otential interests.
  11.For example, the degree to which and the ways in which a school encourages participation in games, sports and cultural pursuit are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students.
  12.The more seriously this is sought, the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged. Unit 8
  1. The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time.
  2.Understand what it is, and how a careful diet can minimize its worst effects, and your flights will be less stressful.
  3. The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize. Confused? So was John Foster Dulles, the American Secretary of State, when he flew to Egypt to conduct negotiations on the Aswan Dam.
  4.The White House working personnel were as fresh as paint, while the locals, in this case, were jet-lagged.
  5.Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to overcoming it.
  6. One timing system comes from the evidence of our senses and stomachs, and the periodicity we experience when living in a particular time zone.
  7. The other belongs in our internal clocks (the major one of which may be physically located in a part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus) which, left alone, would tie the body to a 25 hour - yes, 25 - rhythm.
  8. If, however, you move the whole body to a time zone which is four hours different, the two clocks will be out of step, like two alarm clocks which are normally set together, but which have been reset a few hours apart.
  9. Whereas the two clocks would normally sound their alarms together, now they ring at different times.
  10. In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.
  11. A man flown to a time zone different by 10 hours will take eight days to readjust his palm sweat. Blood pressure, which is also rhythmical, takes four days to readjust.
  12. One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors.
  13. The hormone cortisol, which controls salt and water excretion, is made in the morning, wherever the body is. But the growth hormone is released during sleep, whenever in the day that
sleep occurs.
  15.Coffee delays the body clock in the morning , and advances it at night. Coffee at mid-afternoon is neutral. Unit 9
  1.Nations are classified as “aged” when they have 7 per cent or more of their people aged 65 or above. 当一个国家有 7% 或更多的人到 65 岁以上时,这个国家就被列为老龄化国家之列。
  2.And by about 1970 every one of the advanced countries had become like this .of the really ancient societies, with over 13 per cent above
  65, all are in Northwestern Europe.
  3.We know that we are getting even older, and that the nearer a society approximates to zero population growth, the older its population is likely to be - at least, for any future that concerns us now.
  4.To these now familiar facts a number of further facts may be added, some of them only recently recognized.
  5.There is the apparent paradox that the effective cause of the high proportion of the old is births rather than deaths.
  6.There is the economic principle that the dependency ratio - the degree to which those who cannot earn depend for a living on those who can - is more advantageous in older societies like ours than in the younger societies of the developing world, because lots of dependent babies are more of a liability than numbers of the inactive aged. 有这样一条经济原则:抚养率??即不能赚钱养活自己的人对能挣钱养家的人的依赖程度 ??在我们这样老龄化社会里比发展中世界的较年轻社会里要更有利, 因为大量需要抚养的 孩子与大批不能工作的老年人相比,更是一个负担。
  7.If “revolution” is a rapid resettlement of the social structure, and if the age composition of the society counts as a very important aspect of that social structure, then there has been a social revolution in European and particularly Western European society within the lifetime of everyone over
  8.Taken together, these things have implications which are only beginning to be acknowledged. These facts and circumstances were well to the fore earlier this year at a world gathering about aging as a challenge to science and to policy, held at Vichy in France.
  9.There is often resistance to the idea that it is because the birthrate fell earlier in Western and Northwestern Europe than elsewhere, rather than because of any change in the death rate, that we have grown so old. 10But too much of that lengthened experience, even in the wealthy West, will be experience of poverty and neglect, unless we do something about it. 11At Vichy the demographers were telling each other that their estimates of how many old there would be and how long they will live in countries like England and Wales are due for revision upwards. Unit 10
  1.The winner in the November general election is almost certain to be either the Republican or the Democratic nominee. 11 月大选的获胜者几乎可以肯定不是共和党就是民主党提名的候选人。

