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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text A Scientific Attitudes
New Words

  1.前缀 unknown 未知的,不知名的 unpleasant 使人不愉快的;不合意的 disagreeable 让人讨厌的,不合心意的
  2.后缀 (
  1)形容词后缀 scientific 科学的 open-minded 无偏见的;虚心的 acceptable 可以接受的 (
  2)名词后缀 environment 环境,周围状况,自然环境 curiosity 好奇(心) 求知欲 ; imagination 想像,想像力;空想,幻觉 relationship 关系,联系 open-mindedness 无偏见;虚心 failure 失败;失灵,故障;没做到,不履行(to+v.) solution 解答,解决办法;溶解,溶液 finding 发现(物) [常 pl.](调查或研究)结果 ; thinking 思想,思考;想法,见解 evidence 根据,证据 growth 增长,增加;生长,发展 regardless(a) 不留心的,不注意的;不关心的(of) (ad) 不论如何,不顾,不惜 (
  3)副词后缀 scientifically 科学地 previously 在前地,早先地 entirely 全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地 frequently 经常地;频繁地
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Cruces words 重点词汇:
》 《英语(一) 英语(

  1.attitude 态度,看法(to/towards) For example:He has a good attitude to his study. (对于学习他有好的态度)
  2.apart 分离,分开
  3.phenomenon 现象,迹象 复数 phenomena
  4.regardless (ad)无论如何; 不顾(anyway) For example:He went to Japan on holiday regardless of the expense.(他不考虑费用,到日本度假. )
  5.failure 失败;失灵;没做到 For example:Failure is the mother of success.(失败乃成功之母) He had a failure to keep a promise.(他没有遵守自己的诺言. )
  6.adapt(vt) 使适应,使适合(to) ;改编,改写 For example:She found it difficult to adapt herself to the life in a foreign country.(她发现很难适应国外的生活. ) He does not adapt for such work.(他不适应这种工作. )
  7.perfect (a) 完美的,完满的;完全的,十足的 (vt) 使完美,改善 For example: Nobody is perfect.(没有人是完美的/人无完人)
  8.entirely 全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
  9.determine (
  1)determine to do sth 决定做某事 For example:He determined to look for a new job.(他决定再另外找一份新的工作) (
  2)determine on/upon 作出决定(某方面,某事件) For example:We determined on an early start.(我们决定早些动身. ) (
  3)determine + that clause For example:He has determined that he will go to Hong Kong next week.(他决定下周去香港. ) (
  4)be determined to do sth.
Phrases and Expressions
  1.lay aside 把…放在一边;把…储存在一边供以后用,留存 For example:He laid his work aside to listen to the radio.(他把工作丢在一边听收音机去了. ) His parents laid aside some money for his education.(他的父母为他受教育存了一笔钱. )
  2.take apart 拆散;拆开 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
For example:The child took apart the toy but didn't know how to put it together.(这个孩子把玩具拆开了,但不知道 如何组装起来. )
  3.carry out 实行;完成 For example:To carry out the experiment in time I worked all day and all night.(为了按时完成任务/实验,我日夜 拼命工作. )
  4.believe in 相信,信任 For example:The children are always believing in what their parents say. (孩子们总是相信父母所说的话. )
  5.regardless of 不顾;不管 For example:Don't do things regardless of consequence.(做事情不要不计后果. )
  6.in advance 预先,事先;在前面 For example:If you want to live in that hotel you must telephone to book in advance.(如果你想在那家宾馆住的话, 你就需要先打电话预定. )
  7.adapt…to 使…适应… For example:We should adapt our thinking to the new conditions.(我们应该使自己的思想适应新的情况/形势. )
  8.make up one's mind 下决心 For example:He makes up his mind to stop smoking.(他决心戒烟. )
  9.once and for all 永远地,一劳永逸地 For example:I told him once and for all that I wouldn't go.(我告诉他我决不会去. )
  10.in the light of 按照,根据;鉴于 For example:In the light of what you say, I agree to go.(鉴于你说的情况,我同意去. )
  12.respect for 尊重 For example:We should show respect for the old.(对老年人应表示尊敬. )
  13.laugh at 嘲笑;讥笑 For example:It's wrong to laugh at those who get into trouble. (嘲笑一个陷入困境的人是不对的) .
Text A Scientific Attitudes Science had its beginning when man started asking questions about his environment. He wondered where the sun went at night and why the sky was blue. He questioned why the wind blew and the leaves fell. He sought answers to these and other questions. Not all his answers were correct, but at least he did want to know. 单词: (
  1)question (v) 对…提出疑问 (
  2)blow,fall (
  3)answer to,key to ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
For example:I haven't the key to the door.(我没有这个门的钥匙. ) The keys to the test paper are wrong.(试卷上的答案是错误的. ) (
  4)not all 表部分否定. For example:Not all glitters is gold.(并不是所有发光的东西都是金子. ) Not all of us are teachers.(并不是我们所有的人都是老师. ) 科学始于人类对环境提出种种疑问的时候.人们想知道,夜里太阳到哪里去了,天空为什么是蓝色的.人们问 道,为什么会刮风,为什么叶子会落下来.人类苦苦寻求过这些问题及其他问题的答案.虽然人类给出的答案并不 都是正确的,但是至少那时的人确实想了解周围的世界. (
