自考英语备考:英语二阅读辅导(
  1)
What Is a Decision?
A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.
Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions, indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future, many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at that the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight; at other times they are serious.Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice.
For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. Fox managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.
Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives
are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done.
For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an eigher/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.
At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.
Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.
These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department.
Different managers define the same problem in different terms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.
The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.
People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future
consequences of current decisions.
什么是决策?
决策是从可供挑选的行动方向中作选择。 决策的目的是建立并实现一个机构的目的和目 标。之所以要决策是因为有问题存在,目标或目的的不适当,或者有某种东西妨碍了目标或 目的的实现。
因此,决策过程对于管理非常重要。一个管理者做的差不多所有事情都离不开决策。有 人甚至提出管理就是决策。 虽然管理者不能预见未来, 但是他们要做的很多决策需要他们考 虑将来可能发生的情况。 管理者常常必须对未来的情况作出最佳的猜测, 使偶然性尽可能少
地发生。但是因为总是在不确定的因素,所以决策往往伴随着风险。一个不当的决策的后果 有时不严重而有时严重。
选择就是从多个选项中进行挑选的机会。 没有选择就没有决策。 决策本身就是一个选择 的过程。很多决策有很宽的选择范围。例如,一个学生为了自己获得学位的志向,可以在许 多不同的课程里作选择。对管理者来说,每一个决策都受着政策、程序、法律、先例等方面 的制约。这些制约在一个机构的各个阶层都存在。选择项就是可供选择、可能的行动方向; 没有选择项,就没有选择,也就没有了决策。如果看不到有不同的选择项,说明对问题还没 有进行全面的研究。 一些管理者有时用非此即彼的方式处理问题, 这虽然是他们简化复杂问 题的方法,但是习惯了简化常使他们看不到别的解决办法。在管理这个层次上,决策包括识 别选择项和减少选择项两个步骤;其范围可以从极为有限的几个选择项到几乎无限多的选择 项。
决策者必须有办法能从多种选择里确定一种为最佳, 也就是说哪个对实现机构目标帮助 最大,机构的目标也就是此机构所寻求的事态的结果。如何实现目标,个人和组织都有不同 的看法。因此,最佳选择可能就取决于决策人了。通常一个组织内的单位或部门作出的决策 可能有利于本部门、本单位,但对比它们大的机构来说就不是最佳选择了。这就是所谓的局 部优化: 增加对一单位或部门的便利同时减少对另一个单位或部门的便利, 这是在两利不能 兼顾的情况下所做的取舍。例如,经理可以把增加广告预算的必要性讲得头头是道,但是从 总的布局看,增加改进产品的科研费用也许对这个组织更有好处。
因为一个组织希望同时达到的目标很多, 所以就要进行权衡, 虽然有些目标比另一些重 要,但重要程度和次序则常常因人而异,因部门而异。管理者不同对同一问题所做的解说也 是不同的。把同样一种情况摆在他们面前,销售经理看的是销售问题,生产经理看的是生产 问题,如此等等。
多个目标的排序和重要性在某种程度上是以决策者的价值观为依据的。 这些价值观念是 个性的,很难捉摸,甚至抱有这种观念的人自己也很难弄清楚;这是因为价值观不断变化, 也很复杂。很多商业活动中,不同的人对于风险和收益的可接受程度的价值观不一样,这就 导致了他们对决策正确与否的看法也不同。
人们常以为决策是一个孤立的现象,但从系统的观念看,问题的产生有多种原因,所以 决策既有意料中的结果,又有意料外的结果。一个组织是一个发展的实体,所以今天所做的 决策对未来可能产生意义深远的影响。 因此一个老练的管理者常要考虑当前决策在将来产生 的结果。
Secrets of Success at an Interview
The subject of today's talk is interviews.
The key words here are preparation and confidence, which will carry you far.
Do your homework first.
Find out all you can about the job you are applying for and the organization you hope to work for.
Many of the employers I interviewed made the same criticism of candidates. "They have no idea what the day to day work of the job brings about. They have vague notions of 'furthering the company's prospects' or of 'serving the community', but have never taken the trouble to find out the actual tasks they will be required to do."
Do not let this be said of you. It shows an unattractive indifference to your employer and to your job.
Take the time to put yourself into the interviewer's place. He wants somebody who is hard-working with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job.
Anything that you find out about the prospective employer can be used to your advantage during the interview to show that you have bothered to master some facts about the people who you hope to work for.
