总分 100 分, 时间 120min
一, 写出下列化合物的英文名称. (30 分)

  1. P2O5
  2. Al2O3
  3. KMnO4
  4. NaHCO3
  5. Cu2(OH)2CO3
  7. [Ag(NH
  3)2CH OH

  6. KAl(SO

  8. K4[Fe(CN)6]

  9. CS2





  16. ClCH2CH2OCH3


  18. CH3CH C C
H H2


  20. PhCONH
二, 按照下列英文名称写出相应的结构式. (15 分)

  1. Lead dioxide
  2. Hydrochloric acid
  3. Barium hydroxide
  4. Calcium hypochlorite

  5. 2-Methyl-1-penten-3-yne

  6. 4-Methoxy-2-hexyne

  7. 3, 4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde

  8. Trans-3-aminocyclohexanol

  9. Trans-1, 3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid

  10. N, N-dimethylcyclopropane carboxamide
三, 英译汉. (40 分) 1, An atom consists of a very small positively charged nucleus, surrounded by negative electrons held by electrostatic attraction. The motion of electrons changes when chemical bonds are formed, nuclei being unaltered.
2, Electronegativity is the power of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical bond. Different numerical estimates agree on qualitative trends: electronegativity increases from left to right along a periodic table. Elements of low electronegativity are called electropositive. Electropositive elements form metallic solids. Electronegative elements form molecules or polymeric solid with covalent bonds.
3, Molecular orbitals are wavefunctions for electrons in molecules, often formed by the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation. Overlappling atomic arbitals can give bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. Electrons in bonding molecular orbitals have an increased probability of being in the region between the nuclei.
4, Aromatic rings are made up of six sp2 hybridized carbons. Each carbon forms three σ bonds which results in a planar ring. The remaining 2p orbital on each carbon is perpendicular to the plane and can overlap with a neighboring 2p orbital on either side. This means that a molecular orbital is formed round the whole ring such that the six π electrons are delocalized around the ring. This results in increased stability such that aromatic rings
are less reactive than alkenes.
5, Optical isomers are configurational isomers which have the ability to rotate plane-polarized light clockwise or counterclockwise. They have identical chemical and physical properties (apart from their effects on plane-polarized light), but can have different biological properties.
6, Nucleophilic substitutions are reactions which involve the substitution of one nucleophile for another nucleophile. Alkyl halides, carboxylic acid, and carboxylic acid derivatives undergo nucleophilic substitution, but the mechanisms for alkyl halides are quite different from those of carboxylic acid and carboxylic acid derivatives.
7, The energy of an isolated system is constant. An alternative equivalent expression is that energy may be neither created nor destroyed, although the energy within a system may change its form. It is a result of the first law that energy in an open system may be exchanged with the surroundings as either work or heat but may not be lost or gained in any other manner.
8, The number of each type of amino acid in a protein can be determined by acid hydrolysis and separation of the individual amino acids by ion exchange chromatography. The amino acids are detected by colarimetric reaction with, for example ninhydrin.
四, 中译英. (15 分) 1, 生锈的化学过程并不十分清楚, 但已确认铁锈是氧和湿气作用生成的水合氧化铁, 并且, 由于微量的二氧化碳的存在生锈的速度将显著加快.
2, 饱和烃尽管可以发生象卤代这样的化学反应, 但是总的化学反应活性相对较低, 相 比之下,不饱和烃易发生加成反应, 芳香族化合物则往往容易发生取代反应.
3, 气体溶质的分压与其在溶液中的溶解度之间的关系可用亨利定律来描述, 即气体 溶质的分压与其在溶液中的溶解度成正比.
4, 色谱法能将不同的组分分离是基于被分离物质的溶液中各组分与色谱中固定相和 流动相之间的亲合力存在差异.

  5. 对于液体有机物的分离和提纯来说, 应用最为广泛的方法是蒸馏, 其中包括常压蒸 馏, 减压蒸馏, 水蒸汽蒸馏和分馏.



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