高等教育自学考试网上辅导
》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text B Why Don't Girls Think Like Boys?
New Words 带有前缀单词:
  1.independence 独立,自立 带有后缀单词:
  2.exception 除外,例外 reasoning(n.)推理,推论 mechanical (a.)机械的;机械学的,力学的 spelling (n.)拼写 excited (a.)激动的,兴奋的 strongly (ad.)强有力地,强劲地;强固地,牢固地;坚强地,坚决地;强烈地 physically (ad.)实际上,真正地;身体上;按自然规律; elementary (a.)基本的;初级的,基础的 treatment (n.)对待,待遇;治疗,疗法 consequently (ad.)所以… responsibility (n.)义务;责任 →responsible (a.)对…负责 be responsible for satisfactory (a.)满意的 eg.The result is satisfactory for everybody. →satisfactorily (ad.) →satisfy (v.)满意 →satisfied (a.)对…满意的 eg. I'm very satisfied with your work. aggressive (a.)有进取心的,敢做敢为的;侵略的,好斗的 aggression (n.)侵略,侵犯 aggressiveness (n.)进取精神;侵略,侵犯
  1. sex 性别→ male 男性/female 女性
  2. superior super + ior 比较好的/优秀的/高等的
  3. nerve 神经,勇气/never 永远不
  4. sample 样本/simple 简单的,朴素的
  5. lean 靠在…上,依赖/learn 学习
Text B Why Don't Girls Think Like Boys? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
Do you believe that only boys do well in science? Does it seem to you that girls have better vocabularies than boys? In your opinion, are boys better at building things? If your answer to each of those questions is "Yes," you are right, according to an article in Current Science. 本句翻译:您认为只有男孩才能在科学上有所建树吗?您觉得女孩驾驭词汇的能力比男孩强吗?依您之见,是 不是男孩才更擅长建造一些东西?按照《现代科学》上刊登的一篇文章的观点,如果您对这些问题中的每个问题都 回答说"是的,"那你就答对了.
  1. be better at 更擅长… There are exceptions, but here are the facts. 本句翻译:当然也有例外,但是下面这些却是事实. On the average, males score higher on tests that measure mathematical reasoning, mechanical ability, and problem-solving skills. 本句翻译:平均说来,每逢在测试数学推理,机械修理的能力,测试解决问题的技巧时,男性的总分总是高于 女性. on the average 通常
  2. score (n.)分数(v.)得分 Females show superior ability in tests measuring vocabulary, spelling, and memory. 本句翻译:女性在测试词汇量,拼写能力,记忆力方面表现出优越的才能. But these differences will probably not always exist. 本句翻译:但是,很可能这些判别并不是永恒不变的. In the future, a person's abilities may not be determined by sex. As one scientist says, "Nothing is impossible for a person to be or do." 本句翻译: 在将来,一个人各方面的才能可能并不是由性别来决定的.正如一位科学家所说,"任何一个人只 要你想成为一个什么样的人,只要你想做某件事,都不是不能成功的." determined 决定,确定 Nothing is impossible for a person to be or do = Anything is possible for a person to be or (to) do 原句中出现了双 重否定,起到了强调的作用. 本句翻译:一个人想要成为什么人或做什么事,都是有可能的. For example: It's impossible for me not to go. 我不去不行. In several recent studies, young babies have been observed and tested to discover how different abilities are developed. 本句翻译:最近做了几次调查研究,观察并测试了很小的婴儿,以便发现不同的能力是怎样培养出来的. study 研究 observed 观察 test (v.)测试 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
A scientific team headed by Jerome Kagan, a psychologist at Harvard University, is studying the thinking ability of children 11 1/2 months old. 本句翻译: 以哈佛大学的心理学家杰罗姆卡根为首的科研组对一批 11 个半月大的婴儿的思考能力进行了观察. head (v.)带头 The test is a simple one. The baby, while seated on its mother's lap, watches a "show" on a small theater stage. 本句翻译:这个测试很简单.让坐在妈妈大腿上的婴儿,观看一个小剧场的舞台上的"表演".
  3. seat (n.)坐位 (v.):(
  1) (vi)seat sb/oneself: e.g. The mother seated the baby on her knees.母亲让孩子坐在膝上. (
  2) (vt)be seated: e.g. Please be seated. 请坐. In act 1 of the show, an orange-colored block is lifted from a blue box and moved slowly across the stage. 本句翻译: 在第 1 幕的演出中,把一块橙色的积木从一个蓝色的箱子中拿了起来,然后慢慢地横着从舞台一边 移动到另一边. act 一幕 is lifted 被举起来 across 横穿过 Then it is returned to the box. This is repeated six times. Act 2 is similar, except that the orange block is smaller. 本句翻译:然后再把它放回箱子里去.这样重复做了六遍.第 2 幕跟第 1 幕是相似的,除了那个橙色块小了一 点. Baby boys do not seem to notice the difference in the size of the block, but girls immediately become excited and begin to make noises that sound like language. They seem to be trying to talk. 本句翻译:男婴儿似乎没注意到这个"块"的大小有什么不同,可是女婴却都立刻激动起来并发出了听起来像是 语言的声音.她们似乎是要和人们说话. notice 注意到 sound like 听起来像 It is known that bones, muscles, and nerves develop faster in baby girls. 本句翻译:众所周知,女婴的骨骼,肌肉和神经都发育得比较快. Usually, too, baby girls talk at an earlier age than boys do. 本句翻译:大多数情况下,女婴也比男婴开始说话时间早. Scientists think there is a physical reason for this. 本句翻译:科学家们认为这有身体上的原因. They believe that nerves in the left side of the brain develop faster in girls than in boys. 本句翻译:他们认为女孩大脑左侧的神经发育得比男孩快. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
And it is this side of the brain that strongly influences an individual's ability to use words, to spell, and to remember things. 本句翻译:正是脑的左侧,才强有力地影响着一个人的用词,拼写和记事的能力.
