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》 《英语(一) 英语(
TextB How Should You Build Up Your Vocabulary?
New Words
  1.前缀单词
  2.后缀单词 (
  1)形容词后缀 productive 生产的;多产的,富饶的;富有成效的 tentative 试探性的;尝试性的 specific 具体的,明确的;特定的,特有的 contextual 上下文的;取决于上下文的 (
  2)名词后缀 preference (for, to )偏爱;优先(权) effectiveness 效果,有效性 awareness 意识,觉悟;懂事,明智 accuracy 准确(性) ,精确(性) (
  3)副词后缀 securely 安全地;牢固地,稳固地;信心十足地,有把握地 apparently 显然地;表面上,似乎 personally 亲自,当面;就个人而言;作为个人,个别地 (
  4)动词后缀 heighten 加高,提高,增高;增加,增大,加强 sharpen 削尖,磨尖;使敏锐,使敏捷
Cruces words 重点词汇:
  1.interrupt 打断,打扰;终止,阻碍;中断 For example: Don't interrupt me while I'm reading.(我读书时别打扰我. ) Traffic was interrupted by floods.(交通被洪水阻断了. )
  2.process n. 过程,进程;工序,加工方法;v. 加工,处理 For example: Reforming the education system will be a difficult process.(改革教育制度将是一个艰难的过程. ) They have developed a new process of dyeing.(他们研究出一种新的染色方法. ) The polluted water must be processed at once.(必须马上处理掉这些污水. ) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(

  3.intend (vt) 想要;打算 intend to do sth/intend doing sth For example: I intended to do it, but I forgot.(我本来打算去做这件事的,但我忘了. ) I hear they intend to marry/marrying.( 听说他们要结婚了. ) What do you intend by that remark?(你说那话是什么意思?)
  4.preference (for, to )偏爱;优先(权) For example: She has a preference for blue.(她特别喜欢蓝色. ) Tea or coffee? Which is your preference? (茶和咖啡,你喜欢哪一个?)
  5. consult (vt) 请教,向…咨询/查询;查看 (vi) 交换意见,商议. For example: I consulted a doctor about my pains.(我向医生打听过我的病痛的事. ) He consulted a map to look for the place.(他查看地图,找那个地方. )
  6. ease (n/v) 容易;舒适,安逸;缓和,减轻 For example: He lives an ease life.(他过着安逸舒适的生活. ) The aspirin eased my headache.(阿斯匹林使我头疼减轻. )
Phrases and Expressions
  1.build up 增长,增强;逐渐积聚,集结 For example: Traffic is building up on roads into the city.(来往的车辆在通往的市区道路上越聚越多. ) Their pressures on the enemy is building up.(他们对敌人的压力正逐渐增强. )
  2.come across 偶然遇见,碰上 For example: I came across my old friend in a shop.(我和我的老朋友在商店偶遇. ) She came across some old photographs in a drawer.(她在抽屉里面偶然发现一些旧照片. )
  3.begin with 以…开始,以…为起点 For example: Knowledge begins with practice. (认识从实践开始. ) Our friendship begins with childhood.(我们的友谊从童年开始. ) To begin with 首先,起初 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(

