大学英语自学教程(下)
01-A. What Is a Decision?
A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.
Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions, indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future, many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, hut since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight; at other times they are serious.
Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.
Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.
At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.
Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best -- that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.
These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in different terms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.
The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.
People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.
01-B. Secrets of Success at an Interview
The subject of today's talk is interviews.
The key words here are preparation and confidence, which will carry you far.
Do your homework first.
Find out all you can about the job you are applying for and the organization you hope to work for.
Many of the employers I interviewed made the same criticism of candidates. "They have no idea what the day to day work of the job brings about. They have vague notions of "furthering the company's prospects’ or of 'serving the community', but have never taken the trouble to find out the actual tasks they will be required to do.”
Do not let this be said of you. It shows an unattractive indifference to your employer and to your job.
Take the time to put yourself into the interviewer's place. He wants somebody who is hard-working with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job.
Anything that you find out about the prospective employer can be used to your advantage during the interview to show that you have bothered to master some facts about the people who you hope to work for.
Write down (and remember) the questions you want to ask the interviewer(s) so that you are not speechless when they invite your questions. Make sure that holidays and pay are not the first things you ask about. If all your questions have been answered during the interview, reply: "In fact, I did have several questions, but you have already answered them all.”
Do not be afraid to ask for clarification of something that has been said during the interview if you want to be sure what was implied, but do be polite.
Just before you go to the interview, look again at the original advertisement that you answered, any correspondence from your prospective employer, photocopies of your letter of application or application form and your resume.
Then you will remember what you said and what they want. This is very important if you have applied for many jobs in a short time as it is easy to become confused and give an impression of inefficiency.
Make sure you know where and when you have to report for the interview. Go to the building (but not inside the office) a day or two before, if necessary, to find out how long the journey takes and where exactly the place is.
Aim to arrive five or ten minutes early for the actual interview, then you will have a little time in hand and you will not panic if you are delayed. You start at a disadvantage if you arrive worried and ten minutes late.
Dress in clean, neat, conservative clothes. Now is NOT the time to experiment with the punk look or (girls) to wear low-cut dresses with miniskirts. Make sure that your shoes, hands and hair (and teeth) are clean and neat.
Have the letter inviting you for an interview ready to show in case there is any difficulty in communication.
You may find yourself facing one interviewer or a panel. The latter is far more intimidating, but do not let it worry you too much. The interviewer will probably have a table in front of him/her. Do not put your things or arms on it.
If you have a bag or a case, put it on the floor beside your chair. Do not clutch it nervously or, worse still, drop it, spilling everything.
Shake hands if the interviewer offers his hand first. There is little likelihood that a panel of five wants to go though the process of all shaking hands with you in turn. So you do not be upset if no one offers.
Shake hands firmly -- a weak hand suggests a weak personality, and a crushing grip is obviously painful. Do not drop the hand as soon as yours has touched it as this will seem to show you do not like the other person.
Speak politely and naturally even if you are feeling shy. Think before you answer any questions.
If you cannot understand, ask: "Would you mind rephrasing the question, please?" The question will then be repeated in different words.
If you are not definitely accepted or turned down on the spot, ask: "When may I expect to hear the results of this interview?"
If you do receive a letter offering you the job, you must reply by letter (keep a photocopy) as soon as possible.
Good luck!
02-A. Black Holes
What is a black hole? Well, it's difficult to answer this question, since the terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here. Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space (not a thing ) into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape ?not even light. So we can't see a black hole. A black hole exerts a strong gravitational pull and yet it has no matter. It is only space -- or so we think. How can this happen?
The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point; they collapse and sometimes a supernova occurs. From earth, a supernova looks like a very bright light in the sky which shines even in the daytime. Supernovae were reported by astronomers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Some people think that the Star of Bethlehem could have been a supernova. The collapse of a star may produce a White Dwarf or a neutron star -- a star, whose matter is so dense that it continually shrinks by the force of its own gravity. But if the star is very large (much bigger than our sun) this process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results. Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble, but still having the same mass and a stronger gravitational pull, and you have some idea of the force of a black hole. Any matter near the black hole is sucked in. It is impossible to say what happens inside a black hole. Scientists have called the boundary area around the hole the "event horizon." We know nothing about events which happen once objects pass this boundary. But in theory, matter must behave very differently inside the hole.
For example, if a man fell into a black hole, he would think that he reached the center of it very quickly. However an observer at the event horizon would think that the man never reached the center at all. Our space and time laws don't seem to apply to objects in the area of a black hole. Einstein's relativity theory is the only one which can explain such phenomena. Einstein claimed that matter and energy are interchangeable, so that there is no "absolute" time and space. There are no constants at all, and measurements of time and space depend on the position of the observer. They are relative. We do not yet fully understand the implications of the relativity theory; but it is interesting that Einstein's theory provided a basis for the idea of black holes before astronomers started to find some evidence for their existence. It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes. In August 1977, a satellite was launched to gather data about the 10 million black holes which are thought to be in the Milky Way. And astronomers are planning a new observatory to study the individual exploding stars believed to be black holes,
The most convincing evidence of black holes comes frown research into binary star systems. Binary stars, as their name suggests, are twin stars whose position in space affects each other. In some binary systems, astronomers have shown that there is an invisible companion star, a "partner" to the one which we can see in the sky. Matter from the one which we can see is being pulled towards the companion star. Could this invisible star, which exerts such a great force, be a black hole? Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too, which might have black holes as companions.
The story of black holes is just beginning. Speculations about them. are endless. There might be a massive black hole at the center of our galaxy swallowing up stars at a very rapid rate. Mankind may one day meet this fate. On the other hand, scientists have suggested that very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind. These speculations sound like science fiction. But the theory of black holes in space is accepted by many serious scientists and astronomers. They show us a world which operates in a totally different way from our own and they question our most basic experience of space and time.
02-B. Worlds within Worlds
First of all let us consider the earth (that is to say, the world) as a planet revolving round the sun. The earth is one of nine planets which move in orbit round the sun. These nine planets, together with the sun, make up what is called our solar system. How this wonderful system started and what kept it working with such wonderful accuracy is largely a mystery but astronomers tell us that it is only one of millions of similar systems in space, and one of the smallest.
The stars which we see glittering in the sky on a dark and cloudless night are almost certainly the suns of other solar systems more or less like our own, but they are so far away in space that it is unlikely that we shall ever get to know very much about them. About our own solar system, however, we are learning more every day.
Before the American and Russian astronauts made their thrilling journeys into outer space it was
 

