Towards More
EFFECTIVE ELT in Junior High School
追求更有效的初中英语教学
浙江大学教育学院 褚献华
OUTLINE
讲座提纲

  1. Key Steps in Junior High ELT
初中英语教学中的关键环节

  2. Designing Effective English Lessons
设计有效的英语课堂教学

  3. Improving Practice in Junior High ELT
改进初中英语的教学方法
2010-5-25
Designing Effective ELT
2
ELT: ELT: English Language Teaching
GOALS教学目的 教学目的 Teacher as facilitator 教师是促进者
Language knowledge Language skills Affective attitude Learning strategies Cultural awareness
Learning Process 学习过程 Learner
Instructional objectives 教学目标
Teaching as providing supportive conditions
教学是为学习提供支持条件
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The process of language learning
Exposure 感受语言 Comprehension 理解 Imitation 模仿 Active use 活用
Internalization 内化
Externalization 外化
Language input 语言输入
Language output 语言输出
U nderstand
2010-5-25 Designing Effective ELT
U se
4
Learning by Doing
All learning stems from experience. Language knowledge and skills are acquired and developed through participation in communicative activities.

I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand; I teach and I master.
2010-5-25 Designing Effective ELT
之 不 若 之 . 行
见 之 不 若 之 , 知
闻 之 不 若 之 , 见
不 闻 不 若 之 , 闻
5
Teacher as facilitator
教师作为促进者
understand and To enable students to use the language by keeping students highly motivated in learning 学习动机 actively engaged in learning 积极参与 and providing them with supportive environment for learning 支持环境 explicit modeling and teaching 准确示范 feedback and reinforcement 反馈强化
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What problems we are faced with?
Most low-achievers cannot lowread the texts confidently Follow the teaching pace do their assignment independently use the language for communication achieve satisfying learning outcomes Teachers find it hard to manage a large class (over 40 children) engage all children in learning activities teach the contents in the limited time give low-achievers extra support low2010-5-25 7 Designing Effective ELT
Why some students fail? fail?
Unsatisfied Learning Outcomes
Interest & Confidence Vanished Instructional Goals Unachieved Some students left behind in English
Insufficient input Exposure 感受 Incomprehensible input Comprehension 理解 Insufficient practice
Imitation 模仿
Active use 活用
Learner off-task off2010-5-25 8 Designing Effective ELT
What root causes?
Incomprehensible input Not enough input Too many students Learner off-task Not enough practice
Ineffective teaching
Designing Effective ELT 9
2010-5-25
How to solve the problems?
Design effective lessons Improving teaching practice
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Designing Effective ELT
10
How to design effective ELT lessons?
Learning Process & Phases of a Lesson
学习过程和课堂教学环节
Attention 产生注意 和兴趣 Activation 激活原 有知识 Reception 接受新 授知识 Encoding 认知加工 编码) (编码) Performance 应用知识 表现) (表现)
热身
Warming-up
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复习
Revision
呈现
Presentation
Designing Effective ELT
操练
Practice
评价
Assessment
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Two Tasks in Designing Effective Lessons 设计有效教学的两个任务 Identify instructional objectives 确定教学目标 Design learning activities 设计学习活动
Instructional Objectives
Learning Activity
Learning Activity
Learning Activity
Learning Activity
Learning Activity
Learning Activity
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Law of Readiness 准备律
Students learn best when they are ready to learn. They usually make more progress if they have
a strong purpose (motivation) a clear objective a sound reason for learning activated prior learning
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Law of Exercise 练习律
Practice makes permanent. Things most often repeated are best remembered. opportunities for students to practice Active Practice is Best.
Recall Review Restatement Oral & written drill RoleRole-play
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Law of Effect 效果律
Learning is strengthened when joined with a pleasing or satisfying feeling. Success begets further success.
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Law of Primacy首因律 Primacy首因律
What is learned first is learned best. What we teach the first time must be correct. The first experience of a student should be positive.
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Law of Intensity强因律 Intensity强因律 A sharp, clear, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring one. Mockups, videotapes, interactive courseware, slides, charts, and any number of other teaching aids add sharpness and action to classroom instruction.
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Law of Recency 近因律
Things most recently learned are best remembered. remembered. Teacher should repeat, restate, or reemphasize the learning objectives and the important information the students need to remember.
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Designing Effective ELT
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Insight from the laws of learning
Make sure students are ready for the lesson. Prepare activities that students will enjoy. Teach students the most efficient, most effective methods first. Make the lesson exciting. Have students engaged in various practice. Build new learning on recently learned contents.
Engage and challenge the students.
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Principles of designing effective ELT 英语有效教学设计的原则
Specified and practicable objectives 明确具体, 明确具体,切实可行的教学目标 Relevant and collective preparation 内容相关, 内容相关,集体参与的准备活动 TextbookTextbook-based and accurate presentation 教材为本, 教材为本,准确简明的新知呈现 Adequate and sequential practice 有效充分, 有效充分,循序渐进的操练巩固 ObjectiveObjective-based and encouraging assessment 依据目标, 依据目标,激励为主的教学评价
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Specified and Practical Objectives 明确具体, 明确具体,切实可行的教学目标
Instructional objectives are the descriptions of the students' expected abilities abilities教学目标应该是 对学生通过教学活动预计达到能力所作的描述 Specified明确具体 Specified明确具体: observable and measurable, 明确具体: not ambiguous. 要求目标是可以观察和测量的 ,而不是笼统而含糊的. Practical切实可行 appropriate and achievable 切实可行: 切实可行 to most students. 要求教学目标必须适合学生 的实际,是绝大部分学生能够达到的
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Objectives to Be Improved