  4.come up with(针对问题,挑战等)提出;提供 For example: Scientists will have to come up with new methods of increasing the world's food supply.(科学家不得不想出提供增长 世界粮食供应的新方法. )
  5.after all 毕竟;终究 For example: Don't be angry with him. After all, he is a child.(不要跟他生气,毕竟,他还是个孩子. ) Don't be so disappointed. After all you just failed four times. (不要那么失望,毕竟你才失败了四次. )
  6.provide somebody with 给某人提供…/ provide sth for sb For example: The form provided me with a car.(公司给我提供一辆汽车. ) Parents provide their children with clothes, food and education.(父母为孩子提供衣食和教育. )
Text B How Should You Build Up Your Vocabulary? Through context When students in a college class were asked what should be done when they came across a new word in their reading, 84 percent said, "Look it up in the dictionary." If you do, however, you interrupt the very mental processes needed to make your efforts most productive. 通过文脉 如果问一问某个大学班里的学生们,他们在阅读中若是遇到了生词该怎么办,84%的学生会说"查字典".但是, 如果你去查字典,这就势必打断了你思考书中内容的思路,而这思考的思路正是使你的阅能获得最大的成果所必需 的. But there's another reason. Suppose someone asks you what the word "fast" means. You answer, "swift." But does it mean that in such contexts as "fast color," "fast woman," or "fast friend"? And if a horse is fast, is it securely tied or running at top speed? It could be either. It all depends. On the dictionary? No, on context - on how the word is actually used. After all there are over twenty different meanings for "fast" in the dictionary. But the dictionary doesn't tell you which meaning is intended. That's why it makes such good sense to begin with context. 要通过文脉(上下文)还有一个理由.若有人问你 fast(快)这个词是什么意思.你会回答:swift(急速) .但 是在像 "fast color"(不褪的颜色) ,"fast woman"(淫荡的妇女)或"fast friend"(可靠的朋友)这样的文脉(或译作" 上下 文","语境")中 fast 也是"急速"的意思吗?"A horse is fast."这个句子是"一匹马被拴得很牢固"的意思呢,还是" 一匹马跑得很快"的意思呢(这个句子是指"一匹被栓得很牢固的马"还是"一匹正在跑得很快的马"呢)?这两种意思 中哪一种的意思都有可能.这要由文脉来决定了.根据词典?不,要根据上下文来决定 fast 这个词实际上用的是哪 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
一个意思.Fast 这个词在词典中竟有 20 多个义项.但是你所查的那本词典不可能告诉你这里用的是哪个意思.这就 是之所以必须从文章的脉络着手来理解词义的最充分的理由. Through Word Parts Now for the next step. Often new words contain one or more parts, which, if recognized, provide specific help with meaning. Suppose you read that someone "had a preference for reading travel books." The context certainly isn't too helpful. But do you see a prefix, suffix, or root that you know? Well, there's the familiar prefix pre-, meaning "before." Look back at the context and try inserting "before." Reading travel books apparently comes "before" other kinds of reading. Yes, a preference is something put "before" something else. 单词:try 尝试 try doing(试着做某事)/try to do(尽量做某事) For example: Try knocking at the back door, if nobody hears you at the front door.(如果敲前门没有人答应的话,你就试着敲一下 后门. ) Try to get here early.(尽可能地早到. ) 通过词汇的构成部分 那么接下来才进行下一步.一些生词里经常会包含有一个或更多的构词成分.如果你能认出这些构词成分(这 里指词根, 前缀, 中缀,后缀) 会在你了解词义上特有帮助.如果你读到 "Someone had a preference for reading travel books."(某人最喜欢读旅游方面的书籍. )这样的一个句子,只根据上下文的脉络当然不会有太大的帮助.但是你看 到这个生词中有你所认识的前缀(prefix) ,后缀(suffix)或词根(root)了吗?噢,这儿有个你认识的前缀 pre-意思 是"在…最前头"(before) .再回头来看看上下文的脉络,试把"在…最前头"这个意思加进去.很显然,把阅读旅游书 籍摆在其他各种书籍之前.没错,preference(优先,最喜欢)这个词的意思就是摆在其他别的事情之前的意思了. Your second step, then, is to look for familiar word parts. If they do not give you exact meanings, they should at least bring you much closer. 短语:at least 至少/at most 最多 For example:You should at least have a try.(至少你要尝试一下. ) The painting cost at least five pounds.(这幅画至少也能值 5 英镑. ) You looks at most twenty years old.(你看起来最多就 20 岁. ) 所以,这第二个步骤就是要找出你所熟知的构词成分.即使这些构词知识不能给你精确的词义,最低限度也能 使你对该词义能了解得很接近了. Now you can see why you should consult the dictionary last, not first. You've looked carefully at context. You've looked for familiar word parts. Now you play Sherlock Holmes - an exciting role. You guess. What exactly does that strange word mean? Only when you go through the mental exercises to come up with a tentative definition should you open the dictionary to see if you're right. 现在你该懂了为什么最后一个步骤才是查词典,而不是一见到生词首先就查词典.你对文章的上下文脉络已经 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
看过了.你已经找出来了生词中你早已熟知的构词成分.那么现在你就扮演夏洛克福尔摩斯,一个激动人心的角色. 你去猜,这个生词的确切意思到底是什么?只有经过了你的反复思考,推敲得出一个还不十分确定的词义时,才可 以翻开词典证实一下你的想法是否正确. Only 在句首,后面加状语时引导部分倒装句型: Only in this way can you build up a large vocabulary.(只有这样,你才能掌握大量的词汇. ) Only 后面不加状语时不倒装: Only you can come into the room.(只有你才能进入这个房间. ) After all, those first two steps or approaches spark a stronger than usual interest in that dictionary definition. You're now personally involved. Did you find out the word meaning? Your heightened interest will lead to better memory of both word and meaning. It also encourages your development of the habits needed to speed your progress. And when you see in black and white the definition you had expected, what a feeling of success is yours. In that way, the CPD Formula provides you with maximum effectiveness. 要知道,头两个步骤或方法比你查词典上的解释更能激发出你的非同小可的兴趣.现在你本人已经完全进入文 章的意境当中了.你搞清楚这个生词的意思了吗?你越来越浓厚的兴趣会使你更好地记住这个生词和它的意思.这 也有助于你养成为了加快进步所必须的良好阅读习惯.当你看到词典中白纸黑字所印出的词义,正是你原来所认定 的意思时, 你就会有一种成功感. 这样, 这个 CPD 三步曲 (这里指 Context 通过文脉, Word Parts 通过构词和 Dictionary 通过词典)就会给你提供最大的效率. Well, there it is, your new formula-Context, Parts, Dictionary. Use it! The exercises which follow will give you specific, step-by-step help in sharpening your awareness of contextual clues, learning the most useful word parts, and using the dictionary with increased accuracy and ease. The results will be like money in the bank. 好,步骤就是这样,这就是你的新三步曲--文脉,构词,词典.用这三步曲吧!接着的那些练习会提供给你具体 的踏踏实实的帮助,使你能够敏锐地意识到文章的脉络所提供的猜词线索,使你能学会很有用的构词成分,使你能 越来越精确地,得心应手地使用词典.这三步曲的结果就会像你把钱存到银行里一样,词汇积累得越来越多.
Vocabulary Exercises ⅡChoose the one that best completes the sentence.
  1. You should be able to tell the meaning of the word from its A. company (公司) B. conclusion (结论) C. context (上下文) D. communication (通讯)
  2. Coal was formed out of dead forests by chemical A. products (产品) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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C
.
D .
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B. pressures (压力) C. programs (节目) D. processes (过程)
  3. Tea or coffee? Which is your A. preference (偏爱) B. confusion (混乱) C. puzzle(迷惑) D. mixture(混合物)
  4. We've made B
》 《英语(一) 英语(
A ?
plans for a holiday but haven't decided anything certain yet.
A. theoretical (理论的) B. tentative (试探性的) C. thorough (完全的) D. technical (技术的)
  5. Ten experts have worked on it for five years. So I suppose there is no need to check the A. accuracy (准确) B. atmosphere(大气) C. awareness(意识) D.
 

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