Write down (and remember) the questions you want to ask the interviewer(s) so that you are not speechless when they invite your questions. Make sure that holidays and pay are not the first things you ask about. If all your questions have been answered during the interview, replay: "I did have several questions, but you have already
answered them all."
Do not be afraid to ask for clarification of something that has been said during the interview if you want to be sure what was implied, but do be polite.
Just before you go to the interview, look again at the original advertisement that you answered, any correspondence from your prospective employer, photocopies of your letter of application or application form and your resume.
Then you will remember what you said and what they want. This is very important if you have applied for many jobs in a short time as it is easy to become confused and give an impression of inefficiency.
Make sure you know where and when you have to report for the interview. Go to the building (but not inside the office) a day or two before, if necessary, to find out how long the journey takes and where exactly the place is.
Aim to arrive five or ten minutes early for the actual interview, then you will have a little time in hand and you will not panic if you are delayed. You start at a disadvantage if you arrive worried and ten minutes late.
Dress in clean, neat, conservative clothes. Now is NOT the time to experiment with the punk look or (girls) to wear low-cut dresses with miniskirts. Make sure that your shoes, hands and hair (and teeth) are clean and neat.
Have the letter inviting you for an interview ready to show in case there is any difficulty in communication.
You may find yourself facing one interviewer or a panel. The latter is far more intimidating, but do not let it worry you too much.
The interviewer will probably have a table in front of him/her. Do not put your things or arms on it.
If you have a bag or a case, put it on the floor beside your chair. Do not clutch it nervously or, worse still, drop it, spilling everything.
Shake hands if the interviewer offers his hand first. There is little likelihood that a panel of five wants to go though the process of all shaking hands with you in turn. So you do not be upset if no one offers.
Shake hands firmly - a weak hand suggests a weak personality, and a crushing grip is obviously painful. Do not drop the hand as soon as yours has touched it as this will seem to show you do not like the other person.
Speak politely and naturally even if you are feeling shy. Think before you answer any questions.
If you cannot understand, ask: "Would you mind rephrasing the question, please?" The question will then be repeated in different words.
If you are not definitely accepted or turned down on the spot, ask: "When may I expect to hear the results of this interview?"
If you do receive a letter offering you the job, you must reply by letter (keep a photocopy) as soon as possible.
Good luck!
面试成功的决窍
我们今天的话题是面试。
这里送你一句话:有备而往,信心当强。相信这句话会让你受益匪浅。
首先要做好面试之外的工作。
尽可能地了解你所申请的工作和希望为之工作的机构的情况。
我所采访的许多雇主对应聘人做了相同的批评:"他们对这项工作的日常事务会带来什 么一无所知。他们对'拓展公司的前景'、'进行社会服务'只有模模糊 糊的认识,但从不下工 夫对他们要做的实际工作作深入的了解。"
不要让人这样评价自己;那样的话,说明你对雇主和工作太不在乎,这可不是个好印象。
不妨设身处地替雇主和工作太不在乎,他要的是勤奋的、性格让人喜欢的雇员,而且对 所做的工作真正感兴趣。
对未来的老板所做的任何了解都可以用于面试上, 这对你有利。 表明你对希望为之效力 的雇主的情况曾下过一番功夫了解。
把要询问考官的问题写下来或记住, 这样当他要你提问时不至于无话可说。 不要上去就 问假期如何, 工资如何。 如果你准备的所有问题在面试过程中都已 得到了回答, 你可以说: "我刚才确实有一些什么问题要问,但您
 

