更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/53463
  89)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........
自考英语(二)阅读理解辅导(
  7)
Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveller comes across at some time. But do you have to suffer? Understand what it is, and how a careful diet can minimize its worst effects, and your flights will be less stressful. The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize. Jet Lag is not a psychological consequence of having to readjust to a different time zone. It is due to changes in the body's physiological regulatory mechanisms, specifically the hormonal systems, in a different environment. Confused? So was John Foster Dulles, the American Secretary of State, when he flew to Egypt to conduct negotiations on the Aswan Dam. He later blamed his poor judgement on Jet Lag. The effects can be used to advantage, too. President Johnson once conducted an important meeting in Guam and kept the entire proceedings at Washington DC time. The White House working personnel were as fresh as paint, while the locals, in this case, were jet-lagged. Essentially, they had been instantaneously transported to America. Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to overcoming it. A great number of the body's events are scheduled to occur at a certain time of day. Naturally these have to be regulated, and there are two regulatory systems which interact. One timing system comes from the evidence of our senses and stomachs, and the periodicity we experience when living in a particular time zone. The other belongs in our internal clocks (the major one of which may be physically located in a part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus) which, left alone, would tie the body to a 25 hour - yes, 25 - rhythm. Normally the two timers are in step, and the external cues tend to regularise the internal clocks to the more convenient 24 hour period. If, however, you move the whole body to a time zone which is four hours different, the two clocks will be out of step, like two alarm clocks which are normally set together, but which have been reset a few hours apart. Whereas the two clocks would normally sound their alarms together, now they ring at different times. Similarly, the body can be set for evening while the sun is rising. In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time. One easily monitored rhythm is palm sweating. A man flown to a time zone different by 10 hours will take eight days to readjust his palm sweat. Blood pressure, which is also rhythmical, takes four days to readjust.
更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/53463
  89)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........
One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. The hormone cortisol, which controls salt and water excretion, is made in the morning, wherever the body is. But the growth hormone is released during sleep, whenever in the day that sleep occurs. Normally these two hormones are separated by seven or eight hours, but if the body arrives at a destination in the early morning (local) and goes to sleep as soon as possible, the two hormones will be released simultaneously. What can we do about it? It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. Fortunately there is a short cut. It relies on two things - the power of the stomach to regulate the timing of other events, and the pharmacological actions of coffee. The basic assumptions are: Coffee delays the body clock in the morning, and advances it at night. Coffee at mid-afternoon is neutral. Protein in meals stimulates wakefulness, while carbohydrates promote sleep. Putting food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock. 时差综合症的预防和治疗 高速飞行时因时差而引起的生理节奏的推敲是每一个跨国旅行者有时会遇到的问题. 但 你必须得忍受吗?如果你了解它是怎么回事, 并且知道如何注意饮食才可以将其最坏影响减 到最小程度,你的飞行就不会那么紧张了. 快速旅行对身体的影响实际上比我们所意识到的更加令人不安. 调整的习行因时差而引 起的生理节奏的破坏不是必须重新调整去适合不同时区的心理影响. 它是由人体内的生理调 节结构,特别是荷尔蒙系统在不同环境的变化引起的.感到困惑了吗?美国国务卿约翰福 斯特杜勒斯飞往埃及进行关于阿斯旺大坝的谈判时也是这样.后来,他把他的不理想的判 断归咎于时差反应的不良影响. 时差的影响也可以加以利用. 约翰逊总统曾经在关岛召开重要会议, 其所有活动都按华 盛顿时间进行.白宫工作人员个个精神焕发,而在这种情况下,当地人却受时差反应之苦. 实际上,好像他们刚刚被飞机送到美国一样. 既然我们懂得了什么是高速飞行时差综合症.很自然,这些活动不得不加以调节,人体 现人有两套相互影响的调节系统. 一个定时系统表现在我们的感觉和胃以及居住在一个特定时区时,我们所经历的周期. 另一个定时系统在我们的人体时钟内,这些人体时钟在不受干扰时,会使人体有一个 25 小 时,是的 25 小时的生理节奏.一般情况下,这两种定时器是步调一致的.外部信号常常调 节人体时钟命使之达到更为便利的 24 小时周期.
更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/53463
  89)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........
