 6 Dear Anish, Here are the information about Manchester University
  1. It is about 200 miles far away from London and it 2 has a very big schoolyard .You can live in the school 3 or near the school .They have all sorts of course .4 I`m sure you will find one you like it .I know you 5 are particular interested in human rights .So I will 6 see that there is anything on their website 7 I will send my friend Charlie meet you at the airport 8 when you arrived .You met him a few years ago ,but he 9 has changed a lot since then .Both your aunt or I look 10 forward to seeing you again . passage 7 Dear Ralph, I’m a senior student. I have be in love with a boy for three years. But he is a shy boy, so I wrote him a letter firstly to express my feeling. And he wrote back. In his letter he said, “We are students. Our task is study. Let us wait to see until we have any chance after graduation.” So after graduation I called to him, asking him about go out . But he said he didn’t want to. He just wanted to sleep and watched TV. What do you think I should do? Do you think I should continue to love him and give up? Sheila Passage 8 My hometown is a pretty city ,
 

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