相关内容

高考英语作文

   一.开头句型 1.As far as ...is concerned 2.It goes without saying that... 3.It can be said with certainty that... 4.As the proverb says, 5.It has to be noticed that... 6.It`s generally recognized that... 7.It`s likely that ... 8.It`s hardly that... 9.It’ ...

高考英语听力

   高中英语听力教学 的探究与实践 Jiashan Senior High School Cao Yonghua 发言提纲 高中英语听力教学存在的误区 高中英语听力学习的主要障碍 高中英语听力理解的本质特征 高考英语听力要求和命题规律 高中英语听力学习的策略指导 高中英语听力培养的普遍做法 教师用英语授课 相互倾听“ 生 生 生 相互倾听“师-生,生-生”英语交流 播放阅读材料的朗读带 利用教材中的Listening 和练习册中的 利用教材中的 听力训练 举行定期的经常性的听力测试, 举行定期的 ...

高考英语听力技巧

   高考英语听力技巧 众所周知在高考英语试卷中的第一个部分就是听力,占整个英语高考卷的 1/5 分值;由于听 力长期以来是学生英语学习中的弱项, 分值比例高, 而且与语法、 阅读等书面考试题型相比, 听力考试具有极强的时间效应, 听力过程不具备复制性, 考生必须学会掌握一定的听力技巧, 充分利用宝贵的每一分钟。 1 预测技巧 1).对话预测 在听取对话, 尤其是 Part A??Short Conversation 时, 考生可以按照下例 wh-问题进行预测: (1)Who are the tw ...

中考英语听力技巧

   中考英语听力技巧 当前,中学英语教学除注重学生基础知识、基本技能的培养,更 要求侧重培养学生运用英语语言的能力。 因此, 听力测试作为了 解学生获取信息能力的有效办法, 仍然会在今年及以后的中考中 占有重要的位置(120 分试题,听力为 30 分)。初三年级的学 生,要想在中考英语测试中取得理想的成绩,在复习阶段,无论 在心理上, 还是时间利用上, 都不能忽视对这一部分能力的提高。 听力试题类型 中考听力试题在形式上最近两年没有太大改变。主要涵盖了 下列题型:单词、短语、数字、句子听辨题;句 ...

2011年高考英语听力必记词汇

   1、月份 12 months:Abb. January Jan. February Feb. March Mar. April Apr. May May.June Jun. July Jul. August Aug. September Sep(t) 。October Oct. November Nov. December Dec. 2、星期 Seven days:Abb. Sunday Sun. Monday Mon. Tuesday Tue. Wednesday Wed(s) 。 Thu ...

2010年北京高考英语听力原文

   2010 年北京高考英语听力原文 第一节 Text 1 W: Congratulations! I hear you are going to join the army. M: Thanks. But actually, it’s my twin brother who’s going to join the army. I am going to university. I wish to be a lawyer in the future. Text 2 W: Dad, can we ...

2011高考英语备考:易错题,典型题详解(一)

   脑不忘常年开设: 一年制初中★一年制高中★小升初至高三 1 对 1★中高考小升初应试班…… 易错题,典型题( 易错题,典型题(一) 1.late in the morning,Bob turned off the alarm clock. A.So as to sleep B.Sleeping C.To sleep D.Having slept 解析:本题考查不定式作目的状语的知识。 A项. so as to 和 in order to 的区别 so as to 只用于句子中间,in ord ...

2009年高考英语备考40个句型讲与练专题辅导13(附答案)

   蓝天家教网 http://www.ltjiajiao.com 伴你快乐成长 本资料来源于《七彩教育网》 本资料来源于《七彩教育网》http://www.7caiedu.cn 13(附答案) 2009 年高考英语备考 40 个句型讲与练专题辅导 13(附答案) 句型 21 ),疑问词 (1),疑问词 ),疑问词+ever whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 用来引导让步状语从句,相当于 no matter 和 wh ...

