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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text B Solving Problems Scientifically
New words
solution 解答,解决办法;溶解,溶液 biological 生物学(上)的 engineering 工程,工程学;操纵,管理 microelectronics [用作单或复]微电子学,超小型电子学 related 有关的,相关的(to) ;有亲戚(或亲缘)关系的 background 背景 logical 逻辑(上)的,符合逻辑的 mathematical 数学(上)的 unanswered 未予答复的;无响应的,无报答的 hypothesis 假说,假设; (无根据的)猜测,揣测 prediction 预言,预计;预报 confidence 信任,信心 unreliable 不可靠的,靠不住的;不可依赖的 accurate 准确的,精确的 variable (n)变量 (a)易变的,可变的;变量的 experimentation 实验,试验
Cruces words 重点词汇:
  1.arouse 唤起;唤醒;引起(vt) arise 发生;出现;呈现(vi) For example:His behavior aroused my suspicion.(他的行为引起了我的怀疑. ) A new problem has arisen.(一个新问题出现了. )
  2.account (n) 叙述,说明;账,账户 (vi) (for)说明(原因等) For example:His illness accounts for his absence.(他因病缺席. )
  3.related 有关的,相关的(to) ;有亲戚(或亲缘)关系的 For example:The accident is related to careless driving.(这次事故与粗心驾驶有关.)
  4.indicate
  1.指示,指出;
  2.表示,表明 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
For example:The research indicates that people's living conditions is much better than before. (研究表明,人们的生活条件较从前有了明显的改善. )
Phrases and Expressions
  1.a variety of 种种;若干不同的 For example:He didn't receive the further education because of a variety of reasons. (由于种种原因,他没有深造. )
  2. result from 发生;因…引起,起因于 result in 导致;结果是 For example:The quarrel resulted from misunderstanding.(争吵是由误解引起的. ) His laziness resulted in his failure.(他的懒惰导致他的失败. )
  3.in need of 需要 in(bad/great)need of 非常需要 For example:We are in (bad/great) need of money.(我们需要(急需)钱. )
  4.build up 建立,逐步树立;加强 For example:He has built up a good reputation for his goods.(他已经为自己的货物建立起良好的信誉. )
  5.carry out 实现,进行;贯彻,执行 For example:No matter what happens, we must carry out the experiment/instructions. 不管发生了什么事,我们都必须进行那个实验(执行那个指示) .
  6.turn out (to be)原来是, (最后)证明是 For example:His failure turns out what the teacher said to be true.(他的失败证明了老师所说的话是正确的. )
  7.check with 与…相符,一致 For example:What he says check with what he does.(他所说所做是一致的. )
Text B
Solving Problems Scientifically
There are scientific ways in which man solves problems. Once his curiosity has been aroused, he uses certain methods and procedures to obtain new knowledge and greater understanding. Although the methods are not always the same, there are usually certain elements in the procedures that are similar. 解释: in which:以…方式 在人类解决问题时,总有一些科学的方法和步骤.一旦激起了人的好奇心,人们就会用一系列的方法和程序去 获取新的知识或获得更深刻的理解.尽管所采用的那些方法并不总是一样的,但在步骤上总是会有某些相似的成分. Recognizing the Problem Problems must first of all be recognized. The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions are asked. A ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Problems arise in a variety of ways. Sometimes they grow out of a chance observation. They may result from reading, from laboratory experiments, or simply from thinking. They also may result from new developments or from new or different human needs. Today, for example, problems are arising from new discoveries in the fields of nuclear physics, biological engineering and microelectronics. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved. 发现问题 首先,必须发现问题.只有问题找对了,才能得出正确答案.对问题理解得透彻,就是接近于解决问题的良好 开端.问题都是以多种多样的方式出现的. 这些问题有时是偶尔观察到的,有的是阅读中发现的问题,有的是在做 实验时发现的,还有的问题干脆是冥思苦想而发现的.有些问题也可能是在新的研制过程中发现的,或者是由于人 们有了新的需要或者由于不同的人有不同的需要而发现的.例如,今天的核物理学,生物工程学,微电子学等专业 领域中,由于有了新的发现,也就冒出了一些新的问题.工业的大发展也带来了许许多多的必须加以解决的问题. Collecting Information Next, the scientist tries to learn as much as possible about it. Often this means going to the library and studying books which contain accounts of man's experience and knowledge of the problem. This is called searching the literature. The scientist may find that others have already solved all or a part of the problem. Occasionally he finds answers to closely related questions, which give clues for solving the new one. In his search the scientist accumulates much background information. With these new ideas and facts he builds a firm foundation for solving the problem. 