Unit 1 ?The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. 决策的目的是为了建立并达到组织的目的和目的。 ?Managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance. 管理者经常必须对未来的情况做出最佳的猜测,尽管不存侥幸。 ?For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. 对于管理者来说,每次决策都是受到政策、程序、法律、惯例等因素的制约。 ?But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives. 但是这种简化倾向会他们对于其他的可选项视而不见。 ?Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best?that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. 决策者们必须有办法决定数个可选项中哪一个是最好的?哪一个对组织目标的实现起 作用最大。 ?Different individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.
?Because different individuals frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. 因为个人通常会就如何达到目标持不同见解,所以最佳选择往往取决于谁来决策。 ?When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on. 当面对同一件事例时, 销售部门经理易于看到销售问题, 生产部经理则会看到生产问题, 如此等等。 ?People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. 人们通常认为决策是一个孤立的现象。 ?The literary critics should be as objective as possible in analysis and judgment. 文学批评家在分析和评价时应该尽量不偏不倚。 ?She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues. 她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。 ?I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey. 我说服他不做这样危险的旅行。 ?Although he thought he was helping us with the job, he was only in the way. 虽然他以为他在帮我们干这件事,但他只是在碍我们的事。 Unit 2 ?The terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are inadequate here. 我们通常用来描述科学现象的现有术语在这里不够用。 ?Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape. 天文学家和科学家认为黑洞是一种空间区, 物质可以掉进黑洞, 但任何物质不能从黑洞 中逃脱。
?Some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point. 某些星体的密度增大到某一特定点时便发生爆炸。 ?This process of shrinking may be so intense that a black hole results. 收缩的过程可能非常强烈一致产生黑洞。 ?It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes. 只是近几年天文学家才开始具体研究黑洞。 ?Very advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind. 由于有非常先进的技术,人们也许能在将来利用黑洞的能量为人类服务。 ?He has exerted all his strength to attain his goal. 他已经尽了全力以达到自己的目标。 ?He has been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind. 他一直在施加种种压力要我改变主意。 ?The collapse of the government left the country in confusion. 政府的倒台使全国陷入混乱之中。 ?The research group launched out into a series of new experiments. 研究小组着手进行了一系列新的实验。 Unit 3 ?Each time it is shown, the program starts a nationwide debate on the subject. 每次播放都引起对这个问题的全国性大辩论。 ?In addition to this, a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met. 此外,还必须有一名医生证实这些标准已经得到满足。 ?In the vast majority of euthanasia cases, what the patient is actually asking for is something else. ?Euthanasia doesn't take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying. ?Anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable. 法律上允许缩短生命的任何做法只会使这些人更易受到伤害。 ?Instructions will be sent immediately on request. 说明将按要求立即寄出。 ?Many people opposed building a new highway because of the great cost. 由于代价过于高昂,许多人都反对修一条新公路。 ?She bore the whole burden of raising two children alone. 她一个人负起抚养两个孩子的全部责任。 ?Students are heavily burdened with home assignments. 学生家庭作业负担过重。 ?The committee demands that no member (should) be absent. Unit 4 ?Of these
  20,0
  00, just under 2000 are being exploited and abused by their employers. ?In one of them, a Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests from various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established. ?I was supposed to be paid £120 but I never received that amount. ?My employers always threatened to report me to the Home Office or the police. ?Many people doubt whether this will successfully reduce the incidence of abuse. ?So if they do complain, they risk being deported. ?It is the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.