  5)Not all his answers were correct, but at least he did want to know. do 作强调 v (do /does/did) For example:We do hope that the air in our cities will get fresher and purer. 我们真希望我们城市里的空气变得更清晰,更纯净. He does like watching TV at night. 他的确喜欢晚上看电视. Curiosity and Imagination Science began to develop rapidly when man laid aside his wrong beliefs and began to seek true explanations. Young children are curious about how things work. The child wants to take apart a watch to see what makes it work. 短语:be curious about 对…好奇/想知道… For example:I'm curious about what he has done since he left school.(我想知道他毕业后做了些什么. ) 要有好奇心和想象力 当人们抛弃了种种错误的信念并开始寻找真理的时候,科学就开始迅猛的向前发展了.小孩子们对一切事物是 如何运作的感到好奇.小孩子想把一只表拆卸开,看看是什么东西能让表走动. Benjamin Franklin wondered about lightning. He combined his curiosity with imagination and carried out his well-known experiment to show that lightning and electric spark are the same thing. Curiosity and imagination are important qualities which help stimulate the discovery of new facts and advance science. 短语:combine…with 与…联合/结合. For example:We should combine the theory with practice.(应当把理论和实践结合起来. ) 本杰明富兰克林很想知道闪电是怎么回事.他把他的好奇心和想象力结合起来进行了那次著名的试验,结果证 实了天上打闪和电火花是一回事.好奇心和想象力对从事科学是非常重要的,因为有助于激励我们去发现新事物, 有助于激励我们推动科学向前发展. Belief in Cause and Effect Scientifically minded people believe in a "cause-and-effect" relationship. They feel there is a perfectly natural explanation for everything. For example, there is a good reason why some leaves turn red and others yellow in the fall. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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Changes such as these, which are easily observed, are called phenomena. Some common phenomena, however, are not completely understood. Still others connot be explained at all at this time. In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered. 短语:point of view 观点 句型:if …only 表示还欠缺的唯一条件 For example: can buy a new car if I have only another 1,000 US dollars. I (只要我再有 1000 美元, 我就能买辆新车. ) 要相信因果关系 凡是有科学头脑的人都相信因果关系.他们认为世上一切事物都会有一种完美的合乎自然规律的解释.例如, 在秋天之所以有些叶子会变成红色,而另一些叶子却变成了黄色,都有它充分的道理.这些都很容易观察到,我们 把诸如此类的一些变化称之为现象.可是有些很常见的现象我们还不能完全理解.还有一些很常见的现象现在还根 本无法解释.凡是在人们对某些现象还不知道该如何解释的情况下,科学的观点认为,只要存在,就必然有一定的 原因. Being Open-Minded Open-mindedness is also extremely important to a scientific attitude. This means the ability to face the facts as they are regardless of what one has previously thought. It includes an ability to accept new and sometimes even disagreeable ideas. The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant. He must expect many failures and be willing to try again. Thomas Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in producing the first electric lamp. 短语: (
  1)succeed in doing 成功做某事 (
  2)whether…or… 无论…还是… For example:Whether the weather is good or not, I will go out.(无论天气好不好,我都要外出. ) (
  3)be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事 (
  4)succeed in doing sth. 成功地做了某事 要能接受新思想 就科学态度来说,能够接受新思想也是极端重要的.这指的是能够面对现实,而不管自己从前是怎样想的.这 里包括能够接受新的思想,有时甚至这新的思想是自己原来所不同意的思想.科学工作者必须面对事实,不管这些 事实是令人愉快的,还是令人不愉快的.科学工作者必须想到有可能失败,而且愿意在失败之后再接着重做.汤玛 斯爱迪生失败了几千次才制作出第一只电灯. The solutions to real problems cannot be seen in advance. Scientists must be able to change their thinking and to adapt their theories to new facts as they are discovered. The mind cannot be made up once and for all. New knowledge may make a change in thinking necessary. This is another way of saying that man's understanding is always less than perfect. What is accepted as true often is relatively, and not absolutely, true. A scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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解决实际问题的办法往往无法预见到.科学家们必须能改变自己从前的想法,使自己的理论能适合新发现的事 实.人们的思想不应一成不变.新的知识必然会在人的思想中产生必要的变革.换一个说法也就是说:"人类对客观 事物的理解永远也不会是完美无缺的."通常被人们接受的所谓真理,都是相对真理,而不是绝对真理.科学的真理 提供了一种解释,这种解释也只有按照某一特定时间内人们的知识水平才是可以接受的. Respect for the Views of Others Another part of a scientific attitude is respect for the views of others. This is easy when these views are like one's own. The difficulty comes up when their ideas are different. Views which are entirely new or foreign may also be hard to accept. 要尊重别人的观点 科学态度的另一个组成部分就是要尊重他人的观点.如果别人的观点跟自己的观点相像,这就很容易做到.当 别人的观点与自己的观点不同,那就会出现困难.那些全新的观点或异端的观点也可能很难被接受. New ideas are frequently very slow to be accepted. Scientists such as Galileo, Louis Pasteur, and Edward Jenner were laughed at because they held theories that were not accepted. Respect for new ideas is important for continued progress in all fields of knowledge. respect for :对于…的尊重 新的思想要接受起来往往是很慢的.诸如伽利略,路易巴斯德和爱德华詹纳之类的科学家之所以被嘲笑,就是 因为人们不接受他们的理论.在一切专业知识领域
 

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