相关内容

自考英语二课文翻译

   英语二_ 英语二_课文翻译 A 什么是决策? Unit1 决策是从可供挑选的行动方向中作选择。 决策是为了一个组织建立和实现它的 目的或目标。之所以要决策是因为有问题存在目标或目的不适当,或者有某种东 西妨碍了目标或目的实现。 决策过程对于管理非常重要 因此一个管理者做的差不多所有的事情都离不 开决策、有人甚至提出管理就是决策。然而管理者不能预见未来,但是他们要做 的很多决策需要他们考虑将来可能发生的情况, 管理者常常必须对未来的情况做 出最佳的猜测,使偶然性尽可能少地发生,但是因为总是存在 ...

自考英语二课后

   更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园 自考乐园俱乐部 自考乐园 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你......... 《大学英语自学教程》(上册) 大学英语自学教程》(上册) 》(上册 课后习题答案(珍藏版) 课后习题答案(珍藏版) Text A Unit 1 Exercises for the Text I. 1.d 2.a 3.c 4.d 5.d II. 1.task 2.intelligent 3.r ...

自考英语二课文

   大学英语自学教程(下) 01-A. What Is a Decision? A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a ...

自考综合英语二课文

   L1 P14 Why does the author tell s not to be afraid to ask stupid questions? The author thinks that many apparently naive inquiries like why grass is green, or why the sn is round, or why we need 55, 000 unclear weapons in the world ??are really dee ...

高考英语作文

   一.开头句型 1.As far as ...is concerned 2.It goes without saying that... 3.It can be said with certainty that... 4.As the proverb says, 5.It has to be noticed that... 6.It`s generally recognized that... 7.It`s likely that ... 8.It`s hardly that... 9.It’ ...

高考英语听力

   高中英语听力教学 的探究与实践 Jiashan Senior High School Cao Yonghua 发言提纲 高中英语听力教学存在的误区 高中英语听力学习的主要障碍 高中英语听力理解的本质特征 高考英语听力要求和命题规律 高中英语听力学习的策略指导 高中英语听力培养的普遍做法 教师用英语授课 相互倾听“ 生 生 生 相互倾听“师-生,生-生”英语交流 播放阅读材料的朗读带 利用教材中的Listening 和练习册中的 利用教材中的 听力训练 举行定期的经常性的听力测试, 举行定期的 ...

