高等教育自学考试网上辅导
》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text A Families
Text A New words:
  1.前缀单词 post-industrial:a. 后工业化的 remarry:v. 再婚
  2.后缀单词 (
  1)名词后缀 definition:定义,释义 marriage:婚姻 security:安全 earner:赚钱者 (
  2)形容词后缀 traditional:传统的 agricultural:农业的 industrial:工业的 industrialize:vt. 使工业化 social:社会的 extended:展开的;延伸的 (
  3)副词后缀 basically:基本上
  3.合成词 household:家庭 grandparent: (外)祖父或(外)祖母 mother-in-law:岳母;婆母
Cruces words 重点词汇:
  1.descend:传下,遗传;下来,下降 For example: The book descends to me from my father.(这本书是我父亲传给我的) The elevator descends slowly to the ground floor.(电梯缓缓的下降到第一层)
  2.relative:n. 亲属,亲戚 a. 相对的 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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For example:
》 《英语(一) 英语(
You can notice the relative speeds of a car and a train if you are in the train.(如果你坐在火车里,你就能察觉火车和 汽车的相对速度. ) She told us all the facts that were relative to this question.(她把关于这个问题的全部事实告诉了我们. )
  3.tradition For example:Traditionally (tradition), the spring festival is the most important holiday to our Chinese.(传统意义上, 春节对于我们中国人来说是最重要的节假日. )
  4.mother-in-law:岳母
  5. earn:挣得,赢得;博得 For example:He began to earn his living at the age of
  18.(他 18 岁时就开始谋生了) In modern family, both the parents earn money for the family.(在现代家庭中,父母都挣钱养家) His honesty earned him great respect.(他因诚实而赢得人们的尊敬)
  6.split:裂开,分开 For example:He split the wood with an ax.(他用斧头劈柴) For example:This group was split into two. Because it was too large.(这个组被分成了两组,因为它太大了. ) There is a split in the blackboard.(黑板上裂了一条缝) It may lead to a serious split in the company.(它可能导致公司的严重分裂)
  7.divorce:离婚 For example:He asked for a divorce.(他申请离婚) She and her husband got divorced two years ago.(两年前她同丈夫离了婚)
Cruces phrases 重点短语:
  1.care for:喜欢;为…操心 All the teachers care for my progress in study very much.(所有的老师都关心我在学习上的进步) Would you care for another cup of tea? (你还想再喝一杯茶吗?)
  2.split up:分裂;吵架,离婚 The party split up into small groups.(该党分成了若干小派别. ) They split up after ten years of marriage.(他们结婚十年后离婚了. )
  3.talk of:谈到,谈起 My father often talks of his school life.(我父亲时常谈起他的学校生活. )
Text A Families "Family"-the word has different meanings for different people, and even the dictionary gives us several definitions: "a ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
group of people related by blood or marriage," "two adults and their children," "all those people descended from a common ancestor," "a household," and so on. "家"这个词对于不同的人来说有着不同的意义,甚至连词典都给我们提供了几个不同的定义:"有着血统或婚姻 关系的一群人","夫妻和子女","共同祖先传下来的所有的后代","在同一间房屋里一起生活的人",等等. Some people think of a family as a mother, a father, and their children; others include grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. For some of us, family means the group of relatives living far away from home. For others, having a family simply means having children. Some families have long histories, while others know very little about their ancestors. 有些人把父母加子女就看成是一家人;还有些人认为家人应当包括祖父母,外祖父母,姑妈姨妈,叔父舅父及 堂表兄弟姐妹.对于我们中的一部分人来说,家人意味着所有亲戚,即使是远离家乡的亲戚.而对于一些人来说, 有家就意味着有孩子.有些家庭有着漫长的家史,可是也有些家庭对他们祖先的情况几乎不了解. 短语:know about/of 知道,了解,听说过…… know well 了解得很深 No matter if it is young or old, large or small, traditional or modern, every family has a sense of what a family is. It is that feeling of belonging, of love and security that comes from living together, helping and sharing. 不论家史长短,也不论家族人口多少,更不论家风是古旧还是新式,每一位家庭成员都有一种所谓"家的感觉". 这种家的感觉就是那种归属感,相亲相爱和安全感,而这一切都是来自于共同生活,互相帮助,同甘共苦. 短句:no matter + if/whether/who/what/where/how:不管…,无论… For example:Don't trust him, no matter what he says.(无论他说什么,都别相信他. ) I will follow you, no matter where you go.(不管你走到哪里,我都跟着你) 简化:no matter who/what=whoever/whatever… Whoever you are, you can not be allowed to enter the room.(不管你是谁,你都不能进入这个房间) 句型:It is … that … There are basically two types of families: nuclear families and extended families. The nuclear family usually consists of two parents (mother and father) and their children. The mother and father form the nucleus, or center, of the nuclear family. The children stay in the nuclear family until they grow up and marry. Then they form new nuclear families. 基本上有两种类型的家庭:核心型小家庭和扩展型大家庭.核心型小家庭通常由家长和孩子组成.母亲和父亲 是这个小家庭的核心,或者叫做中心.孩子们在核心家庭里一直住到长大成人并结了婚,然后他们再去组织新的核 心小家庭. 短语:consist of 由…组成 The extended family is very large. There are often many nuclear families in one extended family. An extended family includes children, parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins. The members of an extended family are related by blood (grandparents, parents, children, brothers, sisters, etc.) or by marriage (husbands, wives, mothers-in-law, etc.). They are all related, so the members of an extended family are called relatives. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