2011大学英语四级阅读辅导笔记

   教育联联展网 2011 大学英语四级阅读辅导笔记 大纲的要求:对主体细节推理以及态度题有所把握。 对阅读速度的要求:每分钟 70 个单词。 四级文章本身的特点: 1、结构: 1)文科文章常有的一些结构 A、现象解释型(文章一开始给出一个现象然后对现象进行解释,一般都会在第一段的末句是一个问 句,段末是问号。就是要我们寻找回答,问题就是一个现象,我们就要寻找解释,来做主题。)解释即为 文章的主题所在。常被考到的有:现象本身;解释;作者对解释的评价。 理科文章解释主题常有两种方式:1)罗列式的 ...

2011大学英语四级阅读辅导笔记

   教育联展网倾情奉献 大纲的要求:对主体细节推理以及态度题有所把握。 对阅读速度的要求:每分钟 70 个单词。 四级文章本身的特点: 1、结构: 1)文科文章常有的一些结构 A、现象解释型(文章一开始给出一个现象然后对现象进行解释,一般都会在第一段的末句是一个问 句,段末是问号。就是要我们寻找回答,问题就是一个现象,我们就要寻找解释,来做主题。)解释即为 文章的主题所在。常被考到的有:现象本身;解释;作者对解释的评价。 理科文章解释主题常有两种方式:1)罗列式的 2)用实验来解释主题 文中加引 ...

热门内容

人教新课标高三英语Unit2Book2复习课件第一课时(修正版)

   高三英语Unit2Book2复习课件 复习课件 高三英语 基础知识和基本技能( ) 基础知识和基本技能(I) 第一课时 2010.9.1 Step1. Listen to the tape Step2. Word quiz 根据词性和词义写出下列单词。 一、单词拼写 根据词性和词义写出下列单词。 fine 7. vt.罚款 罚款 8. v. 做广告;登广告 advertise 做广告; bargain 9. vi.讨价还价;讲条件 n.便宜货 讨价还价; 讨价还价 便宜货 10. v. .应 ...

2011中考英语模拟试题及答案(2)

   2010 年山东省济宁市济宁学院附属中学中考英语模拟试题 2010-05) (2010-05) 注意事项: 注意事项: 本试题分第Ⅰ卷和第Ⅱ卷两部分。 卷为选择题, 65分 卷为非选择题, 35分 100分 1. 本试题分第Ⅰ卷和第Ⅱ卷两部分。第Ⅰ卷为选择题, 65分;第Ⅱ卷为非选择题, 35分;共100分。考 试时间为120分钟(含听力20分钟) 试时间为120分钟(含听力20分钟)。 120分钟 20分钟 答第Ⅰ卷前务必将自己的姓名、考号、考试科目涂写在答题卡上。考试结束, 2. 答第Ⅰ ...

商务英语900句

   商务英语 900 句 1 I want a package deal including airfare and hotel. 我需要一个成套服务,包括机票和住宿 2 I'd like to change this ticket to the first class. 我想把这张票换成头等车. 3 I'd like to reserve a sleeper to Chicago. 我要预订去芝加哥的卧铺. 4 I won't check this baggage 这件行李我不托运. 5 I' ...

2011届高考英语高效备考精品资料十五

   嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用 限时训练题十五 限时训练题十五 完型填空、 完型填空、 I was successful at my job. I worked very hard , but it 1 me and my family a fabulous (极好的) lifestyle . I’d worked for the same company for twenty years and had worked my way up to dep ...

2010年6月英语四级、六级作文题材展望

   2010 年 6 月份四六级考试在即,选择近来较为流行的话题展望四六级作文,以期帮助各位 考生更好的准备写作话题和思路. 2010 年 6 月四六级作文前瞻 1:国学热 Sinology : Direction: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of "The rehabilitation of Sinology". You should write ...