短语:as much as possible:尽可能多的/learn about:了解 for example:We should read as many books as possible.(我们要尽可能多的读书) 汇集信息 第二个步骤,科学家想方设法尽可能多地去了解有关该问题的情况.通常这意味着得去图书馆,去研读一些含 有叙述人类有关这一问题的经验和知识的书籍.这一步骤称为查阅文献资料. 这位科学家很可能发现其他一些人早已把这一问题全部或部分地解决了.偶尔这位科学家还会找到与这些问题 有密切关系的一些答案,而这些答案又提供了一些解决某一新问题的线索.在科学家查阅文献资料的过程中,他会 积累很多背景资料.依照从这些资料中得来的新的事实和新的想法,他就为最后解决这一问题打下了坚实的基础. Organizing the Information After the scientist has finished this part of his work he will probably take the many facts which he has collected and organize them into some kind of system. This may be a logical classification or it may be a mathematical analysis. Usually the analysis will show unanswered questions. Sometimes it will suggest areas that are in need of further study. Perhaps one of the most important results of such an analysis is that it indicates certain truths, which generally are called inferences. 短语:be in need of 需要 far:farther/further 整理信息 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
在科学家结束了汇集资料这一部分工作之后,该科学家会把所汇集的许多事实加以整理,编制出某种系统性的 东西.这个系统的东西也可能是逻辑分类或者是数理分析.通常这种分析就会显示出有些问题还没得到答案.有时 还指出某些地方尚需进一步加以研究.也许这种分析的最重要的成果之一,就是这一分析表露出一些真相,这一步 骤一般称之为推理. Making a Hypothesis In making an inference the scientist has built up a hypothesis. A hypothesis is only a "best" guess. It must next be tested. If it is correct, then certain things should follow. This means if a particular experiment is carried out, certain observations ought to be possible or it should be possible to make certain predictions. 短语: (
  1)build up 树立 (
  2)carry out:完成, 实现, 提出假说 在推理的过程中这位科学家逐步提出假说.一种假说只是一种"最接近事实的"猜测.下一步骤必须对假说加以 实地验证. 如果这种假说是正确的,那么有些事实就应随之而来.这也就是说,如果实际做了某项实验,就应取得一定的 观察结果或者对未来将会发生的某些情况做出估计或预测. Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. If, however, observations cannot be made or the predictions are unreliable, then the hypothesis will probably be given up or at least modified. 假如观察结果或估计会出现的情况正如所料,科学家对自己提出的假说是真理的可能性就增加了信心.但是如 果观察不到某些现象,或者那些假说都不可信,那么,这些假说可能将要被放弃或者最低限度地加以修改. The Experiment The hypothesis must check with the facts. Scientific facts are usually established by work in the laboratory. Experiments have to be made under carefully controlled conditions. Thorough and accurate records must be kept. In making certain kinds of experiments in science variables are used. A variable is something which has different values under different conditions. In one type of laboratory test all the variables but one are controlled. This method of testing is called controlled experimentation. 进行实验 所提出的假说必须用事实来检验.是否是科学的事实,通常要由实验的结果来确定.一切实验必须在非常严格 的控制下来做.实验的记录必须完整而又精确. 在做某些理科方面的实验时要利用变量.变量指的是在各种不同的条件下会得出的各种不同的数值.在某一项 实验室的检测中,除了百分之一而外,一切变量都必须能得到控制.这种试验方法被称之为控制试验.
Vocabulary Exercises ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Ⅱ.Supply a word that you have learned in Text B. The first letter is given.
  1. We have worked out a new set of procedures for using this machine.
  2. She has a lot of power, but likes to remain in the background.
  3. The police made a further analysis of the case.
  4. You have won my confidence;I know I can trust you.
  5. These plans must be modified if they are to be used successfully.
  6. By this method, you obtain good results.
  7. His words clearly indicate his purpose.
  8. To do the experiment, you must learn first how to control the variables.
  9. His poor health results from a car accident.
  10. The relationship of the two events turn out (to be) cause-and-effect.
Summary
  1.单词: adapt 使适应,使适合(to) ;改编,改写 determine. 决定;查明,确定;决心 regardless(a) 不留心的,不注意的;不关心的(of) (ad) 不论如何,不顾,不惜 arise 出现,发生 account (n) 叙述,说明;
  2.账,账户
  2.短语 lay aside 把…放在一边,把…搁置一旁;把…储存在一边供以后用,留存 carry out 实行;完成 make up one's mind 下决心 respect for 尊重 result from .发生;因…引起,起因于 turn out (to be) 原来是, (最后)证明是
  3.句型结构 (
  1)not all… 并不是所有的… Not all glitters is gold. (
  2)do 作强调 v (do /does/did) (
  3)if only …:还欠缺的唯一条件 (
  4)result from(由于…导致)/result in(导致最终的结果) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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