高级英语(下)
Lesson One
What’s Wrong with Our Press?
课文要义(Main idea of the text)
As a printed - word woman, the author tries to point out the disadvantages and problems
remain in the press by making a contrast with television based on the date out of a survey.
Having sharply criticized the partisan bit and the abuse of the sacred right entrusted to the
press: to inform a free people. Marya Mamies has reached a conclusion that the press will
be hopeless and useless unless it has to make some dramatic changes even though change
means trouble, work and cost.
词汇 (Vocabulary)

  1. conflict (v): (of opinions, desires, etc.) be in opposition or disagreement; be incompatible 不一致;冲突
Their account of events conflicts with ours. 他们对事件的说法与我们截然不同。
Do British laws conflict with any international laws? 英国法与国际法是否有相违背之处?

  2. allot (v): give (time, money, duties, etc.) as a share of what is available; apportion sth. 分配;分给
The principal allotted each grade a part in the Christmas program. 校长分给每个年级一部分圣诞礼物。

  3. available (a): (of things) that can be used or obtained ; (of people) free 可用的;可得到的;有空的
This ticket is available until the end of the month. 本票到月底前有效。

  4. color (v): give a special effect or feeling to (a person, event, etc.) 影响
Don’t allow personal loyalty to color your judgment. 不要因讲义气而影响了你的判断。
One' s point of view is necessarily colored by past 'experience. 一个人的观点肯定受其经历影响。

  5. predominant (a): prevailing; most noticeable; having more power or influence than others 盛行的;占优势的
Bright red is the predominant color in the room. 鲜红是屋子里的主色调。.
English is one of the world's predominant languages. 英语是世界主要语言之一。

  6. virtue (n): advantage; moral goodness or excellence; (of medicine) effect 优点;美德
This seat has the virtue of being adjustable. 这种座位好在可以调节。
One of his virtues is that he never gets angry. 他的优点之一是从不生气。

  7. coverage (n): reporting of events; extent to which sth. is covered 新闻报道;覆盖范围
There's little coverage of foreign news in the newspaper. 报纸上几乎没有国外新闻报道。

  8. document (v): prove or support (sth. ) with documents 用文件证实或证明
The lawyer gathered evidence to document the charges. 律师收集材料为控告提供证据。

  9. bolster (y): strengthen or reinforce sth. ; give support to 加强;支持
The government borrowed money to bolster up the economy. 政府贷款以促进经济发展。

  10. stuff
(
  1) (v): fill sth. tightly; cram sth. 塞满
Don't stuff anything else in, or the bag will burst. 不能再塞任何东西了,否则包会撑破的。
(
  2) (n): material of which sth. is made; unnamed subject matter 材料;题材
Real life is the stuff of all good novels. 现实生活是所有优秀小说的题材。

  11. justify (v): show that sb. / sth. is right , reasonable or just 表明是正当的,有理的,公正的
They found it hard to justify their son's giving up a secure well-paid job. 他们难以理解儿子竟放弃收入颇丰的稳定工作。Tiredness cannot possibly justify your treating staff this way. 你不能以疲劳为由就这样对待职工

  12. feature (n): special program; distinctive characteristic; aspect; 特别节目;特征
All news and features deal with local people and happenings. 所有新闻及特别节目都是有关当地人物事件。The capacity to think is the feature of our species. 思维能力是人类所特有的。

  13. elevate (v): make better or more educated; raise to a higher place or rank 使更好;提高
The vice president was elevated to president of the company. 副经理被提升为公司经理。
His inspiring speech elevated the audience. 他那赋有激情的演讲鼓舞了听众

  14. prevail (v): be widespread; exist or happen generally; fight successfully 盛行;战胜
The use of horses for plough still prevails among the poorer farmers. 用马耕作在贫苦农民中仍十分普遍。
Justice has prevailed; the guilty man has been punished. 正义得到了伸张;罪人受到了惩罚。
  15. degrade (v): cause to be less deserving of respect 贬低;使……丢脸
He degraded himself by cheating and telling lies. 他因欺骗说谎而降低了自己的身份。
I felt degraded by having to ask for money. 我出于无奈向别人要钱,觉得有失尊严。

