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自考英语(二)阅读理解辅导(
  7)
Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveller comes across at some time. But do you have to suffer? Understand what it is, and how a careful diet can minimize its worst effects, and your flights will be less stressful. The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize. Jet Lag is not a psychological consequence of having to readjust to a different time zone. It is due to changes in the body's physiological regulatory mechanisms, specifically the hormonal systems, in a different environment. Confused? So was John Foster Dulles, the American Secretary of State, when he flew to Egypt to conduct negotiations on the Aswan Dam. He later blamed his poor judgement on Jet Lag. The effects can be used to advantage, too. President Johnson once conducted an important meeting in Guam and kept the entire proceedings at Washington DC time. The White House working personnel were as fresh as paint, while the locals, in this case, were jet-lagged. Essentially, they had been instantaneously transported to America. Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to overcoming it. A great number of the body's events are scheduled to occur at a certain time of day. Naturally these have to be regulated, and there are two regulatory systems which interact. One timing system comes from the evidence of our senses and stomachs, and the periodicity we experience when living in a particular time zone. The other belongs in our internal clocks (the major one of which may be physically located in a part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus) which, left alone, would tie the body to a 25 hour - yes, 25 - rhythm. Normally the two timers are in step, and the external cues tend to regularise the internal clocks to the more convenient 24 hour period. If, however, you move the whole body to a time zone which is four hours different, the two clocks will be out of step, like two alarm clocks which are normally set together, but which have been reset a few hours apart. Whereas the two clocks would normally sound their alarms together, now they ring at different times. Similarly, the body can be set for evening while the sun is rising. In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time. One easily monitored rhythm is palm sweating. A man flown to a time zone different by 10 hours will take eight days to readjust his palm sweat. Blood pressure, which is also rhythmical, takes four days to readjust.
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One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. The hormone cortisol, which controls salt and water excretion, is made in the morning, wherever the body is. But the growth hormone is released during sleep, whenever in the day that sleep occurs. Normally these two hormones are separated by seven or eight hours, but if the body arrives at a destination in the early morning (local) and goes to sleep as soon as possible, the two hormones will be released simultaneously. What can we do about it? It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. Fortunately there is a short cut. It relies on two things - the power of the stomach to regulate the timing of other events, and the pharmacological actions of coffee. The basic assumptions are: Coffee delays the body clock in the morning, and advances it at night. Coffee at mid-afternoon is neutral. Protein in meals stimulates wakefulness, while carbohydrates promote sleep. Putting food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock. 时差综合症的预防和治疗 高速飞行时因时差而引起的生理节奏的推敲是每一个跨国旅行者有时会遇到的问题. 但 你必须得忍受吗?如果你了解它是怎么回事, 并且知道如何注意饮食才可以将其最坏影响减 到最小程度,你的飞行就不会那么紧张了. 快速旅行对身体的影响实际上比我们所意识到的更加令人不安. 调整的习行因时差而引 起的生理节奏的破坏不是必须重新调整去适合不同时区的心理影响. 它是由人体内的生理调 节结构,特别是荷尔蒙系统在不同环境的变化引起的.感到困惑了吗?美国国务卿约翰福 斯特杜勒斯飞往埃及进行关于阿斯旺大坝的谈判时也是这样.后来,他把他的不理想的判 断归咎于时差反应的不良影响. 时差的影响也可以加以利用. 约翰逊总统曾经在关岛召开重要会议, 其所有活动都按华 盛顿时间进行.白宫工作人员个个精神焕发,而在这种情况下,当地人却受时差反应之苦. 实际上,好像他们刚刚被飞机送到美国一样. 既然我们懂得了什么是高速飞行时差综合症.很自然,这些活动不得不加以调节,人体 现人有两套相互影响的调节系统. 一个定时系统表现在我们的感觉和胃以及居住在一个特定时区时,我们所经历的周期. 另一个定时系统在我们的人体时钟内,这些人体时钟在不受干扰时,会使人体有一个 25 小 时,是的 25 小时的生理节奏.一般情况下,这两种定时器是步调一致的.外部信号常常调 节人体时钟命使之达到更为便利的 24 小时周期.