扩展型大家庭人口很多.一个扩展型大家庭里通常有许多核心型小家庭.一个扩展型大家庭包括孩子,父母亲, 祖父母和外祖父母,叔父伯父,姑姑姨姨及堂表兄弟姐妹.这种大家庭的家庭成员之间都有血统关系(祖父母或外 祖父母,父母,孩子,兄弟姐妹等)或者有婚姻关系(夫妇,岳母,婆母等) .他们相互间都有亲缘关系,所以一个 扩展型大家庭的成员之间互称亲属. 单词: include:包括,包含 For example:This book contains fifty pictures including six of Beijing.(这本书有 50 张画片,其中有 6 张是关于北 京的. ) The price of this book is thirty yuan, postage included.(这本书的价格是 30 元,邮费包括在内) Traditionally,all the members of an extended family lived in the same area. However, with the change from an agricultural to an industrial society, many nuclear families moved away from the family home in order to find work. In industrial societies today, the members of most nuclear families live together, but most extended families do not live together. Therefore we can say that the nuclear family becomes more important than the extended family as the society industrializes. 传统上,一个大家族的所有成员都居住在同一个地方.可是,随着农业社会向工业社会的转变,许多小家庭搬 离了家乡以便寻找工作.今天,在工业社会里,绝大多数小家庭的成员是住在一起的,可是绝大多数大家庭成员都 不住在一起了.因此,我们可以说随着社会的工业化,核心小家庭变得比扩展型大家庭更为重要. 单词:with:与…同时,随着 For example:The shadow lengthened with the approach of sunset.(随着太阳落山,影子逐渐地拉长了. ) Good wine will improve with age.(好酒越陈越醇. ) 句型: in order to / in order that For example:He stood up in order to see clearly. He stood up in order that he could see clearly.(为了看得更清楚,他站了起来) In post-industrial societies like the United States, even the nuclear family is changing. The nuclear family is becoming smaller as parents want fewer children, and the number of childless families is increasing. Traditionally, the father of a nuclear family earned money for the family while the mother cared for the house and the children. 在像美国这样的后工业化社会里,连核心小家庭也在变化着.由于人们不想多要孩子,核心小家庭变得更小了. 无子女家庭的数目在增加.过去,都是小家庭里的父亲去挣钱养家,母亲来照料家务和孩子. 单词:while:n.一段时间 conj. 而…(表示对比)/当…的时候/虽然 For example:It took us quite a while to find a hotel.(我们花了很长时间才找到一家旅馆) He fell asleep while the others are doing their exercise.(他睡着了,而别人都在做功课. ) While in London he studied music.(他在伦敦时,研究音乐. ) While I admit that there are problems, I don't agree that they can not be solved. 虽然我承认有问题存在, ( 但我不认为 这些问题无法解决. ) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Today, more than 50% of the nuclear families in the United states are two-earner families-both the father and the mother earn money for the family-and in a few families the mother earns the money while the father takes care of the house and the children. Many nuclear families are also "splitting up"-more and more parents are getting divorced. 今天,美国有 50%以上的小家庭是两个人挣钱养家--父母都挣钱养家,还有极少数家庭是母亲挣钱,而父亲照 料家务和孩子.很多核心小家庭也在搞"分裂",越来越多的父母在闹离婚. What will be the result of this "splitting" of the nuclear family? Social scientists now talk of two new family forms: the single parent family and the remarried family. Almost 20% of all American families are single parent families, and in 85% of these families the single parent is the mother. Most single Parents find it very difficult to take care of a family alone, so they soon marry again and form remarried families. 这些核心小家庭的"分裂"后果是什么?现在社会学家谈到了两种新的家庭类型:单亲家庭和再婚家庭.在全美 国的家庭总数中单亲家庭几乎占了 20%,在这 20%的单亲家庭中,85%的单亲是母亲.其中绝大多数的单亲都发觉 单靠自己来照料一个家是很难的.于是他们很快地再婚了,组成了再婚家庭. 短句:sb find it +(adj.)+to do sth For example: He found it comfortable to lie on the bed.(他发现躺在床上很舒服. ) As social scientists study these two new family forms, they will be able to tell us more about the future of the nuclear family in the post-industrial age. 在社会科学工作者们对这两种新的家庭类型作了仔细调查研究之后,他们就会更加详细地告诉我们,在后工业 化社会的时代里,核心小家庭在未来的演变情况.
Exercises for the text Ⅲ. industrial relative industrialize traditionally nuclear nucleus relate extended
basically divorce

  3.They are going on an extended holiday to Australia.
  5.If two things are related, there is a connection between them.
  8.China is getting industrialized very rapidly.
  9.Several nuclear power stations are to be built in this part of that country.
  10.About 100 books serve as the nucleus of our school library.
Vocabulary Exercises Ⅰ.
  1.relate relative relation
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
a.My uncle is one of my nearest relatives. b.There is no relation between those two events. c.Does what you say relate to what you have done?
  2.extend extension extensive
a.The extension of the house became a kitchen. b.The professor has an extensive knowledge of Chinese history. c.They have extended the road from ten miles to sixty miles.
  3.tradition traditional traditionally
a.Drinking tea is a Ch
 

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