自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
  1. mis?giv?ing [uncountable and countable] mis? ? g a feeling of doubt or fear about what might happen or about whether something is right misgiving about
Despite her misgivings about leaving the baby, she decided to accompany her husband.
grave/serious/deep misgivings
Some politicians have expressed grave misgivings about the scheme. Opponents of nuclear energy have deep misgivings about its safety. She eyed the distant shoreline with misgiving.
scep? ? ? skepticism
  2. scep?ti?cis?m British English ; skepticism American English [uncountable] an attitude of doubting that particular claims or statements are true or that something will happen
  3. ten?den?cy plural tendencies [countable] ten? ? y 1 if someone or something has a tendency to do or become a particular thing, they are likely to do or become it do a tendency to do something
Greg's tendency to be critical made him unpopular with his co-workers. The drug is effective but has a tendency to cause headaches.
tendency to/towards
Some people may inherit a tendency to alcoholism.
tendency for
Researchers believe that the tendency for diabetes is present at birth.
2 a general change or development in a particular direction there is a tendency (for somebody) to do something
There is an increasing tendency for women to have children later in life.
tendency to/towards
a general tendency towards conservation and recycling
tendency among
a tendency among Americans to get married at a later age
3 aggressive/suicidal/criminal/artistic etc tendencies a part of someone's character that makes them likely to behave in a certain way or become an artist, criminal etc:
children with aggressive or anti-social tendencies
4 [also + plural verb British English] a group within a larger political group that supports ideas that are usually more extreme than those of the main group:
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
the growing fascist tendency

  4. score 1 plural score a group of 20, or about 20, people or things a score of something
Our coach was escorted by a score of policemen. three score years and ten old use (=70 years, a person's expected length
of life) 2 scores of something a lot of people or things:
Scores of victims were killed.
3 by the score in large numbers:
Friends came to help by the score.

  5. rough?ly rough? y 1 not exactly [= about, approximately]:
There were roughly 200 people there. Azaleas flower at roughly the same time each year.
roughly equal/comparable/equivalent
two rocks of roughly equal size
roughly speaking (=used when saying something without giving exact details or information)
Roughly speaking, I'd say we need about $5
  00.
2 not gently or carefully:
He grabbed her roughly.

  6. sum past tense and past participle summed present participle summing summed, sum up phrasal verb 1 to give the main information in a report, speech etc in a short statement at the end [= summarize]:
Gerald will open the debate and I will sum up.
to sum up
To sum up, for a healthy heart you must take regular exercise and stop smoking.
sum something ? up
In your final paragraph, sum up your argument.
2 when a judge sums up or sums up the case at the end of a she explains the main facts of the case ? SUMMING-UP
TRIAL,
he or
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
3 sum something ? up to describe something using only a few words:
The city's problem can be summed up in three words: too many people.
4 sum something ? up to show the most typical qualities of someone or something:
That image sums up the whole film.
5 sum somebody/something ? up to form a judgment or opinion about someone or something:
Pat summed up the situation at a glance.
6 that (about) sums it up
spoken used to say that a description of a situation is correct: 'So you want us to help you change but you don't believe change is possible?' 'That about sums it up.'

  7. mess 1 [singular, uncountable] if there is a mess somewhere or a place is a mess, things there are dirty or not neatly arranged:
What a mess! Sorry - the place is a bit of a mess mess. When I got home, the house was a complete mess mess. in a mess British English The burglars left the house in an awful mess. You can make cookies if you promise not to make a mess in the kitchen.
clear/clean up the mess
Whoever is responsible for this mess can clear it up immediately! She hates mess.
2[singular, uncountable] a situation in which there are a lot of problems and difficulties, especially as a result of mistakes or carelessness:
My life's such a mess mess.
in a mess
The economy is in a terrible mess. You got us into this mess Terry. You can get us out of it. mess, All she could do was pray that, somehow, she might be able to sort out the mess she had got herself into.
3 make a mess of (doing) something to do something badly:
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
I feel I've made a real mess of my marriage. Many people make a mess of handling money.
4 be a mess
informal if someone is a mess, they look dirty and untidy, or are in a
bad emotional state 5 a mess of something
American English informal a lot of something: a mess of fresh fish
6[countable] a room in which members of the army, navy etc eat and drink together:
We had lunch in the officers' mess mess. 7 [uncountable and countable] British English informal solid waste from
an animal:
The dog's made a mess on the carpet.
【词义辨析】 confusion; disorder;disturbance;mess;chaos 这些名词均表示事物的混乱状态。 confusion: 指东西搅混在一起,凌乱得难以辨认;也可指思想混乱,以 致无法进行正常的思维活动。 disorder: 正式用词,含义广泛。指事物因失去原有的秩序而造成混乱; 也可指社会中的动乱或骚乱。 disturbance: 主要指社会中政治性的动乱、骚乱;也可指个人或少数人 的闹事。 mess: 语气强,口语中较常用的非正式用词。指既混乱又肮脏,尤指人 思想混乱或外表不整洁。 chaos: 着重指令人无能为力或感到绝望的混乱状态。突出没有很好的组 织。
  8. pre?su?ma?bly pre? ? ? y used to say that you think something is probably true:
It's raining, which presumably means that your football match will be cancelled.
[sentence adverb]
He's dead now, presumably?