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然而,如果你将整个身体转移到相差四个小时的时区,这两个小时钟就不协调了.就像 两个闹钟通常一起设置, 但被重新设置时相差了好几个小时. 虽然这两个时钟通常会一起闹 时,但现在它们在不同时刻响起.类似的,当太阳升起时身体可能被设定为晚上. 经过一段时间以后,生理系统将会重新调整过来.但这的确需要时间.一个容易监测的 节律是手掌出汗的节律.血压也是有节律的,需要四天时间才能得到重新调整. 形成这种差异的百不同的身体活动由不同因素的支配. 不管身在何处, 控制盐和水分排 泄的皮质醇激素是早上产生的.但不论何时睡眠,生长激素是在睡眠中释放的.通常这两种 激素相隔七,八个小时释放,但如果人体在一大早到达目的地,并且尽快入睡,这两种激素 将同时释放. 关于这点我们能做些什么呢?等待几天直到身体适应新的时区是不可取的. 幸好, 有一 条捷径.它依靠两点――胃调节其他活动定时的能力和咖啡的药物作用. 基本的道理是: 咖啡在早上可以延迟人体时钟, 在晚间可以提早人体时钟. 咖啡在下午三点左右是中性 的.食物中的蛋白质使人不眠,而碳水化合物却使人易于入睡.空腹吃食物帮助人体时钟准 时. Controlling Your Concentration CONCENTRATION IS CENTERING YOUR ATTENTION Psychologically defined, concentration is the process of centering one's attention over a period of time. In practical application, however, concentration is not as simple to deal successfully with as the definition may imply. For this reason, it is helpful to keep the following points in mind. Your attention span variesEven with the greatest effort, our span of attention fluctuates. You can demonstrate for yourself this fluctuation of attention. In a quiet room, place a watch so that it can just scarcely be heard. Listen carefully and notice how the ticking increases in apparent intensity, fades to a point where it cannot be heard, and then increases again. This phenomenon reveals how our span of attention fluctuates, for the intensity of the ticking is actually constant. You pay attention to one thing at a timeEvidence to date indicates that you attend to one idea at a time. It is possible for your attention to shift so rapidly that it seems that you attend to several concepts at once. But apparently this is only an illusion. In high concentration the shift from the focus of attention is of short duration and relatively infrequent.
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An illustration of periods of high, moderate, and low attention High attention has long periods of attending and short distraction periods. In low attention the periods of attending are short and the distraction periods long. In moderate attention there is a mixture of the extremes. Thus it is easy to see that it is highly unlikely that the student who has most of his attention centered on fancying at large will be able to recall even the major points of a lecture. Lack of concentration is a symptom, not the cause, of difficulty. When a student says "I can't concentrate", what he is really saying is, "I can't attend to the task at hand because my distractors are too strong." DISTRACTORS ARE OF TWO SORTS - PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL A distractor is anything which causes attention to vary from a central focal point. In the study situation distractors may be thought of as either psychological or physical in nature. Both types of distractors must be understood before the student can attempt to remedy his lack of concentration. Emotions are the most powerful distractors . The angry man forgets the pain of injury, the fearful man finds it difficult to enjoy pleasure and the tense or anxious person may react violently to the smallest of matters. In the student's life there are many psychological pressures and tensions which block effective productivity. The fears about making the grade, the doubts of the friendliness of a friend's behaviour and the pressures of limited finances - these are only a few of the emotional forces which affect the student. Emotional reaction varies greatly from person to person. Some persons gain goal and direction from their tensions and actually do better because of them. Others fall apart under pressure, while a few people do well despite the pressure. Physical distractors are always present and rarely understood. Our environment is much more important to how we feel and react than we often think. Particularly is this true of the effect of physical distractors on mental tasks. One research report has shown that comprehension and retention of reading were decreased when students listened to lively music. However, rate of reading was not affected, so that many students were not aware that they were affected by the background distractor. Another study found that the ability to recall accurately was affected by distracting conditions. Most of the evidence indicates that noise affects adversely higher mental task output. Still, the effect of distractors is seldom fully appreciated by students. ROUTING AND REASONING TASKS ARE AFFECTED DIFFERENTLY BY
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DISTRACTORS Typically when students are faced with the evidence on distractors the argument is given that their cousin, friend, or classmate can study in "Grand Central Station." And he makes "all A's" too! There is evidence, of course, that motivation plays an important role in overcoming the effects of distractors and that there are considerable differences in individual spans of attention. Either of these factors could account for some individuals being able to do well using inefficient methods. The fact that some exceptional people do well under adverse conditions scarcely justifies your assuming that you are exceptional in the same manner. Your chances of success are higher if you avoid the distractors which are known to hinder the typeical student. 控制你的注意力 聚精会神就是集中你的注意力 按心理学定义,专心是一段时间内集中注意力的过程.然而,在实际应用中,成功地对 待专心这个问题并不像定义中所说的那么简单. 正因为这样, 把以下几点记在心里是有帮助 的. 你的注意力范围是变化的即使付出最大努力, 我们注意力的范围还是波动的. 你可以自 己证明这种注意力的变化.在一个安静的房间里,把一块表放在刚刚能听到它声音的地方, 仔细听,注意到嘀嗒声是如何明显地提高强度,继而,衰弱到听不到,然后又提高了.这种 现象揭示了我们注意力范围是如何波动的,因为嘀哒声的强度实际上并无变化. 你在同一时刻注意一件事情至今为止的资料表明,在同一时刻你只能注意到一个念头. 你的注意力可能转移得很快,似乎能立刻注意到几个概念.但显然这只是一个错觉.在注意 力集中时,注意力的焦点转移是在很短时间内,而且比较而言是很少发生的. 高度,适度,低注意力的说明高度注意有较强的注意期和很短的注意力分散期.在低注 意力下,注意到短期而注意力分散期长.适度注意力融合了两种极端.因此,显而易见,把 自己的注意力集中在胡思乱想上的学生甚至不可能回想出讲课的要点. 缺乏注意力是困
 

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