  2. A minor-party or independent candidate, such as George Wallace in 19
  68, John Anderson in 19
  80, or Ross Perot in 1992 and 19
  96, can draw votes away from the major-party nominees but stands almost no chance of defeating them. 小党派或独立候选人, 1968 年的乔治?华莱士、 如 1980 年的约翰?安德森, 或者 1992 年和 1996 年的罗斯?佩罗等,可能会从大党的提名人那里拉走一些选票,但几乎没有人可能战胜他们。
  3. Warren G. Harding accepted the 1920 Republican nomination at his Ohio home, stayed there throughout most of the campaign, and won a full victory simply because most of the voters of his time were Republicans. 沃伦?G?哈定在他俄亥俄州的家中接受了 1920 年共和党的提名,而且竞选期间他多数时间是 呆在家里。他最终大获全胜仅仅是因为那个时期多数选民是共和党成员。
  4. Presidential candidates act strategically. In deciding whether to pursue a course of action, they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters. 在决定是否遵循某一项行动方针时,他们要尽量估计一下该方针对选民可能具有的影响。
  5. “The Economy, Stupid.” The slogan was the idea of James Carville, Clinton’s chief strategist, and was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation‘s slow-moving economy, which ultimately was the issue that defeated Bush. 这一口号是克林顿的总战略家詹姆斯?卡维尔的主意,其用意是想提醒候选人及总部人员始 终把竞选的注意力集中在本国缓慢发展的经济上。而这一点正是最终击败布什的问题。
  6. As in 19
  80, when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times, the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change. 正如 1980 年在经济艰难时期吉米?卡特败与罗纳德?里根时那样, 选民很大程度上是被他们想 变革的欲望调动起来的。
  7. Candidates try to project a strong leadership image. Whether voters accept this image, however, depends more on external factors than on a candidate‘s personal characteristics. 然而选民们是否接受这一形象则更取决于外在因素而不是候选人的个人特征。 In 19
  91, after the Gulf War, Bush’s approval rating reached 91 percent, the highest level recorded since polling began in the 1930s.
  8. 1991 年海湾战争以后,布什的支持率达到 91%,这是自 20 世纪 30 年代开始民意测验以 来的最高记录。 A year later, with the nation‘s economy in trouble, Bush’s approval rating dropped below 40 percent. 一年以后,随着国家经济陷入困境,布什的支持率则下降到 40%以下。
  9. Bush tried to stir images of his strong leadership of the war, but voters remained concerned about the economy. 布什试图重振其战争期间强有力的领导者形象,但选民们始终关心的是经济。
  10. The candidates‘ strategies are shaped by many considerations, including the constitutional provision that each state shall have electoral votes equal in number to its representation in Congress. 候选人策略的形成要考虑到许多因素, 包括宪法的这一条款: 每个州具有的选举人票数与其 在国会中的代表人数相同。
  11. To win the presidency, a candidate must receive at least 270 votes, an electoral majority. 要赢得总统席位,候选人必须至少获得 270 票,即选票的大多数。 Candidates are particularly concerned with winning the states which have the largest population.
  12. Victory in the eleven largest slates alone would provide an electoral majority. 仅在这 11 个最大的州获胜就可以获得选举的多数。 Unit 11
  1. Professor Colin Blakemore works at Oxford University Medical School doing research into eye problems and believes that animal research has given humans many benefits. 科林?布莱克默教授任职于牛津大学医学院,正在对眼睛疾病进行研究,他认为,用动物进 行研究给人带来了很多好处。
  2.It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals. 如果把还没有在动物身上彻底实验过的药物用在人身上,那是完全不负责任和不道德。
  3. The famous example of thalidomide is a case for more animals testing, not less. 著名的萨立多胺的例子就说明应该对动物进行更多的试验,而不是更少。
  4.If thalidomide were invented today, it would never be released for human use because new tests on pregnant animals would reveal the dangers. 如果萨立多胺是今天发明的, 它就决不会用在人身上, 因为对怀孕的动物的新试验将会发 现这种危险。
  5. Computer models can be used to simulate the way that cells work and to try to predict the toxicity of chemicals. 计算机模型可用来模拟细胞的活动方式和预报化学药品的毒性
  6.Data from previous animal experiments is used to develop a computer model which will predict what will happen if you add a chemical with an unknown biological effect to a substance. 可用从以前的动物实验获取的数据来建立一个计算机模型, 这个模型能够预报如果将某一生 物效果不明的化学药品添加到另一种物质上将会出现什么情况。
  7. . A method using a fixed amount, which gives the same eventual information but uses fever animals and does not require that they die, may replace the LD
  50. 另一种方法是使用固定量的有毒物质, 能够给出同样的最终信息, 但使用较少的动物并且不 需要它们死亡,这个方法可以代替 LD
  8. Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects. “现在已有很多别的新技术,使更多的研究能在试管里进行,以便发现化学药品是否产生有 毒的生物效果。
  9. This is partly due to alternatives and partly to the fact that experiments are better designed so fewer need to be used ??healthier animals provide better experimental results. 这部分地是由于采用了替代的方法, 部分地是由于实验比以前设计得更好, 所以需要的动物 就少了。
  10. In the US, one experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat’s leg, leaving its leg paralysed. 在美国,进行一次神经再生实验要在老鼠腿上切掉一大段神经,结果就把它的腿弄瘫痪了。
  11. Wherever possible, for both ethical and scientific reasons, we do not use animals. 只要可能,为了道德的和科学的两种理由,我们不使用动物。
  12.We cannot possibly reproduce in a test tube or a computer model all the complex reactions of the body to a drug or a disease.

  13. 我们不可能在试管里或用计算机模型模拟出身体对药物或疾病的全部复杂反应。 When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body, or diseases of the brain for example, we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals. 例如当研究心脏病和它对身体的影响时, 或者当研究大脑疾病时, 我们没有充分的代用品来 代替动物。
  14. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used in experiments may decrease, but stopping testing on animals altogether is a long way away. 随着研究技术的日益先进, 用于实验的动物的数量可能会减少, 但距离彻底停止使用动物还 很遥远。
Unit 12
  1. At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life. 白日做梦最好也不过被认为是对生活中实际事物的一种补偿性的替代。
  2. But such extremes are relatively rare, and there is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. 但是这类极端的情况较为罕见, 愈来愈多的证



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