Unit 1
  1. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives.
  2. Managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance.
  3. For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.
  4. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.
  5. Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best-that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.
  6. Because different individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.
  7. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.
  8. People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon.
  9. The literary critics should be as objective as possible in analysis and judgment.
  10. She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues.
  11. I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey.
  12. Although he thought he was helping us with the job, he was only in the way. Unit 2
  13. The terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here.
  14. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape.
  15. The collapse of a star may produce a White Dwarf or a neutron star-a star, whose matter is so dense that it continually shrinks by the force of its own gravity.
  16. Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble, but still having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull, and you have some idea of the force of a black hole.
  17. Some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point.
  18. This process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results.
  19. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.
  20. There might be a massive black hole at the center of our galaxy swallowing up stars at a very rapid rate.
  21. Very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind.
  22. He has exerted all his strength to attain his goal.
  23. He has been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind.
  24. The collapse of the government left the country in confusion.
  25. The research group launched out into a series of new experiments. Unit 3
  26. Each time it is shown, the program starts a nationwide debate on the subject.
  27. In addition to this, a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met. 28 In the vast majority of euthanasia cases, what the patient is actually asking for is something else.

  29. Euthanasia doesn't take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying.
  30. Anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable. Instructions will be sent immediately on request.
  31. Instructions will be sent immediately on request.
  32. Many people opposed building a new highway because of the great cost.
  33. She bore the whole burden of raising two children alone.
  34. Students are heavily burdened with home assignments.
  35. The committee demands that no member (should) be absent. Unit 4
  36. There are estimated to be more than 20, 000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain.
  37. And they can have their passports removed, making leaving or “escaping” virtually impossible.
  38. Of these 20,000, just under 2000 are being exploited and abused by their employers.
  39. In one of them, a Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests from various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.
  40. I was supposed to be paid £120 but I never received that amount.
  41. My employers always threatened to report me to the Home Office or the police.
  42. Many people doubt whether this will successfully reduce the incidence of abuse.
  43. So if they do complain, they risk being deported.
  44. It is the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.
  45. The student exploits every possibility to learn English.
  46. Our country is launching a campaign against waste.
  47. We should be always aware of the status of world affairs.
  48. There are likely to be more difficulties than you were prepared for. Unit 5
  49. The new music was built out of materials already in existence.
  50. What happened, as well as it can be put into words, was this.
  51. They freely took over elements from jazz, from American country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources.
  52. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.
  53. In studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live.
  54. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand…
  55. Often music was played out of doors, where nature provided the environment.
  56. The social and political transformation of a country is essential to the development of the society.
  57. All theories originate from practice and in turn serve practice. Unit 6
  58. Robots, becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention.

  59. The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials, preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation.
  60. Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
  61. Other engineers are writing new programs allowing robots to make decisions such as whether to discard defective parts in finished products.
  62. These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and the ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do.
  63. Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.
  64. His words cast a new light on the problem.
  65. We should be aware of the dangers of exposing children to violence on TV. Unit7
  66. People in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure and what they can do in their leisure time.
  67. Generally speaking, the quality of life, especially as seen by the individual, is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual.
  68. The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.
  69. Experiences of a different nature, be it television watching or bird-watching, can lead to a self-renewal and a more “balanced” way of life.
  70. Such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.
  71. To impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways.
  72. It can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes, interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure.
  73. The more seriously this is sought, the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged.
  74. You have to attach a label to a box while posting it.
  75. We should make our lives relevant to the needs of the country.
  76. He always has some positive ideas on company policy. Unit 8
  77. The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time.
  78. The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize.
  79. He later blamed his poor judgment on Jet Lag.
  80. Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to overcoming it.
  81. In time, the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.
  82. It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone.
  83. That is by no means the best way of proceeding.
  84. He didn't take alarm at the news.
  85. The pianist promoted a grand benefit concert.
  86. He didn't want to be tied to a steady job.
Unit 9
  87. The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth, the older its population is likely to be-at least, for any future that concerns us now.
  88. To these now familiar facts a number of further facts may be added, some of them only recently recognized.
  89. There is the appreciation of the salient historical truth that the aging of advanced societies has been a sudden change.
  90. Taken together, these things have implications which are only beginning to be acknowledged.
  91. There is often resistance to the idea that it is because the birthrate fell earlier in Western and Northwestern Europe than elsewhere,… that we have grown so old.
  92. Long life is altering our society, of course, but in experiential terms.
  93. But too much of that lengthened experience, even in the wealthy West, will be experience of poverty and neglect, unless we do something about it.
  94. Your account of what happened approximates to the real facts.
  95. His earnings are out of all proportion to his skill and ability. Unit 10
  96. A minor-party or independent candidate,… can draw votes away from the major-party nominees but stands almost no chance of defeating them.
  97. Party loyalty has declined in recent decades, but more than two-thirds of the nation's voters still identify themselves as Democrats or Republicans.
  98. In deciding whether to pursue a course of action, they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters.
  99. The slogan was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation's slow-moving economy. 1
  00. As in 1980, when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times, the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change. 1
  01. Whether voters accept this image, however, depends more on external factors than on a candidate's personal characteristics. 1
  02. As in 1980, when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times, the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change. 1
  03. Bush tried to stir images of his strong leadership of the war, but voters remained concerned about the economy. 1
  04. The invention is going to cause a big stir in the world. 1
  05. You should save up money to make provision for the future. Unit 11 1
  06. Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results. 1
  07. It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals. 1
  08. If thalidomide were invented today, it would never be released for human use because new tests on pregnant animals would reveal the dangers. 1
  09. The number of animals used in laboratory tests has declined over the last 20 years 1
  10. One experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat's leg, leaving its leg paralysed.
  11. Even with these new developments in research, only a tiny proportion of all tests are done without using animals at some stage. 1
  12. The use of animals in experiments cannot stop immediately if medical research is to continue and consumer products are to be properly tested. 1
  13. When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body, we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals. 1
  14. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used in experiments may decrease, but stopping testing on animals altogether is a long way away. 1
  15. I was surprised to see his room in such a litter. 1
  16. The conditions that existed ten years ago are reproduced today. Unit 12 1
  17. Until recently daydreaming was generally considered either a waste of time or a symptom of neurotic tendencies. 1
  18. At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life. 1
  19. As with anything carried to excess, daydreaming can be harmful. 1
  20. There is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. 1
  21. Daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth, power of concentration, and the ability to interact and communicate with others. 1
  22. Daydreaming resulted in improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking ability. 1
  23. Contrary to popular belief, constant and conscious effort at solving a problem is, in reality, one of the most inefficient ways of coping with it. 1
  24. Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind. 1
  25. The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them. 1
  26. Daydreaming is highly beneficial to your physical and mental well-being. 1
  27. Escape being impossible, the rabbit turned to confront the dog. 1
  28. The difficulties that confront us cannot be overcome. Unit 13 1
  29. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing, or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance. 1
  30. In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished, the sign th



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