  1. (Sec B 1a-2c; U12, G7A) 掌握星期七天的单词 掌握句型: When do you have math? What's Ken's favorite subject? Science.
  2. (Sec A, U9, G8B)掌握并应用词汇: amusement, neither
  3. (Sec B 1a-2c; U3, G9A)知识目标: 词汇: allow, drive, piece, driver, license 等. 句型:I think students should be allowed to go out…
  4. (Sec B 3a-4; U9, G7A)能熟练运用描述性形容词
  5. (Sec B, 3a-4; U5, G8B) Enable the kids to use the new expressions Enable the kids to talk about photos in Present Progressive. Enable the kids to give reply to a letter.
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Objectives Revised

  1. 学生会认读拼写星期七天的单词 会用句型问答: When do you have math? What's Ken's favorite subject? Science.
  2. 会用 amusement, neither造句,回答问题.
  3. 认读解释 allow, drive, piece, driver, license 等生词. 熟练说写should (not) be allowed to do…句式
  4. 能找出favorite, new, successful, funny, boring 等描述性 形容词,并用来谈论事物.
  5. Ss can describe photos of people doing sth (in present progressive) reply to a letter using the model pattern: Thank you for … Here is/are …
2010-5-25 Designing Effective ELT 24
A Case from Unit 7, G8B, Go for It
After this lesson, the students should be able: (
  1) to make sentences with the following new words: yard, task, not at all, turn down, right away (Language knowledge) (
  2) to make requests using the structure: Would you mind (not) doing? and the responses: I'm sorry. I'll do it right away. (Language skill) (
  3) to make up a dialogue of requests and write a list of kind reminders. (Communicative tasks) (
  4) to show etiquette in public places. (Attitude & cultural awareness) (by Teng Meifang)
2010-5-25
Relevant and involving preparation 内容相关, 内容相关,参与面广的准备活动
Relevant 教学准备活动的"相关性"
Relevant to new learning与新的教学内容相关 Relevant to students' interests, needs & abilities 与学生的兴趣,需求以及能力相关
Involving all students 全班学生参与
Avoid one-to-one, individual activities 避免一对 一或个人表现的提问和对话 Whole-class, group interaction多组织全班,小 组等集体参与的活动
2010-5-25 Designing Effective ELT 26
Instructional Procedures
I. Warming up A song: This is the way. Students listen and sing the song to activate the verbal phrases. Or: A chant of daily activities. II. Revision
  1. Elicit students to speak out the daily activities in the song "This is the way".
  2. Let students speak out their weekend activities in gerund phrases, e.g.
playing football, watching TV, going swimming,
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TextbookTextbook-based and accurate presentation 教材为本, 教材为本,准确简明的新知呈现
Present the content in the textbook in the familiar context context在熟悉的语境中呈现教材内容
Relate new learning to existing schema联系新旧知识 Focus on the key points 抓住重点
Present new content correctly and clearly clearly正确 清楚地呈现教学信息
Accurate pronunciation and intonation准确地教学语 音语调 Clear demonstration of words and patterns简明地教学 词汇句型
2010-5-25 Designing Effective ELT 28
III. Presentation