然而,如果你将整个身体转移到相差四个小时的时区,这两个小时钟就不协调了.就像 两个闹钟通常一起设置, 但被重新设置时相差了好几个小时. 虽然这两个时钟通常会一起闹 时,但现在它们在不同时刻响起.类似的,当太阳升起时身体可能被设定为晚上. 经过一段时间以后,生理系统将会重新调整过来.但这的确需要时间.一个容易监测的 节律是手掌出汗的节律.血压也是有节律的,需要四天时间才能得到重新调整. 形成这种差异的百不同的身体活动由不同因素的支配. 不管身在何处, 控制盐和水分排 泄的皮质醇激素是早上产生的.但不论何时睡眠,生长激素是在睡眠中释放的.通常这两种 激素相隔七,八个小时释放,但如果人体在一大早到达目的地,并且尽快入睡,这两种激素 将同时释放. 关于这点我们能做些什么呢?等待几天直到身体适应新的时区是不可取的. 幸好, 有一 条捷径.它依靠两点――胃调节其他活动定时的能力和咖啡的药物作用. 基本的道理是: 咖啡在早上可以延迟人体时钟, 在晚间可以提早人体时钟. 咖啡在下午三点左右是中性 的.食物中的蛋白质使人不眠,而碳水化合物却使人易于入睡.空腹吃食物帮助人体时钟准 时. Controlling Your Concentration CONCENTRATION IS CENTERING YOUR ATTENTION Psychologically defined, concentration is the process of centering one's attention over a period of time. In practical application, however, concentration is not as simple to deal successfully with as the definition may imply. For this reason, it is helpful to keep the following points in mind. Your attention span variesEven with the greatest effort, our span of attention fluctuates. You can demonstrate for yourself this fluctuation of attention. In a quiet room, place a watch so that it can just scarcely be heard. Listen carefully and notice how the ticking increases in apparent intensity, fades to a point where it cannot be heard, and then increases again. This phenomenon reveals how our span of attention fluctuates, for the intensity of the ticking is actually constant. You pay attention to one thing at a timeEvidence to date indicates that you attend to one idea at a time. It is possible for your attention to shift so rapidly that it seems that you attend to several concepts at once. But apparently this is only an illusion. In high concentration the shift from the focus of attention is of short duration and relatively infrequent.
更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/53463
  89)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........
An illustration of periods of high, moderate, and low attention High attention has long periods of attending and short distraction periods. In low attention the periods of attending are short and the distraction periods long. In moderate attention there is a mixture of the extremes. Thus it is easy to see that it is highly unlikely that the student who has most of his attention centered on fancying at large will be able to recall even the major points of a lecture. Lack of concentration is a symptom, not the cause, of difficulty. When a student says "I can't concentrate", what he is really saying is, "I can't attend to the task at hand because my distractors are too strong." DISTRACTORS ARE OF TWO SORTS - PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL A distractor is anything which causes attention to vary from a central focal point. In the study situation distractors may be thought of as either psychological or physical in nature. Both types of distractors must be understood before the student can attempt to remedy his lack of concentration. Emotions are the most powerful distractors . The angry man forgets the pain of injury, the fearful man finds it difficult to enjoy pleasure and the tense or anxious person may react violently to the smallest of matters. In the student's life there are many psychological pressures and tensions which block effective productivity. The fears about making the grade, the doubts of the friendliness of a friend's behaviour and the pressures of limited finances - these are only a few of the emotional forces which affect the student. Emotional reaction varies greatly from person to person. Some persons gain goal and direction from their tensions and actually do better because of them. Others fall apart under pressure, while a few people do well despite the pressure. Physical distractors are always present and rarely understood. Our environment is much more important to how we feel and react than we often think. Particularly is this true of the effect of physical distractors on mental tasks. One research report has shown that comprehension and retention of reading were decreased when students listened to lively music. However, rate of reading was not affected, so that many students were not aware that they were affected by the background distractor. Another study found that the ability to recall accurately was affected by distracting conditions. Most of the evidence indicates that noise affects adversely higher mental task output. Still, the effect of distractors is seldom fully appreciated by students. ROUTING AND REASONING TASKS ARE AFFECTED DIFFERENTLY BY
更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/53463
  89)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........
DISTRACTORS Typically when students are faced with the evidence on distractors the argument is given that their cousin, friend, or classmate can study in "Grand Central Station." And he makes "all A's" too! There is evidence, of course, that motivation plays an important role in overcoming the effects of distractors and that there are considerable differences in individual spans of attention. Either of these factors could account for some individuals being able to do well using inefficient methods. The fact that some exceptional people do well under adverse conditions scarcely justifies your assuming that you are exceptional in the same manner. Your chances of success are higher if you avoid the distractors which are known to hinder the typeical student. 控制你的注意力 聚精会神就是集中你的注意力 按心理学定义,专心是一段时间内集中注意力的过程.然而,在实际应用中,成功地对 待专心这个问题并不像定义中所说的那么简单. 正因为这样, 把以下几点记在心里是有帮助 的. 你的注意力范围是变化的即使付出最大努力, 我们注意力的范围还是波动的. 你可以自 己证明这种注意力的变化.在一个安静的房间里,把一块表放在刚刚能听到它声音的地方, 仔细听,注意到嘀嗒声是如何明显地提高强度,继而,衰弱到听不到,然后又提高了.这种 现象揭示了我们注意力范围是如何波动的,因为嘀哒声的强度实际上并无变化. 你在同一时刻注意一件事情至今为止的资料表明,在同一时刻你只能注意到一个念头. 你的注意力可能转移得很快,似乎能立刻注意到几个概念.但显然这只是一个错觉.在注意 力集中时,注意力的焦点转移是在很短时间内,而且比较而言是很少发生的. 高度,适度,低注意力的说明高度注意有较强的注意期和很短的注意力分散期.在低注 意力下,注意到短期而注意力分散期长.适度注意力融合了两种极端.因此,显而易见,把 自己的注意力集中在胡思乱想上的学生甚至不可能回想出讲课的要点. 缺乏注意力是困
 