  4. It is (well) known that…人们知道 For example: It is known that Mark Twain is a famous American writer. 众所周知, 马克吐温是美国非常有名的作 家.
  5.(
  1)It is/was + …(被强调部分,通常是主/宾/状)+that/who… For example: It is in Shanghai that I saw the film. 正是在上海我看了这部电影. (
  2)定语从句 For example: It is the house that I have been living for five years. 这正是我住了五年的房子. (
  3)It is so… that… For example: It is so cold here that people seldom go out. 这里的天气如此之冷,以致于人们很少外出. 判断一个句子是否为强调句的方法:将 it is/was… than/who…等词去掉后,句子结构依然完整者就是强调句. By the time they start to school, therefore, little girls have an advantage that boys do not have. 本句翻译:因此,到了他们开始上学读书时,小女孩就有着男孩所不具备的优势. Girls are physically more ready to remember facts, to spell, and to read. These, of course, are skills that are important in elementary school. 本句翻译:女孩在生理上就更善于记事,拼写和阅读.当然,这一切在小学阶段都是重要的技能. But what have the boys been doing in the years before starting school? 本句翻译:但是在还没有开始上学之前的几年里,男孩子都在干些什么呢? They have been developing something called aggression. An aggressive person has courage and energy. He feels strong and independent. He is often the first one to start a fight. 本句翻译:他们都在逐渐养成一种被称为"进取心"的性格.一个有进取心的人都有勇气,有力气.他觉得自己 身强力壮,凡事自作主张,经常是他,第一个挑起了打架. develop 培养,发展 What produces aggression in little boys? 本句翻译:是什么使小男孩产生了进取心? It has long been assumed that aggression is caused by male hormones. 本句翻译:长期以来人们一直认为这种进取心是由于男性荷尔蒙引起的. Scientists today believe that male hormones are only part of the explanation, however. They say aggressiveness in boys is also caused by mothers. 本句翻译:可是,今天科学家们认为男性荷尔蒙只能说明一部分问题.科学家们说,男孩的进取心也都是由母 亲培养出来的. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
A team of psychologists discovered this by placing mothers and their one-year-old babies in a room filled with toys. 本句翻译:一组心理学家把母亲们和她们的一岁大的婴儿都放在一个到处都摆着玩具的房间里,结果就发现了 这一事实.
  6. be filled with/ be full of The room had a wall through which the scientists could observe what happened without being seen. They took notes on everything the mothers and babies did. 本句翻译: 这个房间保留有一面墙,通过这面墙科学家们在墙外能观察到房间里所发生的一切情况,却不会被 房间里的人发现.他们对母亲们和婴儿们所做的一切都做了笔记. Here is a sample of those notes, taken during the observation of a baby boy and his mother: 本句翻译:下面就是在观察一个男婴和他母亲的过程中,记下的笔记中的一个片断: "Baby leans against mother. Looks up at her. She speaks to him. She turns him around. He walks away, picks up toy cat. Goes to mother, drops cat, and leans against her. Looks up at her. She turns him around." 本句翻译: "婴儿依偎着妈妈.他抬头看她.她跟他说话.她让他转过身去.他走开了,拣起一个玩具猫.回 到妈妈那,他把猫扔了.依偎着她.他抬头看她.她又让他转过身去". From such observations and from conversations with mothers, the scientists learned something about the treatment of baby boys and baby girls. 本句翻译:从几次这类的观察中,从历次同母亲们的谈话中,科学家们知道了对待男婴和女婴的不同方法. Learned about 了解到 While the mother keeps her daughter close to her, she trains her son to move away from her, to develop independence. 本句翻译:母亲尽量让她的女儿躲在自己怀里,可是她却训练她的儿子离开自己,去培养独立的精神. close 接近的 Consequently, it is easy to understand why little girls often perform school tasks better than boys, especially if the task requires sitting still, obeying commands, and accepting the teacher's ideas. 本句翻译:因而,这就很容易明白,为什么小女孩在完成学校布置的各项任务中,都比男孩做得好,特别是像 要求静静坐在那里不动,服从命令,接受老师的思想这样的任务. consequently 所以 perform tasks 执行任务 still 安静地 A girl may pass easily through the first few grades. While boys of her age bring home low marks, the girl may easily get good grades. 本句翻译:每一个女孩上学后的头两三年级很容易就能通过考试关.女孩子很容易就能得到高分,而同龄的男 孩拿回家的分数却很低. Low marks 低分 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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High marks 高分
》 《英语(一) 英语(
Girls seem to have "better brains" in school. Why, then, do so few girls become great scientists? Why is the most important thinking in adult society done by men? 本句翻译:在校读书似乎是女孩的"脑子更好".那么为什么,很少有女孩能成为伟大的科学家?为什么成年人 社会中最重要的思想都是由男人提出来的? According to scientists, the answer is aggression. 本句翻译:根据科学家们的意见,答案就是"进取心". Because boys are aggressive, they refuse to accept other people's solutions; they insist upon solving problems for themselves. 本句翻译:因为男孩都有进取心,他们拒绝接受别人的决定.他们坚持要独立自主地解决问题. Thus, while little girls are getting high marks in school for remembering what the teacher has told them, little boys
 

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