自考英语二--语法

   全国高等教育自学考试英语(二) 主讲人: 主讲人:胥国红 北京航空航天大学 主要内容 " " " " " " " " 试卷分析和最新出题思路 重点语法 备考要诀及学习方法 最新英语(二)试卷主观题统计数据 满分 平均分 10 10 15 15 50 2.48 2.17 5.53 10.75 20.93 最新出题思路 考题 单词拼写 词形填空 汉译英 英译汉 总分 (1)与课文的关系 往年与课文有关的大题:第一、第四、第五和第六大题 近年与课文有关的大题:第四和第六大题 建议:熟读课文,掌 ...

自考英语二词汇

   1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 organizational a.组织(上)的 goal ...

自考英语二 单词

   A   1.a few 几个   2.a good deal 许多   3.a good many 许多   4.a great amount of 大量的   5.a great deal 大量的   6.a great many 很多   7.a little 一些,一点点   8.a lot of 许多,大量的    9.a number of 若干,许多   10.a variety of 种种,若干不同的   11.above all 首先,首要   12.according to ...

自考英语二词汇

   高等教育自学考试网上辅导 《英语(二) 英语( 》 一、词 汇 考点词汇 1.agree→disagree +(with sb/sth)同意某人(事)/ to sth 同意某事/on sth 就某事达成一致 They agree on/They agreed on what time they would set out. 他们就什么时间动身出发达成了一致。 2.similar be ~ to 与…相似 The two plans are similar but not the same. ...

热门内容

中考英语完形填空(含答案及解析)

   Nearly everybody enjoys chicken, and the most famous name in chicken is Kentucky Fried Chicken. Mr Sanders, the man who started this 1 was not always very rich. At one time, he 2 a small gas station next to a highway (公路). Many truck drivers 3 ther ...

2011届高考英语写作素材:(4)好段落的标准

   好段落的标准 学完段落的展开方法以后, 我们就保证能写出好的段落吗?什么样的段落可以被称之为好段 落呢?一般说来,一个好的段落应该具有这样的特点:意思完整,主题一致,前后连贯,过 渡自然。换句话说,一个好的段落必须能够充分地表达思想,内容上没有任何残缺;一个段 落只有一个主题,所有的扩展句都为主题句服务,主题句与扩展句在意义上始终保持统一; 段落结构安排合理、条理清楚,句与句之间的转换自然、顺理成章。这就是段落的统一性和 连贯性。 一、统一性 段落中每一句均须与此段的主题相关,并提供数据来支 ...

小学英语课程资源的开发和利用

   浅谈小学英语课程资源的开发和利用 浅谈小学英语课程资源的开发和利用 《英语课程标准》中强调了积极开发和合理利用课程资源是英语课程实施的重要组 成部分,这也是我们在全国积极推进小学英语课程过程急需研究和解决的问题之一。英 语课程资源包括英语教材以及有利于发展学生综合语言运用能力的其他所有学习材料 和辅助设施。现在小学英语普遍使用的英语课程资源主要局限于教科书、教师教学参考 书、练习册、录音磁带、教学挂图等。学生接触英语也主要局限于英语课堂学习和英语 课外作业。。资源的单一,决定了学生学习、运用 ...

初中英语选词填空

   初中英语选词填空大攻关 根据平时的观察,学生在做英语的“选词填空”时,遭遇较多困难,有的甚至条件反射一样畏惧或厌烦。 在此,把解题技巧和训练技巧略作归纳,希望能给有需要的学生朋友提供一点帮助。 “选词填空”要求学生利用所给的 10-15 个词汇(一般有名词、代词、动词、形容词、副词、数词、冠词、 介词和连词等)补全一篇有 10-15 个空缺的短文。要攻克这一难关,学生除了要进行大量的课外阅读,积累 丰富的语言知识外,还需掌握一定的解题技巧。 1. 在拿到题目后,不要急于看文章,首先对备选的词 ...

英语四级写作句型

   一)开篇 1) Many nations have been faced with the p roblem of ... 2) Recently the problem has been brought i nto focus. 3) Recently the phenomenon has become a he ated topic. 4) Recently the issue has aroused great co ncern among ... 5) Nowadays there ...