自考英语二复习资料之第一章 重点单词扩充讲解:
  1. organizational: a 组织上的 由此我们可以联想到:organize: v 组织; organization: n 组织; organizer: n 组织者 请看下列习题,选择该组词里恰当的词填空:
  1). Last week, our school a spring outing.
  2). The task calls for the highest skill.
  3). China has joined World Trade .
  4). He is the of the speech contest. Answers: organized, organizational, Organization, organizer
  2. objective: n 目标; a 客观的,反义词 subjective: 主观的
  3. predict: v 预言、预示; 由此我们可以联想到:prediction: n 预言; predictable: a 可预测的; predictor: n 预言家
  4. simplify: v 简化 由此我们可以联想到:simple: a 简单的; simply: ad 简单地,仅仅地; simplification: n 简化; simplified: a 被 简化的。 Exercises for the above words:
  1). The machine is in operation but complex in structure.
  2). Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet in the original is beyond our capacity while edition is quite easy.
  3). There is no point in arguing about it, because it is a question of procedure.
  4). The of working process freed the workers fro heavy labor. Answers: simple; simplified; simply; simplification
  5. tendency: n 趋势、倾向;tend : v 倾向于…, tend to do sth e.g. old people have the tendency of getting fatter. Or old people tend to get fatter.
  6. managerial: a 经理的、经营上的; 由此我们可以联想到:manage: v 管理、经营; management: n; manager: n 经营者,管理者; manageable: a 可 管理的、可经营的。
  7. argue: v 争辩、 争论, 常用固定搭配: argu with sb about/over sth 由于某事而同某人争论; argue sb into doing sth 说服某人做某事; argue sb out of doing sth 说服某人不要做某事。 e.g. 1>. The young couple always argue with each other over their child’s education. 2>. I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey.
  8. define: v 给…下定义; definition: n 定义
  9. profitability: n 赚钱, 获利 由此我们可以联想到:profit: n 利润; profitable: a 有利可图的, 有好处的; profitless: a 没有利润的。
  1). He has made a from running a small restaurant.
  2). The deal was to all of us.
  3). They valued differently, which led to disagreement as to the correctness of decision. Answer: profit, profitable; profitability.
  10. correctness: n 正确性; 字根:correct: a 正确的; v 纠正, correction: n 纠正; incorrect: a 不正确的。
  11. unintended: a 非计划中的, 由此我们可以联想到:intend: v 打算,计划;intention: n ; intended: a 计划中的 课文难句讲解、分析
  1. A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available.(p
  1)
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译:决策就是从几种可以选择的做法中作出选择。 分析:该句是主系表结构。made from among alternative courses of action that are available 是过去分词短语做定语 修饰 a choice; 其中 that are available 是定语从句修饰 courses of action. 像这样一环修饰一环的句子结构在英文中很普遍, 因此为了看懂句子大家必须学会分析。 这是整个英语学习过程 中很重要的能力!
  2. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them. (p
  1) 译:做出决策的原因是因为存在问题,目标或 目的有错误,或者有某种东西防碍着它们的实现。 分析:该句又是主系表结构。That 引导三个并列的表语从句,①a problem exists,②goals or objectives are wrong; ③something is standing in the way of accomplishing them。 短语:make a decision:做出决策;stand in the way: 阻挡、 防碍
  3. Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. (p
  2) 译:通常管理者必须对未来的情况做出最佳预测,从而使偶然性尽可能少地发生,但因为不确定性总是存在,所 以决策常伴随着风险。 分析:前半句是主谓宾结构。what the future will be 是 at 的宾语;as little as possible 做 leave 的宾语;since 引导 原因状语从句,相当于 because.
  4. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. (p
  3) 译:如果没有选择,就不会有决策。 分析:这是一句很简单的条件状语从句,但它有一个很重要的考点:to be made。这是动词不定式做定语修饰 decision,有将来意味。比如:The last question to be discussed today is how to divide the work among ourselves.
  5. For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. (p
  3) 译:对于管理者而言,每次决策都受到政策、程序、法律以及惯例等因素制约。 分析:这句话的考点是 based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like。同样是过去分词短语做定语修 饰 constraints。其中词组:base…on 以…为基础。 如:The film is based on s short story by Jack London.
  6. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives. (p
  4) 译:但是这种简化的倾向使得他们看不到其他可供选择的方法。 分析:该句主语 the tendency to simplify,谓语 blinds; them 是宾语。to simplify 是定语,修饰 the tendency;to other alternatives 是宾补。其中短语:blind sb to sth:使…看不见…; we shouldn’t let our prejudices blind us to the facts.
  7. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. (p6 line 4--
  6) 译:因为个人(和组织)关于如何达到目的常有不同的观点,哪种是最优的选择可能要看是谁做出决策。 分析:这是一个由 because 引导的原因状语从句。其中 how to attain the goals 做介词 about 的宾语,who makes the decision 做介词 on 的宾语。
  8. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. (p7 line 2--
  4) 译:其中有一些目标比其它的更重要,但其顺序和重要程度因人和不同的部门而异。 分析:请注意比较级 more important than,词组:vary from person to person 译成中文:因人而异,可以推出:因 季节而异 vary from season to season….
  9. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on. (p7 line 5--
  7) 译:当面对同一件日常事情时,销售经理倾向于看销售问题,而生产经理则会看生产相关的问题,等等。 分析:前半部分为常考内容,它是 when + 过去分词短语,构成时间状 语部分。其中词组:
第 2 页 共 24 页
be presented with = be faced with 当面对… When faced with difficulties, we should be brave..