  9. strike somebody as (being) something to seem to have a particular quality or feature:
His jokes didn't strike Jack as being very funny.
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
it strikes somebody as strange/odd etc that
It struck me as odd that the man didn't introduce himself before he spoke.

  10. har?ness [uncountable and countable] har? s 1 a set of leather bands used to control a horse or to attach it to a vehicle it is pulling
2 a set of bands used to hold someone in a place or to stop them from falling:
a safety harness
3 in harness
British English doing your usual work: I felt glad to be back in harness.
4 in harness (with somebody)
British English working closely with another person or group

  11. ir?ra?tion?al ir? ? ? l not based on clear thought or reason [= unreasonable; ≠ rational, reasonable]:
an irrational fear of flying He's becoming increasingly irrational.
?irrationally adverb ?irrationality noun [uncountable]
  12. expedient [countable] a quick and effective way of dealing with a problem:
Moore escaped by the simple expedient of lying down in a clump of grass.

  13. hal?lu?cin?o?gen [countable] hal? ? ? ? n a substance that causes hallucinations hal? ? ? ? n hal?lu?ci?na?tion
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
[uncountable and countable] something which you imagine you can see or hear, but which is not really there, or the experience of this:
The patients suffered hallucinations caused by the drug.

  14. hal?lu?ci?na?tion hal? ? ? ? n [uncountable and countable] something which you imagine you can see or hear, but which is not really there, or the experience of this:
The patients suffered hallucinations caused by the drug.

  15. en?dure en? e 1 [transitive] to be in a difficult or painful situation for a long time without complaining:
It seemed impossible that anyone could endure such pain.
endure doing something
He can't endure being apart from me.
2 [intransitive] to remain alive or continue to exist for a long time:
friendships which endure over many years
【词义辨析】 这些动词均含有“持续”之意。 persist: 强调超过了指定的或正常的时间。 last: 着重存在的时间相当长,超过正常的或所期望的时间。 endure: 与 last 同义,但还指经受住,有能耐忍受而并不受损。 continue: 多指过程,强调持续而无终止,常含不间断之意。 这些动词均含“忍受”之意。 stand: 口语用词,常可与 hear 换用,但侧重指经受得起。 bear: 强调容忍,是普通用语。 endure: 书面用词,指长时间忍受痛苦和不幸,着重体力或意志力的坚 强不屈服。 tolerate: 指以自我克制的态度,对待令人反感或厌恶的东西,含默认宽 容意味。 suffer: 通常指非自愿或被迫忍受各种痛苦、 困难或不快, 强调受到苦难。 abide: 指忍受长期的痛苦或折磨,强调耐心和屈从。多用于否定句和疑 问句中。 withstand: 指因具有一定实力、权力或能力而能忍受某种情况。

  16. par?a?sit?ic also par?a?sit?i?cal par? ? ? c par? ? ? ? l 1 living in or on another plant or animal and getting food from them:
parasitic fungi
2 a parasitic person is lazy, does no work, and depends on other people 3 a parasitic disease is caused by parasites ?parasitically adverb
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05

