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英语二复习精要
UNIT1 1,wordstudy objective,accompany,argue,define ①objective a.⑴客观的,真实的.⑵如实的,无偏见的. Wehavetoaccepttheobjectiverealityasitis. 我们必须 接受客观事实. Theliterarycriticsshouldbeasobjectiveaspossibleinanalysisandjudgement. 文学批评 家在分析和评价时应尽量不偏不倚. n.目标,目的. Peopleworkhardtocarryouttheeconomicobjectivesof theNinthFive-YearPlan. 人们为了实现第九个五年规划的经济目标而努力工作. Myobjectivefor thepresent istopasstheoralexam. 我目前的目标是通过口试. ②accompany vt./vi.1,伴随,陪同;2, 为..伴奏 . Thesingerwasaccompaniedonthepianobyhispupil. 演唱者由他的学生担任钢琴伴奏. Thelonelyoldmanisaccompaniedbyhisdog. 这位孤独的老人让他的狗作伴. Allordersmustbeaccompaniedwithcash. 所有的订货单必须随附现金. ③argue vt./vi.争辩,争 论,辩论 作不及物动词用时,后边可以接with,about或over,for(赞成)或against(反对) . Sheisalwaysreadytoargueover thesmallestissues. 她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论. HeoftenarguesphilosophywithJames. 他常和詹姆斯讨论哲学. Hearguedforimmediateaction. 他主张立即行动. Theyarguedagainstsuchapolicy. 他 们反对这种政策.vt.1,说服;2, 用辩论说服 argueinto(outof)doingsth.. 说服某人做(不做)某事. Iarguedhimoutofgoingonsuchadangerousjourney. 我说服他不做 这样危险的旅行. Hearguedthatmanwasdescendedfromapes. 他论证人类的祖先是猿. ④define vt.1,解释,给. .下定义;2,限定, . 规定.
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Workisdefinedastheproductofaforceandthedistancethroughwhichitspointofapplication movesinthedirectionof theforce. 功的定义是力和力的着力点沿力的方向移动的距离的乘积. Hehasdefinedhispositionontheissues. 他已表明自己在这些问题上的立场. 2,常考句型 1,决策是在现有的可选做法中所做的选择.P1 Adecisionisachoicemadefromamongalternativecoursesof actionthatareavailable. 2,管理者经常必须对未来的情况下做出最佳的猜测,尽量不存侥幸.P2 Oftenmanagersmustmakeabestguessat whatthefuturewillbeandtrytoleaveaslittleas possibletochance. 3,如果没有选择,就无决策可言.P3 Ifthereisnochoice,thereisnodecisiontobemade. 4,对于管理者而言,每次决策都受到政策,程序,法律,惯例等待因素的制约.P3 Formanagers,everydecisionhasconstraintsbasedonpolicies,procedures,laws,precedents,and thelike. 5,例如,管理者有时以非此即彼的方式来处理问题.P4 Forexample,managers sometimestreatproblemsinaneither/orfashion. 6,决策者们必须有办法决定数个可选项中的哪一个是最好的哪一个对组织目标的实现起 作用最大.P6 Decisionmakersmusthavesomewayof determining whichof severalalternativesisbest?thatis, whichcontributesthemosttotheachievementof organizationalgoals. 7,就更大的系统来说,增加研究经费以便改进产品,对该组织更有益.P6 Inthelargerschemeofthings,however,increasedfundingforresearchtoimprovetheproducts mightbemorebeneficialtotheorganization. 8,有些目标比另一些目标更重要,但其排序和重要性则因人和部门而异.P7 Someoftheseobjectivesaremoreimportantthanothers,buttheorderanddegreeofimportance oftenvaryformpersontopersonandfromdepartmenttodepartment. 3,习题
  1.单词英译汉 goal,objective,accomplish,predict,accompany,implement,tendency,achievement,argue, budget,define,entity,
  2.词组英译汉 intheway, inpart,pointof view,contributeto,toapplyfor,inhand,toturndown
  3.句子英译汉与常 考句型相同.
  4.TextA汉译英决策者应该能够对将来作出 最好的推测. Decisionmakersshouldbeabletomakeabestguessatwhatthefuturewillbe. 有人认为经理们所作的一切均与决策有关. Somepeoplebelievealmost everythingamanagerdoesinvolvesdecision. 没有正确的选择就没有正确的决定. Ifthereisnoproperchoice,thereisnoproperdecision.
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不同的人对同样的问题有不同的看法,所以解决的办法也不同. Differentpeoplehavedifferentideasaboutthesameproblem;theirsolutionstotheproblem are,therefore,alsodifferent. 决策者往往是公司业务发展的关键. Decisionmakersoftenplaythekeyroleinthedevelopmentofthebusinessof acompany. Decisionmakersareusuallykeypeoplewhodeterminethecompany'sbusinessdevelopment. 4,历年试题

  1. Almosteverythinga managerdoes (involve)decisions,indeed,some suggestthatt hemanagement processis decisionmaking . (
  99.