  16. cheapen (v): make oneself / sth. less worthy of respect; degrade 贬低
It's only cheapening yourself to behave like that. 那样做只能使你自贬身价。
Constant cursing cheapens oneself. 经常骂人遭人轻看。

  17. entrust (v): give (someone) the charge of (sth) with complete trust 委托某人负责
Can I entrust you with the secret plans? 我能把这些秘密计划委托给你吗?
He’s entrusted his children to my care for the day. 他委托我照看一天孩子。
短语 (Expressions)

  1. …it is the other way around. : the opposite of what is expected or supposed. 正好相反
I was accused of stealing money from her but in fact it was the other way round. 说我偷了她的钱,其实正好相反,是她偷了我的钱。

  2. speak of: indicate sth. ; be mentioned 表明
Her behavior speaks of suffering bravely borne. 她的表现显示出她承受痛苦的勇气。
I didn' t think his performance was anything to speak of. 我想他的表现没什么值得一提的。

  3. pass for: be accepted as 被认为;被当作
He speaks French well enough to pass for a Frenchman. 他法语流利得让人以为他是法国人。
In this small village he passes for a wise man. 在这个小村里,人们把他看成一位智者。

  4. get over with; complete sth. unpleasant but necessary 结束必须做的讨厌事
She'll be glad to get the exam over with. 等考试结束她就高兴了。
He looked upon the wedding ceremony as a mere formality something to be got over with as quickly as possible. 他只把婚礼看成一种形式,一件应尽快了结的事。

  5. confine … to …: restrict or keep within certain limits 限定在一定范围
I wish the speaker would confine himself to the subject.我希望演讲者不要离题。
Confine your criticism to matters you understand. 发表评论不要超出自己所了解的范围。

  6. get into sth.: become involved in sth. ; be familiar with; develop a taste or liking for or an interest in sth. 参与;熟悉
Though they are good friends, they often get into an argument. 尽管是好朋友,但他们经常发生争论。
I haven't really got into my new job yet. 我还未完全熟悉新工作。

  7. take precedence over: have greater importance 优于;高于
Control of prices takes precedence over other consideration. 控制物价应给以优先考虑。
The needs of the community must take precedence over individual requirement. 公众的利益高于个人的利益。

  8. by and large: taking everything into consideration 大体上
By and large, the company's been pretty good to me. 总的来说,公司对我一直很好。
By and large, the British working class is better off today than it was a generation ago.总的来说,英国劳动阶层现在比他们的前辈富裕多了。

  9. have one's say: express one's view 表达意见;把话说完
We were all tired of speeches, but the old woman was determined to have her say. 我们都厌倦了演讲,但那老太太决意要把话说完。
Don't interrupt her, let her have her say. 别打断她,让她把意见说出来。

  10. knock sb. down: strike sb. to the ground or the floor; demolish sth. ; (force sb. to ) reduce ( a price or charge) 击到;拆除
The child was knocked down by a lorry as he ran across the road. 孩子穿马路时被一辆货车撞到了。
The machine will be knocked down before being packed for shipment. 打包运输前得把机器拆卸下来。

  11. cater to sth.: try to satisfy a particular need or demand fit 满足;迎合
We're going to cater to your every desire. 对于你,我们会有求必应。
The radio and television have to cater to many different types of interest and taste among the public. 收音机和电视机必须满足兴趣各异的大众。

  12. in the light of: in view of; considering 鉴于;由于
In the light of these changes we must revise our plan. 由于这些变化,我们必须修改计划。
He reviewed his decision in the light of recent development. 他根据最近的事态发展重新考虑自己的决定。

  13. at random: without conscious choice 任意地
His clothes were scattered about the room at random. 他的衣服扔得满屋子都是。
Don't answer at random, think first. 别乱回答,先想一想。

