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自考英语(二)阅读理解辅导(
  1)
What Is a Decision? A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them. Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions, indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future, many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at that the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight; at other times they are serious.Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. Fox managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization. Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an eigher/or fashion; this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives. At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited. Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing
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manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization. These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in different terms. When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on. The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different people's values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions. People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions. 什么是决策? 决策是从可供挑选的行动方向中作选择. 决策的目的是建立并实现一个机构的目的和目 标.之所以要决策是因为有问题存在,目标或目的的不适当,或者有某种东西妨碍了目标或 目的的实现. 因此,决策过程对于管理非常重要.一个管理者做的差不多所有事情都离不开决策.有 人甚至提出管理就是决策. 虽然管理者不能预见未来, 但是他们要做的很多决策需要他们考 虑将来可能发生的情况. 管理者常常必须对未来的情况作出最佳的猜测, 使偶然性尽可能少 地发生.但是因为总是在不确定的因素,所以决策往往伴随着风险.一个不当的决策的后果 有时不严重而有时严重. 选择就是从多个选项中进行挑选的机会. 没有选择就没有决策. 决策本身就是一个选择 的过程.很多决策有很宽的选择范围.例如,一个学生为了自己获得学位的志向,可以在许 多不同的课程里作选择.对管理者来说,每一个决策都受着政策,程序,法律,先例等方面 的制约.这些制约在一个机构的各个阶层都存在.选择项就是可供选择,可能的行动方向; 没有选择项,就没有选择,也就没有了决策.如果看不到有不同的选择项,说明对问题还没 有进行全面的研究. 一些管理者有时用非此即彼的方式处理问题, 这虽然是他们简化复杂问
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题的方法,但是习惯了简化常使他们看不到别的解决办法.在管理这个层次上,决策包括识 别选择项和减少选择项两个步骤; 其范围可以从极为有限的几个选择项到几乎无限多的选择 项. 决策者必须有办法能从多种选择里确定一种为最佳, 也就是说哪个对实现机构目标帮助 最大,机构的目标也就是此机构所寻求的事态的结果.如何实现目标,个人和组织都有不同 的看法.因此,最佳选择可能就取决于决策人了.通常一个组织内的单位或部门作出的决策 可能有利于本部门,本单位,但对比它们大的机构来说就不是最佳选择了.这就是所谓的局 部优化: 增加对一单位或部门的便利同时减少对另一个单位或部门的便利, 这是在两利不能 兼顾的情况下所做的取舍.例如,经理可以把增加广告预算的必要性讲得头头是道,但是从 总的布局看,增加改进产品的科研费用也许对这个组织更有好处. 因为一个组织希望同时达到的目标很多, 所以就要进行权衡, 虽然有些目标比另一些重 要,但重要程度和次序则常常因人而异,因部门而异.管理者不同对同一问题所做的解说也 是不同的.把同样一种情况摆在他们面前,销售经理看的是销售问题,生产经理看的是生产 问题,如此等等. 多个目标的排序和重要性在某种程度上是以决策者的价值观为依据的. 这些价值观念是 个性的,很难捉摸,甚至抱有这种观念的人自己也很难弄清楚;这是因为价值观不断变化, 也很复杂.很多商业活动中,不同的人对于风险和收益的可接受程度的价值观不一样,这就 导致了他们对决策正确与否的看法也不同. 人们常以为决策是一个孤立的现象,但从系统的观念看,问题的产生有多种原因,所以 决策既有意料中的结果,又有意料外的结果.一个组织是一个发展的实体,所以今天所做的 决策对未来可能产生意义深远的影响. 因此一个老练的管理者常要考虑当前决策在将来产生 的结果. Secrets of Success at an Interview The subject of today's talk is interviews. The key words here are preparation and confidence, which will carry you far. Do your homework first. Find out all you can about the job you are applying for and the organization you hope to work for. Many of the employers I interviewed made the same criticism of candidates. "They have no idea what the day to day work of the job brings about. They have vague notions of 'furthering the company's prospects' or of 'serving the community', but have never taken the trouble to find out the actual tasks they will be required to do."
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Do not let this be said of you. It shows an unattractive indifference to your employer and to your job. Take the time to put yourself into the interviewer's place. He wants somebody who is hard-working with a pleasant personality and a real interest in the job. Anything that you find out about the prospective employer can be used to your advantage during the interview to show that you have bothered to master some facts about the people who you hope to work for. Write down (and remember) the questions you want to ask the interviewer(s) so that you are not speechless when they invite your questions. Make sure that holidays and pay are not the first things you ask about. If all your questions have been answered during the interview, replay: "I did have several questions, but you have already answered them all." Do not be afraid to ask for clarification of something that has been said during the interview if you want to be sure what was implied, but do be polite. Just before you go to the interview, look again at the original advertisement that you answered, any correspondence from your prospective employer, photocopies of your letter of application or application form and your resume. Then you will remember what you said and what they want. This is very important if you have applied for many jobs in a short time as it is easy to become confused and give an impression of inefficiency. Make sure you know where and when you have to report for the interview. Go to the building (but not inside the office) a day or two before, if necessary, to find out how long the journey takes and where exactly the place is. Aim to arrive five or ten minutes early for the actual interview, then you will have a little time in hand and you will not panic if you are delayed. You start at a disadvantage if you arrive worried and ten minutes late. Dress in clean, neat, conservative clothes. Now is NOT the time to experiment with the punk look or (girls) to wear low-cut dresses with miniskirts. Make sure that your shoes, hands and hair (and teeth) are clean and neat. Have the letter inviting you for an interview ready to show in case there is any difficulty in communication.
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You may find yourself facing one interviewer or a panel. The latter is far more intimidating, but do not let it worry you too much. The interviewer will probably have a table in front of him/her. Do not put your things or arms on it. If you have a bag or a case, put it on the floor beside your chair. Do not clutch it nervously or, worse still, drop it, spilling everything. Shake hands if the interviewer offers his hand first. There is little likelihood that a panel of five wants to go though the process of all shaking hands with you in turn. So you do not be upset if no one offers. Shake hands firmly - a weak hand suggests a weak personality, and a crushing grip is obviously painful. Do not drop the hand as soon as yours has touched it as this will seem to show you do not like the other person. Speak politely and naturally even if you are feeling shy. Think before you answer any questions. If you cannot understand, ask: "Would you mind rephrasing the question, please?" The question will then be repeated in different words. If you are not definitely accepted or turned down on the spot, ask: "When may I expect to hear the results of this interview?" If you do receive a letter offering you the job, you must reply by letter (keep a photocopy) as soon as possible. Good luck! 面试成功的决窍 我们今天的话题是面试. 这里送你一句话:有备而往,信心当强.相信这句话会让你受益匪浅. 首先要做好面试之外的工作. 尽可能地了解你所申请的工作和希望为之工作的机构的情况. 我所采访的许多雇主对应聘人做了相同的批评:"他们对这项工作的日常事务会带来什 么一无所知.他们对'拓展公司的前景','进行社会服务'只有模模糊 糊的认识,但从不下工
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