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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text A How Dictionaries Are Made
New Words
  1.前缀 supreme 最高的,至上的;极度的 self-assurance 自信/self-confidence
  2.后缀 mainly 主要地 grammarian 语法学家 usage 惯用法 eccentric 古怪的 editor 编者 occurrence 发生 alphabetize 按字母顺序排列 quotation 引文,引语;报价 historical 历史的 influence 影响 authoritative 权威性的 author 作者 invention 创造发明;捏造 ordinarily 通常地
  3.合成 hard-and-fast 明确的,不容改变的 broadcast 广播
Cruces words 重点词汇:
  1.dispute 争吵,争论/quarrel
  2.regard (n) 重视,关心,考虑(后加介词 for 或 to);致意,问候 (vt) 认为是;看作是(与 as 连用) (通常不能用于进行时态) He jumped into the river to save a boy without regard for his safety. 他跳到水中去救一个男孩,没有考虑个人的安全. Please give your parents my best regards when you see them. We regard him as a good teacher./ He is regarded as a good teacher. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
我们认为他是一位很好的老师. as regards/with regard to /in regard to 等短语都表示:"关于"的意思. With regard to his suggestions, we shall discuss them fully. 关于他的建议,我们将充分讨论. I have little information as regards his past. 关于他的过去,我不太了解.
  3.occupy (vt) 占领;占据,占用/使忙碌;使从事(常用被动语态或短语 occupy oneself with) The soldiers occupied that small town. 士兵们占据了那个小城镇. The store occupies the whole building. 这个商店占用了整幢大楼. He was occupied in writing letters. 他正忙着写信. She occupies herself with the translation of a technical report. 她正从事一份技术报告的翻译工作.
  4.decade 十年
  5.illustrate 说明,阐明;给…作插图
  6. reveal (vt) 显露,显视(看不见的东西)/泄露;透露 These letters reveal him to be an honest man. 这些信显示他是个诚实的人. He did not reveal his secret plan to us. 他没有将他的秘密计划泄露给我们.
  7.influence 影响;势力 Don't be influenced by bad examples. 不要受坏榜样的影响. influence 还可作(n),意为:影响(后常接 on/upon);势力. Her advice has a great influence on me. 她的劝告对我影响极大. Phrases and Expressions
  1.get into 进入,陷入/染上(习惯) He got into difficulties in doing everything.他处处陷入困境. His influence got me into bad habits.我受他的影响染上了坏习惯.
  2.look up 查检 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(

  3.bring up 教育;培养/提出(供讨论或促使注意) The child was brought up in a distant mountain village. 这孩子是在一个偏远的山村中长大的. At the meeting, they brought up many problems and discussed them one by one. 在会议上他们提出了许多问题并一一讨论.
  4.according to 根据
  5.in front of 在…前面(外部) in the front of 在…前面(内部) There is a pond in front of the house.房屋前边有个池塘. There is a blackboard in the front of the house.在屋子的前面有块黑板.
  6.to the best of 就…所及 to the best of one's ability 尽(某人的)最大努力 I tried to do my work to the best of my ability. 我尽最大努力做我的工作.
Text A How Dictionaries Are Made It is widely believed that every word has a correct meaning, that we learn these meanings mainly from teachers and grammarians, and that dictionaries and grammars are the supreme authority in matters of meaning and usage. Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionaries and grammars say what they say. 句式:It is believed/said that… It is believed/said that/It must be pointed out/admitted that/It is supposed/hoped that 短语:in matters of =in the matter of 在……方面;就……而论 They have differences in matters of detail. 他们在细节上有分歧. 人们普遍认为每个单词都有准确的词义,我们主要是向教师和语法学家们学习这些词义,而且,关于词义和词 的用法,词典和语法书权威性最高.几乎没有人会提出这样的问题:词典和语法的编著者们根据什么权威资料来说 出他们所说的那些话. I once got into a dispute with an English woman over the pronunciation of a word and offered to look it up in the dictionary. The English woman said firmly, "What for? I am English. I was born and brought up in England. The way I speak is English." Such self-assurance about one's own language is fairly common among the English. In the United States, however, anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary is regarded as either eccentric or mad. 我有一次曾和一位英国妇女争论过一个英语单词的发音.我让她查一查英语词典.这位英国妇女坚定地说:"还 查词典干什么?我是英国人.我生在英国,长在英国.我讲的话是英语".在全体英格兰人当中这种对自己语言的十 分自信的态度是相当普遍的.可是,在美国,若是有人想同词典争论,那或者会被认为是古怪或者是疯子. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Let us see how dictionaries are made and how the editors arrive at definitions. What follows applies only to those dictionary offices where first-hand, original research goes on - not those in which editors simply copy existing dictionaries. The task of writing a dictionary begins with the reading of vast amounts of the literature of the period or subject that the dictionary is to cover. As the editors read, they copy on cards every interesting or rare word, every unusual or peculiar occurrence of a common word, a large number of common words in their ordinary uses, and also the sentences in which each of these words appears. 短语:apply to 适用(于) The principle applies to all things.