  14. appeal to: be attractive or interesting to sb.; make an earnest request; ask for help 有吸引力;恳求
Her sense of humor appealed to him enormously. 她的幽默感深深吸引了他。
The police appealed to the crowd not to panic. 警方呼吁群众不要惊慌。

  15. derive … from…: obtain … from; trace … from 得到;追溯
We can derive English "chauffeur" from French. 英语中’chauffeur’一词来源于法语。
He derives much pleasure from his books. 他从书本中获得了很多乐趣。
词语辨析 (Word analysis)

  1. advantage: sht. Helpful, sth likely to bring success 益处;优势
Living in a big town has many advantages, such as good schools, libraries and theaters. 住在大都市里有许多好处,例如好学校、图书馆及剧院。
strength: quality of being strong 强度;力量
She hasn’t the strength to walk upstairs. 她没有力气走上楼。

  2. meet: come face to face with sb. or sth. 遇见;碰见
We met each other quite by chance. 我们相遇十分偶然。
He can meet misfortune with a smile. 他能面对不幸遭遇一笑置之。
encounter: find oneself faced by difficulty, meet enemies 遭遇(困难等);遭逢(敌人等)
They encountered every kind of difficulty. 他们遇到了各种困难。

  3. on the whole: taking everything into consideration 总的看来;大体上
I think, on the whole, we had better stay at home. 我认为,总的看来,我们还是呆在家里为好。
as a whole: considered all together, not separately 全部地;作为一个整体
The temperature for the country as a whole is relatively high. 这个国家的气温总的来说较高。

  4. confine to: keep or hold within limits 限制;限于范围内
I wish the speaker would confine himself to the subject. 我希望演讲者不要离题。
limit to: put a limit to sth. 限制;限定
We must limit the expense to what we can afford. 我们必须限制开销不超出我们经济能力范围。

  5. coverage: covering of events 采访新闻;新闻报道
He wrote an excellent coverage about African situation. 他写了一篇关于非洲的出色报道。
reporting: giving an account of events 报道;报告
The newspaper was asked to be less selective in its reporting. 这家报纸被要求在报道中应少一些主观的选择性。

  6. justifiable: that can be justified 有道理的;有理由的
If it is justifiable, then we’ll take these steps. 如果有道理,那么我们将采取这些步骤。
justified: reasonable, proper 有理由的;正当的
The editors are justified in refusing your work. 编辑们有理由拒绝你的作品。

  7. attract: (vt.) get the attention of sb. 引起某人的注意
Bright colors attract babies. 鲜艳的色彩可引起婴儿的注意。
appeal: (vi.) attract 有吸引力
Bright colors appeal to small children. 鲜艳的色彩能吸引小孩。

  8. function: (vi.) operate, act 起作用;有效用
Some English adverbs function as adjectives. 英语有些副词有形容词的作用。
work: have the desired result 获得预期结果
It’s a good idea, but it just won’t work. 这是个好主意,但是就是行不通。
难句理解(Sentence comprehension)

  1. It is still the only effective screen against the morning features of the loved one, and as such, performs a unique human service.:
Men can hold up a piece of newspaper to read to prevent them from seeing their wives' faces before they make up. Newspapers can serve human in such an unparalleled way.
报纸仍然是挡住爱妻早晨蓬头垢面的唯一有效的屏障,因而扮演了独具人情味的角色。

  2. When Mr. Roper asked his guinea pigs …, the newspapers topped the list.:
When Mr. Roper asked those people he inquired, the newspapers was the choice for most people. 罗伯先生问及调查对象时,报纸成了多数人的首选。

  3.…. which serve the world as models of responsible public information, :
which serve the world as examples of providing trustworthy information to the public.
这些报纸向公众提供可靠的信息,成为世界的典范。

  4. 1 am speaking of the local press which in hundreds of American communities is the only news available, aside from those recitals of ticker tape that pass for radio news. :
I am referring to the local press. It's the only news source that can be got
 

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