  4). 答案是involves .考点 :involve为谓语动词,应该用一般现在时.
  2.If there is nochoice,thereis nodecision(make). (
  99.
  4) 答案是to be made .考点: tobe made 是动词不定式作定语修饰decision.
  3. If youare nowyourthirties, youcanexpect tolive nearly onethird of therestofyo ur life aftertheageof
  60. (
  99.
  4) A. in 答案是A.
  4. Almosteverythinga managerdoesdecisions;indeed,some suggestthatthemanagement processis decision making.(
  00.
  4) A. imposes 答案为C .
  5. When__(present)with acommon case,sales managerstendtoseesalesproblemsand productionmanagersseeproductionproblems. 答案为presented .考点:present是过去分词作状语.
  6. Anorganization is a groupof people,anda decision_(make) todaymay have conseque ncesfar intothefuture. 答案是made .考点:make是过 去分词作定语,修饰decision .
  7. 汉译英:通常管理者必须对未来的情况作出最佳的预测. 答案:Oftenmanagers mustmake a best guessat what the future will be. B. improvise C. involves D.indicates B. at C. between D.among
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  1. 决策的目的是为了实现组织的目标. 答: The purposeof making adecision isto achieve organizational goals.
  2. 决策过程对经营管理至关重要. 答:The decision-makingprocessis fundamental to businessmanagement.
  3. 经理所做的任何事情几乎都与决策有关. 答: Almost everything amanager does involvesdecision-making.
  4. 虽然我们不能预见未来,但应当尽量减少偶然性发生. 答:Althoughwe cannot predictthe future,we must try t leave as little as possible to c hance.
  5. 不同的管理者对同一问题的解释不同. 答:Different manager define the same problem in differentterms.
UNIT2 1,wordstudy exert,collapse,lauch,operate ①exert vt.尽(力) ;发挥(威力等) ;施加(压力等) ;产生(影响等) ;行使(职 权等) Hehasexertedallhisstrengthtoattainhisgoal. 他已尽了全力以达到自己的目标. Hehasbeenexertingalotof pressureonmetochangemymind. 他一直在施加种种压力要我改变主意. Theseprinciplesexerted greatinfluenceuponthecourseoftherevolution. 这些原则对革命进程产生了很大的影响. ②collapse n.1,倒塌,崩溃,瓦解;2, (健康等)垮掉, (因精疲力竭等 原因)倒下Thestormcausedthecollapseofthewoodenshelter. 暴风雨使这个避风雨的木棚倒塌了. Hesufferedfromanervouscollapse. 他的精神崩溃了. Thecollapseofthegovernmentleftthecountryinconfusion. 政府的倒台使全国陷入混乱之中. vi.倒塌,崩溃 Theroofcollapsedundertheweightof thesnow.
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屋顶被雪压塌了. Thenegotiationscollapsedafterseveral meetings. 会谈了几次之后,谈判破裂了. Inthelastweeksof thewarshecollapsedfromlongimprisonment. 在战争的最后几个星期里她的身体因长期监禁而垮掉了. ③lauch vt1,发射,投射;2,使(船)下水 Thesatellitewaslaunchedinarocket. 这颗 卫星是由火箭发射的. Thehunterlaunchedaspearatthewolf. 猎人把矛向狼掷去. Anewshiphasbeensuccessfullylaunched. 一条新船已成功地下水. vt./vi.发动,发起(运动等) launchoutinto 开始,着手进行 Ourarmylaunchedanattackontheenemy. 我们的军队向敌人发起猛攻. Thepolicelaunchedaninvestigationintothecase. 警察对此案开展了调查. Theresearch grouplaunchedoutintoaseriesof newexperiment. 研究小组着手进行了一系列新的实验. ④operate vi.1,运转,起作用;2,动手术(on,upon) Theelevatoroperatessmoothly. 电梯运行顺利. Themedicinegraduallyoperated. 药物逐渐奏效了. Thedoctoroperatedontheneckof thepatient. 医生 给病人的颈部动手术.vt.1,操作,操纵, 经营;2,对..动手术 . Thisairlineoperatesfivemainlinesanddozensof branchlines. 这家航空公司经营五条主干线和十几条支线. Doyouknowhowtooperatethemachine? 你知道怎 么开这台机器吗? Thedoctoroperatedthepatient ontheneck. 医生给病人的颈部动手术. Hewasoperatedonfor lungcancer. 他因肺癌动了手术. 2,常考句型 1,天文学家和科学家认为黑洞是一种空间区,物质可以掉进黑洞但任何物质不能逃脱.P1 Astronomersandscientiststhinkthatablackholeisaregionof spaceintowhichmatterhasfallen andfromwhichnothingcanescape.