相关内容

自考英语二阅读理解辅导1

   更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你......... 自考英语(二)阅读理解辅导(1) What Is a Decision? A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decisi ...

自考英语二阅读理解辅导_8

   更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部 (http://tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎加入...欢迎交流...止不住的惊喜等着你......... 自考英语(二)阅读理解辅导(8) Sacrificed to Science? Professor Colin Blakemore works at Oxford University Medical School doing research into eye problems and believes th ...

牛津英语上海版 初二阅读理解练习

   Years ago, I lived in a building in a large city. The building next door was only a few feet away from mine. There was a woman who lived there, whom I had never met, yet I could see her seated by her window each afternoon, sewing or reading. After ...

高考英语卷阅读理解答题技巧归纳试题1

   高考英语阅读理解答题技巧归纳总结 高考英语阅读理解答题技巧归纳总结 答题技巧 高三英语组组长: 高三英语组组长:李家岑 策略一、 策略一、紧扣主旨大意 高考英语阅读理解的主旨大意题主要是考查考生在理解全文的基础上运 用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维的方法对文章进行高度的概括或总结 的能力。常见的设问方式有: ●标题类:What's the best title/headline for the passage? ●大意类:The text is mainly about__.The top ...

英语阅读理解技巧

   公共英语阅读技巧 阅读理解文章基本上是说明文,议论文。而这类体裁的文章少不了用例子,事实来说明观点。因此我们往往会碰到要求猜测文章举例的目的??这些例子要说明什么观点??的题目。如:   The example of … is given to show/illustrate that.   What can be inferred from the author's example of ?   The experiment/study sugge ...

学位英语阅读理解

   学位英语阅读理解应试策略阅读理解 2009-07-13 18:01:01 阅读 2645 评论 0 字号:大中小 订阅 . 一、分析文章的结构规律 一般来说,我们阅读文章的目的是为了获取信息。文章体裁不同,其结构特点就会各异。因此,我们获取信息的 最有效方法之一就是去学习和了解文章的结构,以便更加准确、快速地定位我们要找的信息。 大学英语四级考试中的阅读理解文章的体裁主要有三类:叙述文、说明文和议论文。 1、叙述文 叙述文一般以讲述个人生活经历为主,对于经历的陈述通常由一定的时间概念贯穿其中 ...

