》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text B Short-term Memory
New words
Short-term 短期的 Long-term 长期的 合成词:
  1.Short-term Long-term Native-speaking
  2.含同样的前缀 unable / unrelated
  3.psychologist speaker recording advanced Recall
  3.撤消,收回 For example: I don't recall your name. 我想不起你的名字了. Contrast n.对比,对照 vi. (with) 形成对比 vt. 把……与……对比(with) contrast to 表示与……相比 contrast between A and B For example: Her actions contrasted sharply with her promise. Let's contrast this text with the next one. in contrast 表示形成对比(相反,大不相同) by contrast 表示相比之下 His white hair was in sharp contrast to/with his dark skin. 他的白头发和他的黑皮肤形成了鲜明对比. She had almost failed the exam but her sister by contrast had done very well. dial vt./vi.拨(电话号码) ,打电话(给) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(

  3.拨号盘 interrupt vt. 打断,打扰;终止,阻碍 vi. 打断,打扰 For example: Don't interrupt me when I am speaking. unable a. [后接动词不定式] 不能的,不会的 For example: I am unable to memorize one hundred words in ten minutes. psychologist n. 心理学家 human a. 人的,人类的 n. 人 person / people / human /human being apparatus n. 器械,器具,设备 复数有两种形式:apparatus 和 apparatuses rat n. 鼠 mouse release n./ vt.
  3. 放开,松开 for example:
  1)The man was released from the prison. 那个人被从监狱中放出来了.
  2)The medicine released him from his suffering. 这种药消除了他的痛苦. reward n. /vt.
  2. 报答 for example: I rewarded him for his help. interval n. 间隔,间距;幕间(或工间) ;休息 represent vt.
  1.作为……代表(或代理) ;
  2. 表示,象征;
  3.描绘,表现 representation n. 代表 for example:
  1)X represents the unknown. X 代表未知数.
  2)The rose represents England. 玫瑰花是英格兰的象征. intermediate a. 中间的,中级的 beginning / primary 初级的 intermediate 中级的 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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advanced advanced a. 先进的,高级的
》 《英语(一) 英语(
native-speaking a. 说本族语的,讲本国话的 recording n. 录制(尤指广播,电视等)节目 speaker n.
  2.扬声器 paragraph n. (文章的)段落,节 alike a. 同样的,相像的 like v. alike a. For example: The two sisters are very much alike. 这姐妹俩非常相像. Alike adv. 同样地,一样地 For example: The boss treats everybody alike. 老板对待每一个人都是一样的. wither vi. /vt. (使)枯萎,凋谢 method n. 方法,办法 system n.
  2. 制度,体制 unrelated a. 无关的,不相关的 proficiency n. 熟练,精通 Phrases and Expressions In contrast 成对比 To look up 在字典,参考书中查找 For example: If you want to know how the word is used, look it up in the dictionary. 如果你想知道这个词是如何使用的,你可以到字典中去查找. 若其宾语为简单代词,则为:look +代词+up 若其宾语为名词,短语或者宾语较长,则为:look up +宾语 eg. Look up the word. Be unable to 不能做某事 To turn on 开,接通(电源,水源,煤气等) To turn off 关,关断(水源,电源,煤气等) turn on /off +light / TV /gas /fire turn up 把声音开大;把力量加大…… turn down 把音量降低一些[减弱,降低,压低(力量,声音等);拒绝,不接受 ] To begin 首先,开始 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
To begin with 意思是"首先;第一点(理由)",一般用于罗列一些事物 For example: There are many reasons I don't like her. To begin with, she doesn't have a truth. 我有很多不喜欢她的理由.首先因为她不讲实话. I didn't like him to begin with, but now he is one of my best friends. 一开始我并不喜欢他,但现在他成了我的好友. At first; first of all 首先 Proper Names Hunter 亨特(人名) Henning 汉宁(人名) Los Angeles 洛杉矶(美国加州西南一港市)
Short-term Memory There are two kings of memory: short-term and long-term. Information in long-term memory can be recalled at a later time when it is needed. The information may be kept for days or weeks. Sometimes information in the long-term memory is hard to remember. Students taking exams often have this experience. In contrast, information in short-term memory is kept for only a few seconds, usually by repeating the information over and over. For example, you look up a number in the telephone book, and before you dial, you repeat the number over and over. If someone interrupts you, you will probably forget the number. In laboratory studies, subjects are unable to remember three letters after eighteen seconds if they are not allowed to repeat the letters to themselves. 有两种记忆:短期记忆和长期记忆.处于长期记忆中的信息会在后来需要的时候被回想起来.这些信息可能被 保存数日或数周.有时人们很难想起长期记忆中的信息.参加考试的学生通常会有这样的经历.相比之下,短期记 忆中的信息仅仅能够保存几秒钟,一般通过一次次的重复来达到短期记忆的目的.例如,你在电话簿中找到了一个 号码,在拨电话之前,你会一遍遍地重复这个号码.如果这时有人打扰了你,你将有可能忘记这个号码.通过实验 研究发现,如果不准被测试人重复要记忆的字母,那么十八秒之后被测试人连三个字母都记不住. late a. 迟到的,晚的 He is never late for school.他上学从来不迟到. later a. 稍晚的,更晚的 I met him a week later.一周之后我见到了他. He always comes to work early and leave off late.(late 在此作副词) 常用短语:late into the night 直到深夜 As a waiter, he always works late into the night. Memorize 记忆(表示动作,过程) Remember 记住(表示最终结果,"记住了") Students taking exams taking exams 分词短语作定语, ( 修饰前面的名词"Students") =students who are taking exams. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