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2,理论上是这样的:当某些星体的密度增大到某一特定点时便发生爆炸.P2 Thetheoryisthatsomestarsexplodewhentheirdensityincreasestoaparticularpoint. 3,有人认为圣诞星可能是一颗超新星.P2 SomepeoplethinkthattheStartofBethlehemcouldhavebeenasupernova. 4,假定一个人掉进黑洞,他会认为很快就能到达黑洞中心.P3 Ifamanfellintoablackhole,hewouldthinkthathereached thecenterof itveryquickly. 5,只是在近几年天文学家才开始具体研究黑洞.P3 Itisonlyrecentlythatastronomershavebegunspecificresearch intoblackholes. 6,另一方面,科学家们也在设想,由于有非常先进的技术,人们也许能在将来利用黑洞为 人类服务.P5 Ontheotherhand,scientistshavesuggestedthateveryadvancedtechnologycouldonedaymake useof theenergyof blackholes for mankind. 3,习题 Unit2 练习:
  1.词汇英译汉: escape, explode, collapse, shrink, gravity, measurement, basis, launch, convincing, companion, speculation,swallow,operate,tomakeuseof,agreatmany,above all
  2.句子英译汉:
  1) ~
  6)与常考句型相同.
  7)Theremightbeamassiveblackholeatthecenterofourgalaxyswallowingupstarsata veryrapidrate.
  8)Theyshowusaworldwhichoperatesinatotallydifferentwayfromourownandthey questionour mostbasicexperienceof spaceandtime. 3 句子汉译英 黑洞是什么,天文学家还没有完全解决这个问题. Astronomershavenotyetfullysolvedtheproblemofwhatablackholeis. 据说黑洞可以将其周围的一切物体,如星星吞食掉. Itissaidthatblackholesareabletoswallowup alltheobjectsaroundthem,suchasstars. 对黑洞的研究刚刚开始,各种各样的假说层出不穷. Theresearch ofblackholesisjustbeginningandspeculationaboutthemareendless. 科学家仍不能说出黑洞内发生了什么. Scientists stillcannottellwhathappensinsideablackhole. Itisstillimpossibleforscientiststotellwhathappensinsideablackhole. 如果我们认识了黑洞,黑洞就不那么可怕了. If weunderstoodblackholes,theywouldnotbesofearful . Blackholeswillnotbesofearful ifwegettoknowthem. 单元课后练习 Ⅰ.WordSpelling
  1.密度n.density
  2.(使)倒塌, (使)崩溃v.collapse
  3.边界线,边界n.boundary
  4.永恒的,经久不变的a.c
  5.基础,根据n.b
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  6.发射,发动v.l
  7.双胞胎之一a.t
  8.同伴,同事n.c
  9.人类n.m
  10.推测,猜测n.s
  11.吞v.s
  12.不充分的a.i
  13.物质n.m
  14.情况,环境a.c
  15.发生,出现v.o
  16.强烈的a.i
  17.证据n.e
  18.看不见的a.i
  19.宇航员n.a
  20.热带的a.t Ⅱ.WordForm
  1.Supernovae (report)byastronomersintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.
  2.Imaginetheearthreducedtothesizeofamarble,butstill (have)thesamemass,andyou havesomeideaof theforceof ablackhole.
  3.Ifone (make)ajourneyovertheContinentsonewouldfindeverykindofsurfaceincluding mountainranges,plains,andemptyareascoveredpermanentlybyiceandsnow.
  4.And astronomers are planning a new observatory to study the individual exploding stars (believe)tobeblackholes.
  5.Matterfromtheonewhichwecansee (pull)towardsthecompanionstar.
  6.Theremightbeamassiveblackholeatthecentreofourgalaxy (swallow)upstarsatavery rapidrate.
  7.Themost (convince)evidenceof blackholescomesfromresearch intobinarystarsystems.
  8.Theyshowusaworldwhichoperatesina (total)differentwayfromourown.
  9.Thesurfaceof someareas (consist)largelyofhighmountainsanddeepvalleys. (colour)
  10.Ourworldisthehomeofaverygreatmanydifferentpeople-peopleswithdifferent skins. Ⅲ.VocabularyandStructure
  1.Astronomersandscientiststhinkthatablackholeisaregionofspace(notathing) which matterhasfallenand whichnothingcan escape-notevenlight. [A]intointo [B]intofrom [C]frominto [D]fromfrom
  2.Thisprocessofshrinkingmaybesointense ablackholeresults. [A]whether [B]what [C]which [D]that theirnamesuggests,aretwinstarswhosepositionin spaceaffectseachother. [A]as
  3.Binarystars, [B]that [C]what [D]if
  4.Insomebinarysystems,astronomershave shownthatthereis aninvisible companion star,a 'partner'to whichwecanseeinthesky. [A]theone [B]that [C] theones [D]those
  5.Ontheotherhand,scientistshavesuggested thatveryadvanced technologycouldoneday the
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energyof blackholes for mankind. [A]makefunof [B] makesureof [C] makeus
 

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