  10. People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. (p
  9) 译:人们经常假设一项决策是孤立的现象。 分析:句子结构简单:主谓宾(从句) 。其中 assume: = imagine; isolated: adj 孤立的。 phenomenon: n 现象;复数变化较特殊:phenomena|重点单词、词组详讲
  1. interview: n/v 采访、面试;interviewer: n 采访者; interviewee: n 被采访者 e.g. 1>. Who''s the most famous person you''ve ever interviewed on TV? 2>. In a TV interview last night, she denied she had any intention of resigning.
  2. criticism: n 批评,评论; criticize: v 批评; critical: a 批评的、挑剔的、关键的;critic: n 评论家, 请填填看。 1> He is a literary . 2> We are at a time in our history. 3> He can''t take . 4> The boy was by his father for being late for school. Answers: critic, critical, criticism, criticized
  3. indifference: n 冷漠、漠不关心;indifferent: a 冷漠的,反义词:enthusiastic: 热情的 cf: different: a 不同的,名词:difference; 反义词:same.
  4. inefficiency: n 无效,由此联想得到: efficient: a 高效率的; efficiency: n inefficient: a 低效率的
  5. conservative: a 保守的、保存的; conserve: v 保存; conservation: n
  6. apply to sb for sth: 向某人申请某物 e.g. The student applied to the embassy for a visa.
  7. take the trouble to do sth: 不辞劳苦、费力地做某事 e.g. If you took the trouble to listen to what I was saying, you''d know what I was talking about.
  8. put oneself in somebody''s place: 设身处地… If you put yourself in your mother''s place, you will understand why she is so worried about you.
  9. in hand: 手头上有,进行中 I''ve got enough money in hand to buy a new car.
  10. turn down: 调小,降低,拒绝 Turn down the TV, for the baby is sleeping. He turned down the job because the pay isn''t good enough. 课文难句分析
  1. The key words here are preparation and confidence, which will carry you far. (p
  2) 译:这里的关键词是准备和自信,它们将使你前程远大。 分析:which will carry you far 非限定性定语从句,修饰 preparation and confidence。另外请注意:key 关键的; preparation 是 prepare 的名词;confidence: n 信心。Confident: a 有信心的;self-confidence: 自信心。
  2. Find out all you can about the job you are applying for and the origination you hope to work for. (p
  4) 译:了解你所申请的工作和你希望为之工作的组织。 分析: are applying for 定语, you 修饰 the job; you hope to work for 定语修饰 the origination。 词组: apply to sb for sth 向某人申请什么。
  3. It shows an unattractive indifference to your employer and to your job. (p
  6) 译:它表明你对雇主和你的工作的态度冷漠,不感兴趣。 分析:it 主语;shows 谓语;an unattractive indifference 宾语;to your employer and to your job 间接宾语。Show sth to sb=show sb sth.另外,请注意:indifference: 冷漠,漠视。
  4. He wants somebody who is hard-working with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job. (p
  7) 分析:who is hard-working with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job 全部都是定语,修饰 somebody。注
第 3 页 共 24 页
意介词 with 表示带有。; have interest in sth 对…有兴趣。 。
  5. Anything that you find out about the prospective employer can be used to your advantage during the interview to show that you have bothered to master some facts about the people who you hope to work for. (p
  8) 译: 你找到的任何有关未来雇主的信息在面试中都能为你所用, 以表示你费了心思去掌握一些关于你希望为其工 作的人的事实。 分析:从这个句子的长度大家也能看出这是一个复杂句。主体结构为:anything can be used to your advantage. that you find out about the prospective employer 是定语从句; during the interview 状语; show that you have bothered to master to some facts about the people who you hope to work for 是目的状语; you hope to work for 是另外一个定语从句修饰 the who people. 词组:to your advantage: 对你有利;work for sb 为某人工作。
  6. Do not be afraid to ask for clarification of something that has been said during the interview if you want to be sure what was implied, but do be polite. (p
  10) 译:面试中如果你想确切地知道某些话的含义,不要害怕请对方解释清楚,但一定要有礼貌。 分析: 基本句型: be afraid to do sth; 不要害怕去做某事; for clarification 要求澄清; has been said during not ask that the interview 定语,修饰 something; what was implied 宾语;do be polite: 其中 do 为了强调,如:do be careful! I do love you! He does lie to us!
  7. Have the letter inviting you for an interview ready to show in case there is any difficulty in communication. (p
  16) 译: 拿着邀请你面试的通知书,以防万一交谈出现困难时显示。 分析:这是一个祈使句。Have 动词,拿着;the letter 宾语;inviting you for an interview 现在分词做定语;ready to show 状语;in case there is any difficulty in communication 条件状语从句;词组:there is some difficulty in sth/doing sth 在…方面有困难。如:We have some difficulty speaking English fluently.
  8. There is little likelihood that a panel of five wants to go through the process of all shaking hands with you in turn. (p
  20) 译:由五个人构成的专门小组几乎不可能轮流与你握手。 分析:这句话的重点在于 that a panel of five ants to go through the process of all shaking hands with you in turn 是一 个同位语从句,是对 little likelihood 的解释。其中:likelihood: n 可能性,相当于 possibility; go through 经历; in turn: 轮流。
  9. Would you mind rephrasing the question, please? (p
  23) 译:您介意换个说法来问这个问题吗? 分析:考点 mind doing sth. 如: Would you mind turning down the TV? 语法:介绍 as 的相关用法 as 是一个乍一看简单,但实际在英语中用法很复杂的小词。从词类上讲,可以
 

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