初中英语阅读理解练习题

   初中英语阅读理解练习题 1.im arrived at the bus station quite early for Paris bus. The bus for Paris wo uld not leave until five to twelve. He saw a lot of people waiting in the stati on. Some were standing in line(排队), others were walking around. There was a ...

英语阅读理解个人笔记来源

   英语阅读理解个人笔记来源:网络 一.考研阅读理解命题干扰项的特点: 1.看似合理,实则以偏概全,断章取义. 惯用手法:利用生活常识编造选项,把文中事实细节当主旨 应对方法:从文中找依据,找 答案,"合理项"不一定就是正确选项 2.偷梁换柱,张冠李戴. 惯用手法:对原句细微处做改动,截取原文词语或结构进行改造,因果倒置, 把 A 的观点 说成 B 的观点. 应对方法:过于相似的选项不一定正确,"原词越多,对的可能性越小". 3.用常规含义代替偏用词义. ...

大学英语三级考试阅读理解

   大学英语三级考试阅读理解 大学英语三级考试大纲指出:阅读理解部分考试时间为 35 分钟,共 20 题.要求考生阅读若干篇短 文,总词汇量 800 词左右. 一、分析文章的结构规律 一般来说,我们阅读文章的目的是为了获取信息。文章体裁不同,其结构特点就会各异。因此, 我们获取信息的最有效方法之一就是去学习和了解文章的结构, 以便更加准确、 快速地定位我们 要找的信息。 大学英语四级考试中的阅读理解文章的体裁主要有三类:叙述文、说明文和议论文。 1、叙述文 叙述文一般以讲述个人生活经历为主, 对 ...

高考英语阅读理解专项练习(一)

   亿库教育网 http://www.eku.cc 百万教学资源免费下载 高考英语阅读理解专项练习( 高考英语阅读理解专项练习(一) 阅读理解专项练习 My grandfather grew up in war-torn Europe. When German soldiers occupied his hometown ,the thriving city of Tarow, Poland, he refused to obey them and eventually joined the S ...

热门内容

“因李阳“疯狂英语”而改变我的一生”系列文章3

   “因李阳“疯狂英语”而改变我的一生”系列文章 3 因李阳“疯狂英语”而改变我的一生” 在为期两天的短期集训营中,我立下了两个目标:1. 见到李 阳“疯狂英语”创始人??李阳老师; 2. 得到李阳老师的亲笔签名。 这两个目标让我产生了很强的目标力和行动力。 与英语学院的一位学姐一起合作与筹划,在我们自己的学校, 建立了李阳“疯狂英语”社团,带领一群有着想要克服英语口语学习 困难的朋友们, 在大操场、 在小河边, 我们以特殊的英语学习方式, 踏上了李阳“疯狂英语”学习之路。 我们在一起呐喊,在一 ...

英语学习_国家机关英文_必备

   弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 全国人民代表大会 1. 全国人民代表大会 [National People' s Congress (NPC)] 主席团 Presidium 常务委员会 Standing Committee 办公厅 General Office 秘书处 Secretariat 代表资格审查委员会 Credentials Committee 提案审查委员会 Motions Examination Committee 民族委员会 Eth ...

2010中考英语试题

   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...

民族院校基础英语教学中存在的问题与对策

   2 0 年  08 《 田师范专科学校学报 》( 和 汉文综合版 )   J 10 8 2 u. 0 第 8卷第五期  2 总第 5 5期  民族院校基础英语教学中存在的问题与对策  于金明 白洁    ( 合作民 族师范高等专科学校 甘肃合作 400  770 )   L   要J 摘 本文通过探讨民 族院校基 础英语教学中 存在的问 题和困难, 的,这样就使得这部分学生在英语语 言的学习过程 中出现思维 的多     提 出加强师资 队伍建设,优化课程设置体系, 加强学生语言学习的特点研 ...

机场英语

   机场报关常用英文 一、入关   麻烦请给我你的护照。 May I see your passport, please?   这是我的护照。 Here is my passport / Here it is.   旅行的目的为何? Whats the purpose of your visit? (移民)(观光)(公务)。 (Immigrant)(Sightseeing)(Businese).   随身携带多少现金? How much money do you have with you?    ...