  17. bat?ten bat? n 1 batten down the hatches a) to prepare yourself for a period of difficulty or trouble b) to firmly fasten the entrances to the lower part of a ship 2 batten on somebody batten
British English formal to live well by using someone else's money,
possessions etc - used to show disapproval 【同义词】 同义词】 secure adj.安全的, 牢靠的... fasten vt.拴紧, 使固定, ... close vt.关, 结束, 使靠...
  18. scorn [transitive] 1 to show that you think that something is stupid, unreasonable, or not worth accepting: batten down 封舱 fix v.使 ... 固定, ... lock up 上锁, 封锁, 监禁...
Many women scorn the use of make-up.
2 to criticize someone or something because you think they do not deserve respect:
He scorned the government's record in dealing with crime.
【同义词】 同义词】 disdain n. 轻蔑 ; v. 蔑视 despise vt.轻视 spurn v. 轻蔑地拒绝, 摒弃... revile v. 辱骂, 斥责 disparagement n. 轻视, 轻蔑, 贬低 scornfulness n. 轻蔑 rebuff n. 断然拒绝, 漠不... disrespect n. 不敬, 无礼; ... contemn vt. 侮辱, 蔑视 belittle vt. 轻视, 贬低,... misprize vt. 轻视 snub v.冷落, 斥责, 止住... contumely n. 无礼, 傲慢, 侮辱 flout v.藐视, 轻视, 嘲笑... scoff n. 嘲笑, 笑柄, ... boo int. (表示不满、轻... contempt n.轻视, 轻蔑 reject vt.拒绝, 排斥, 驳... deride vt. 嘲弄, 挖苦 derision n. 嘲笑, 笑柄 mockery n. 嘲弄, 笑柄, ... sneering adj. 嘲笑的(讥笑的... turn down v.调低, 关小, 拒绝 ridicule n.嘲笑, 愚弄, 笑柄... at prep. 在, 向,... mock v.嘲弄, 嘲笑, 模仿... boo int. (表示不满、轻... flout v.藐视, 轻视, 嘲笑... disown vt. 否认 shun v.避开, 回避, 避免 twit vt. 嘲笑, 挖苦; ... reproach n. 责备, 耻辱 ;...
自考 高级英语 难点解释 Lesson 2
Liuming
2011-03-05
contemptuous adj. 轻视的 mocking adj. 嘲笑的, 愚弄... look down upon 轻视 high-hat adj. <美俚>势力的... hatred n.仇恨, 憎恨, 敌意... taunt n. 辱骂, 嘲弄 ;... jeering adj. 嘲弄的, 揶揄... detest vt. 厌恶, 痛恨 taunt n. 辱骂, 嘲弄 ;... hiss n. 嘘声, 嘶嘶声 ... insolence n. 傲慢, 无礼 catcall n. 不满之声, 嘘声;... loathe v. 厌恶, 憎恶 scout n.童子军, 侦察员, ... gibing adj. 讥刺的, 嘲弄的 disgust n.厌恶, 憎恶, 反感... arrogance n. 傲慢, 自大 hate v.憎恨, 厌恶, 讨厌... hissing n. 发嘶嘶声, 蔑视;... loathing n. 厌恶, 憎恶 distaste n. 不喜欢, 厌恶 ... make v.做, 制造, 使得,... hoot n. 叫嚣, 猫头鹰叫声... gibe v. 嘲笑, 讥笑 ;... hold in contempt 轻视, 认为 ... ... poke n.戳, 刺, 拨, 钱... fun n.乐趣, 玩笑 ; a... spit upon vt. 向 ... 吐唾... of prep.关于, ...... jeer vi. 嘲弄, 揶揄;... laugh v.发笑, 笑, 嘲笑 ... scoff n. 嘲笑, 笑柄, ... sneer n. 冷笑, 嘲笑 ;... sarcasm n. 挖苦, 讽刺 dislike v. 不喜欢, 厌恶 ... repudiate v.拒绝, 拒付, 断绝... renounce vt.声明放弃, 与..... cut v.切, 割, 剪, 削... snobbery n. 势力 cheapen v. 降低(某事物/某人... off adv.表示状态的关闭或... disregard vt.不顾, 忽视 ; ... lip n.嘴唇, 唇状物; v... with prep.用, 随着, ... one's pron. 任何人的 cut off vt.切断, 使隔绝, ... spit n. 唾液, 口水, ... in prep.在 ... 里... laugh at 嘲笑, 因 ... 而笑 poke fun at 拿 ... 开玩笑, 取... despite prep.尽管, 不管 ... make fu
 

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