这个原则适用于一切事情. 让我们来看看各类词典都是怎样编成的,看看编者们是怎样给每个词条下定义的.下面所述的方法是那些汇集 第一手的原始研究资料的词典编纂机构所采用的,而不是那些只是简单地抄一抄现有的一些词典的内容的那些编词 典的机构所采用的方法.编词典的工作是从阅读有关某一个特定时期或有关词典要包括的主题的浩瀚的文献资料开 始的.在词书编者们博览群书的过程中,他们把每一个有趣的词汇,罕见的词汇,每一个普通词汇的不普通的特别 的用法,大量常见词的种种常见的用法,以及运用这些词汇的例句都一一做成卡片. That is to say, the context of each word is collected, along with the word itself. For a really big job of dictionary writing, such as the Oxford English Dictionary, millions of such cards are collected, and the task of editing occupies decades. As the cards are collected, they are alphabetized and sorted. When the sorting is completed, there will be for each word anywhere from two or three to several hundred quotations, each on its card. 这也就是说,不但要汇集词汇,而且还要把每个词所出现的上下文语言环境也汇集起来.对于编写词典这样十 分庞大的工程来说,例如编写《牛津英语大词典》之类,要汇集数百万张卡片.因此完成这样一部巨著需要费时数 十年.在汇集卡片的过程中,要把卡片按字母顺序排列加以分类整理.分类整理工作完成之后,整本词典不论在任 何位置上的单词都有从二三句到数百个例句的引文出现在该单词的卡片上. To define a word, then, the dictionary editor places before him the stack of cards illustrating that word; each of the cards represents an actual use of the word by a writer of some literary or historical importance. He reads the cards carefully, discards some, re-reads the rest, and divides up the stack according to what he thinks are the several senses of the word. 然后,为了确定单词的义项,词典的编者就把能说明该单词用法的那一堆卡片摆在自己的面前;每一张卡片都 阐明了某一文学作品或某一重要历史文献的作者对该单词的实际用法.词典编者仔细认真地读这些卡片,然后丢弃 一些,再重新读剩下的,然后再根据他们认为单词所含有的几个义项将这一推卡片分类. Finally, he writes his definitions, following the hard-and-fast rule that each definition must be based on what the quotations in front of him reveal about the meaning of the word. The editor cannot be influenced by what he thinks a given word ought to mean. He must work according to the cards, or not at all. 短语:be based on/upon 以……为根据 My hope is based on the news we had yesterday.我的希望是以我们昨天得到的消息为依据的. 最后,词典编者写出每个义项,在下定义时,编者必须遵守这样一条不容改变的铁的规则,那就是每个义项编 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
者必须根据摆在面前的那些卡片上的例句所含有的该词的词义来写.词典编者不能受到自己认为某词应该有某个义 项的想法的影响.词典的编者必须根据所汇集的卡片来编词典,不然的话,根本不行. The writing of a dictionary, therefore, is not a task of setting up authoritative statements about the "true meanings" of words, but a task of recording, to the best of one's ability, what various words have meant to authors in the distant or immediate past. If, for example, we had been writing a dictionary in 1890, or even as late as 1919, we could have said that the word "broadcast" means "to scatter" (seed, for example), but we could not have stated that from 1921 on, the most common meaning of the word should become "to send out programs by radio or television." 说明:与过去事实相反的虚拟语气(从句用过去完成时,主句用 could+have+v 过去分词) For example:If you had told me earlier, I could have attended the meeting. 因此,编写一部词典并不是这样一种工作:编者以权威的身份给所有的单词都规定出一些所谓的"真正的词义"; 编写词典是一种记录工作,编者要尽自己的最大努力记录下在很久以前或在最近刚出版的著作中,各种不同的单词 所具有的意义.例如,如果我们是在 1890 年或者至迟 1919 年编写一本词典,我们本来可以说 broadcast 这个词的意 思是"撒播"(例如:撒播种子) ,但是从 1921 年起我们就不能再这样说了.从 1921 年起这个词最普遍的意义应该是 "通过收音机或电视机播出节目". In choosing our words when we speak or write, we can be guided by the historical record provided us by the dictionary, but we cannot be bound by it, because new situations, new experiences, new inventions, new feelings, are always forcing us to give new uses to old words. Looking under a "hood," we should ordinarily have found, five hundred years ago, a monk; today, we find a car engine. 当我们说话或写作时在精选用词方面,我们要以词典提供给我们的历史上的记录为准则,但也不能受词典上的 记录的束缚,因为一些新的情况,新的经历,新的发明,新的感情总是迫使我们给旧的词汇赋予新的用法.我们看 一下"hood"下面的事物,就会发现,在 500 年前,是"修道士"(a monk) ,今天却是汽车引擎或汽车发动机.
Vocabulary Exercises Ⅰ.
  1.use(n.) use(v.) used(a.) usage
a. He bought a dictionary of modern English usage yesterday. b. We may make good use(n) of the ads to compare the prices of goods. c. Used(a) cars are priced at a small part of their. original cost. d. Just use(v) your imagination to picture what could become of her.
  2. author authority authoritative
a. Don't be so authoritative when you ask me to do something. b. Her father is the author of the book Focus on the Learner. c. The government is the highest authority in the country. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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  3.edit editor
》 《英语(一) 英语(
edition
a. The first edition of the book was 20000 copies. b. They are going to edit a book for children. c. She is a reporter as well as an editor.
  4. history historical historian
a. The book is based on both personal and historica
 

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