  1. By talking about Larry's weekend activities, present two phrases: cleaning the yard playing baseball.
  2. Show the situation and elicit students to give some advice to Larry's mother on making requests, whereby the new pattern is introduced: Would you mind turning down the music? No, not at all.
2010-5-25
Adequate and Sequential Practice 有效充分, 有效充分,循序渐进的操练巩固
Objective-Oriented 目标导向 Student-Centred 学生中心 Interaction-Maximized 互动充分 Skill-Integrated 技能整合 Sentence-Based 句子为本
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IV. Practice
(I) Listening 1(p. 52, 1a)
  1. Listen and match the requests with the parts of the picture, putting in the letters [a-d].
  2. Listen again, then match the responses to the requests. (II) Dialogue
  1. Present a picture of Larry's school life and let students predict before making up dialogues: Larry is late for school. What might his teacher say? The newly-learned pattern is provided: --Would you mind not being late for school? --Would -- Sorry. I won't.
  2. With "What else would Larry's teacher?" , encourage students to make up new dialogues for this situation, using the learned patterns.
2010-5-25
(III) Listening 2(p. 53, 2b)
  1. Listen and match the requests with the responses (Activity 2a).
  2. Encourage students to the family requests in the listening part. say out (IV) Brainstorming and dialogue making Students work in group of four:
  1. Brainstorming. Each group produces a list of "family requests".
  2. Dialogue making. Each group makes up a dialogue among family members by using the new pattern.
  3. Students act out their dialogues. (V) Note completion Complete the note with the prompt of the pictures.
2010-5-25
ObjectiveObjective-Based and Encouraging Assessment
依据目标,鼓励为主的教学评价 依据目标,
Objectives as the appropriate criteria for assessment 评价教学效果的最合适标准就是 具体的教学目标 Sense of achievement as the motivator for self-efficacy and learning 学习成就感是促 进学生自信心和学习积极性的动力 Value self and peer assessment 重视自我和 同伴评价
2010-5-25 Designing Effective ELT 33
V. Closure: Let students write today's learning log.
What have we learned today?

  1. We can make requests in these ways:
  2. We can apologize in these ways:
VI. Homework:Complete/writing the note. Homework:
Dear Larry, We are going to . You'd better act like a gentleman. ?
  1. Would you mind
  2. Could you please ?
  3. Would you mind ? .
  4. Please
  5. Also, you have to . Love, Mom
2010-5-25
How to make ELT Effective?
Some suggestions
Using phonics Teach in English Dictate sentences Focus on key sentences Less one-to-one practice one-toMeaningful tasks Extended reading
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36
Teaching structures
SentenceSentence-based approach
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How to make ELT EFFECTIVE? EFFECTIVE?
E F F E C T I V E Engaging every learner Fostering learner confidence Focusing on objectives Eliciting learner performance Connecting prior knowledge Teaching explicitly Integrating the four skills Varying learning activities Enhancing peer assistance
38
Principles of Effective ELT
P1:Engaging every learner
Children learn better when actively eng
 

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