If 引导条件状语从句,如果 If 从句中用的是一般现在时,则主句要用一般将来时.这种规则叫时态上的呼应. Psychologists study memory and learning with both animal and human subjects. The two experiments here show how short-term memory has been studied. 心理学家利用人和动物来研究记忆和学习.下面两个实验表明了人们是如何研究短期记忆的. Dr. Hunter studied short-term memory in rats. He used a special apparatus which had a cage for the rat and three doors. There was a light in each door. First the rat was placed in the closed cage. Next, one of the lights was turned on and then off. There was food for the rat only at this door. After the light was turned off, the rat had to wait a short time before it was released from its cage. Then, if it went to the correct door, it was rewarded with the food that was there. Hunter did this experiment many times. He always turned on the lights in a random order. The rat had to wait different intervals before it was released from the cage. Hunter found that if the rat had to wait more than ten seconds, it could not remember the correct door. Hunter's results show that rats have a short-term memory of about ten seconds. 亨特博士研究了老鼠的短期记忆.他用了一种特殊装置,这种装置上有个鼠笼和三扇门.每扇门上都有一盏灯. 首先,把老鼠放到一个关着的笼子里.接着,把其中一盏灯打开然后再关上.只有在这个地方有给老鼠准备的食物. 在把灯关掉以后,这只老鼠必须等上一段时间才能被从笼子里放出来.接下来,如果这个老鼠走对了门,那么,门 那里摆着的食物就是对它的奖赏.亨特博士多次做过这种实验.他总是不按固定顺序而随便地打开任何一盏灯.让 老鼠等候的时间间隔也完全不同,然后才把老鼠从笼子中放出去.亨特博士发现,如果老鼠必须等候 10 秒钟以上才 被放出来,那它就记不住哪扇门是正确的.于是,亨特博士得出了一个结论:老鼠的短期记忆时间是 10 秒钟左右. closed cage:过去分词作定语. Later, Dr. Henning studied how students who are learning English as a second language remember vocabulary. The subjects in his experiment were 75 students at the University of California in Los-Angeles. They represented all levels of ability in English: beginning, intermediate, advanced, and native-speaking students. 后来,汉宁博士研究了那些把英语作为第二语言来学习的学生是怎样记生词的.他实验的对象是洛杉矶加利福 尼亚大学的 75 名学生.他们代表着各种程度的英语学生:初级的,中级的,高级的和母语为英语的学生. To begin, the subjects listened to a recording of a native speaker reading a paragraph in English. Following the recording, the subjects took a 15-question test to see which words they remembered. Each question had four choices. The subjects had to circle the word they had heard in the recording. Some of the questions had four choices that sound alike. For example, weather, whether, wither, and wetter are four words that sound alike. Some of the questions had four choices
that have the same meaning. Method, way, manner, and system would be four words with the same meaning. Some of them had four unrelated choices. For instance, weather, method, love, and result could be used as four unrelated words. Finally the subjects took a language proficiency test. 首先,让受试者们听了一段录音材料,这段录音材料是一个母语为英语的人所朗读的一小段英文文章.听了录 音以后,让受试者参加了一次共 15 个问题的测试,看看他们都记住了哪些生词.每个问题有四个选择项.受试者必 须圈出他们在录音中所听到的单词. 有些问题的四个选择项听起来很相像. 例如: weather 天气, whether 是否, wither ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
枯萎,wetter 更湿的.有些问题的选择项的意义是一样的:method, way, manner 和 system.有些问题的四个选择项之 间没有任何关联:weather, method, love 和 result.最后,受试者们参加了一次语言水平测试. take hold of 握住 take medicine 吃药 take blood pressure 量血压 take a test 参加一次测试 circle v. 把……圈起来. Had +过去分词 称为过去完成时. For example: He said that he had never made any mistakes. Henning found that students with a lower proficiency in English made more of their mistakes on words that sound alike; students with a higher proficiency made more of their mistakes on words that have the same meaning. Henning's results suggest that beginning students hold the sound of words in their short-term memory, while advanced students hold the meaning of words in their short-term memory. 汉宁发现:英语水平较低的学生会在发音相似的单词方面犯较多的错误;而英语水平较高的学生会在意义相似 的单词方面犯更多的错误.汉宁的实验结果表明:初学者能把单词的声音保持在短期记忆中,而程度高的学生能把 词汇的意义保持在短期记忆中. Suggest v.
  1.表示建议时,后面的从句要用虚拟语气.从句的谓语:should +动词原型或省略 should For example: My friend suggested that we should stay up in the mountain area. 我的朋友建议在山区过夜.
  2."表明"的意思,相当于 show.后面跟宾语从句时,从句不能用虚拟语气. For example: The experiment shows (suggests) that human beings have both long-term memory and short-term memory. While "然而;而",表示对比关系 Hold 保持,掌握
Exercises for the Text II.Supply a word that you have learned in Text B. The first letter is given.
  1.Information in short-term memory is usually kept for only a few seconds.
  2.In contrast to our old house, the new one is a palace!
  3.Psychologists study memory and learning with both animal and human subjects.
  4.He was released from the prison three years ago.



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