?The student exploits every possibility to learn English. 这个学生利用一切可能性学英语。 ?Our country is launching a campaign against waste. 我们国家正在开展反浪费运动。 ?We should be always aware of the status of world affairs. 我们应该时刻关注世界形势。 ?There are likely to be more difficulties than you were prepared for. 很可能遇到的困难比你想到的多。 Unit 5 ?The new music was built out of materials already in existence. ?They freely took over elements from jazz, from American country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources. ?What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression. ?In studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live. ?Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand ?Often music was played out of doors, where nature provided the environment. ?The social and political transformation of a country is essential to the development of the society. 一个国家的社会和政治改革对社会的发展非常重要。 ?All theories originate from practice and in turn serve practice. 所有的理论都来源于实践,并反过来为实践服务。 Unit 6 ?Robots, becoming increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human intervention. ?The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials, preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation. ?Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one. ?Other engineers are writing new programs allowing robots to make decisions such as whether to discard defective parts in finished products. ?These future robots, assembled with a sense of touch and the ability to see and make decisions, will have plenty of work to do. ?Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. ?His words cast a new light on the problem. 他的话题使人们对这个问题有了新的认识。 ?We should be aware of the dangers of exposing children to violence on TV. 我们应该意识到儿童接触有关暴力节目的危害。 Unit 7 ?People in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure and what they can do in their leisure time.
?Generally speaking,the quality of life,especially as seen by the individual,is meaningful in terms of the degree to which these various areas of life are available or provide satisfaction to the individual. ?The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual. ?Experiences of a different nature, be it television watching or bird-watching, can lead to a self-renewal and a more “balanced” way of life. ?Such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use. ?To impart positive leisure attitudes to the general public is essential for motivating them to use their leisure in creative and satisfying ways. ?It can be argued that the people with whom we come into contact in these various contexts are all likely to have exerted some influence in shaping our attitudes, interests and even skills relevant to how we handle leisure. ?The more seriously this is sought, the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged. ?You have to attach a label to a box while posting it. ?We should make our lives relevant to the needs of the country. ?He always has some positive ideas on company policy. Unit 8 ?The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time. ?The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize. ?He later blamed his poor judgment on Jet Lag. ?Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to overcoming it. ?In time, the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time. ?It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. ?That is by no means the best way of proceeding. ?He didn't take alarm at the news. ?The pianist promoted a grand benefit concert. ?He didn't want to be tied to a steady job. Unit 9 ?The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth, the older its population is likely to be?at least, for any future that concerns us now. ?To these now familiar facts a number of further facts may be added, some of them only recently recognized. ?There is the appreciation of the salient historical truth that the aging of advanced societies has been a sudden change. ?Taken together , these things have implications which are only beginning to be acknowledged. ?There is often resistance to the idea that it is because the birthrate fell earlier in Western and Northwestern Europe than elsewhere,… that we have grown so old. ?Long life is altering our society, of course, but in experiential terms. ?Your account of what happened approximates to the real facts. ?His earnings are out of all proportion to his skill and ability. Unit 10 ?A minor-party or independent candidate,… can draw votes away from the major-party
nominees but stands almost no chance of defeating them. ?In deciding whether to pursue a course of action, they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters. ?The slogan was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation‘s slow-moving economy. ?Whether voters accept this image, however, depends more on external factors than on a candidate‘s personal characteristics. ?As in 19
  80, when Jimmy Carter lost to Ronald Reagan during tough economic times, the voters were motivated largely by a desire for change. ?Bush tried to stir images of his strong leadership of the war, but voters remained concerned about the economy. ?The invention is going to cause a big stir in the world. ?You should save up money to make provision for the future. Unit 11 ?Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results. ?It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals.?One experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat‘s leg, leaving its leg paralysed. ?Even with these new developments in research, only a tiny proportion of all tests are done without using animals at some stage. ?The use of animals in experiments cannot stop immediately if medical research is to continue and consumer products are to be properly tested. ?When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body, we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals. ?I was surprised to see his room in such a litter. ?The conditions that existed ten years ago are reproduced today. Unit 12 ?Until recently daydreaming was generally considered either a waste of time or a symptom of neurotic tendencies. ?At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life. ?As with anything carried to excess, daydreaming can be harmful. ?There is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. ?Daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth, power of concentration, and the ability to interact and communicate with others. ?Daydreaming resulted in improved self-con
 

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