高等教育自学考试网上辅导
》 《英语(一) 英语(
Text B You Have a Choice
一,New Words
  1.前缀单词 unload vt. 卸,从…卸下货物;vi. 卸货
  2.后缀 reading(n.)读,读数; smoothly(adv.)平滑的; motionless(a.)不动的,静止的; relativity(n.)相对论,相关性; relative(n/a.)相对的 steady(a.)稳定的,不变的; equally(ad.)相等地,平等地;同样地.
  3.合成词 furthermore(ad.)而且,此外;其表意是 moreover
  4.特殊记忆 device(n.)设计,发明物;devise(v.)设计;diverse(a.)各种各样的. speedometer 速度计; passenger 路过,经过; baggage 同义词 luggage 表意都是行李.
  5. Cruces words 重点词汇: (
  1)parallel(n.)
  1.可相比拟的事物,相似处;
  2.平行线,平行面 (a.)
  1.类似的,相对应的;
  2.平行的;
  3.并列的,并联的 For example:We are two parallels and can not meet at anytime. 我们是两条平行线,在任何时候都不可能相交. (
  2)load(vt.)装,装载; (vi.)装货; (n.)负荷,负担,装载量 For example:The workers spent the whole morning loading the track with coal. 工人们花了整整一早上的时间往卡车上装煤. (
  3)coach(n.)
  1.四轮大马车;
  2.长途公共汽车;
  3.(铁路)旅客车厢;
  4.教练 (vt.)训练,指导 (
  4)frustrate (vt.)
  1.挫败;阻挠…的成功;
  2.使受挫折,使灰心 For example:He was frustrating in attempting the possible. 由于他做了一些不可能的事,结果收到了失败的挫折. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
(
  5)steady(a.)稳定的,不变的; (vt./vi.) (使)平稳, (使)稳定 For example:people benefit a lot from the steady goods of the national economy. 人们从国家的稳定发展当中获益了.
  6.Phrases and Expressions (
  1)ahead of 在…前,一般和动词搭配使用. pull ahead of 赶到…前面,超越; For example:As a driver you could not want to pull ahead of others at anytime. 作为一名司机,你不能任何时候都想着超到别人前面去. (
  2)be certain of 确信,对…有把握;可以用 be certain of/that For example:I am certain of his honesty or I am certain that he is honesty. 我确信他是诚实的. (
  3)to bring about 导致,引起,使发生, (表意是 cause 招致的意思) For example:The educational reform brings about many changes. 教育改革招致了许多变化.
二,Text B You Have a Choice(你有一个选择) Two trains are traveling side by side and at the same speed along parallel tracks. We are seated in one of the trains, and with us we have a special speedometer that measures their relative speed. Since the trains are traveling at the same speed, their relative speed is zero; the speedometer therefore reads"0". 两列火车以相同的车速并排地沿着两条平行的轨道往前行驶.我们坐在其中的一列火车上,带着特制的速度测 量仪,可以测出两列火车之间的相对速度.因为这两列火车是以相同的车速前进的,所以二者的相对速度是零;因 此,测速仪上的读数为"0". Suddenly the other train seems to start pulling ahead of ours. The speedometer shows a reading of 10 miles per hour. The other train has apparently increased its speed. But can we be absolutely certain of this increase? 突然间另一列火车好像是开始赶到我们所乘坐的火车前头去了.这时测速仪上显示出来的读数是每小时 10 英 里.很显然,另一列火车已经加快了速度.但是,我们能不能肯定是另外那辆火车加快了速度呢? Apparently 意思是 obviously/clearly 很显然地,很明显地 If your answer is yes, you are wrong. You are wrong because all that we know is that the relative speed between the two trains changed from 0 mph to 10 mph. Nothing more. This change could have been brought about in one of two ways: 如果你回答说是的,那你就错了.你之所以错了,是因为我们所知道的仅仅是这两辆火车之间的相对速度由每 小时 0 英里增加到了每小时 10 英里.仅此而已.这车速的变化很可能是由于下列两种原因中的任何一个原因所造成 的: ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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all that 相当于 what
》 《英语(一) 英语(

  1.The other train increased its speed. 另一列火车提高了车速;
  2.Our train decreased its speed. 我们的火车降低了车速. There are thus two possible explanations to account for the change in speed, but we don't know which one is right. Furthermore, regardless of which explanation we choose, the end result will be the same:the other train will arrive at the station first. 因而对于车速的改变就可能有两种不同的解释,但是我们不知道哪一种解释是对的.进一步来说,不管我们选 定了上述两种解释中的哪一种,反正最终的结果是同样的:另一列火车将首先抵达终点站. account for 解释…/说明…原因/是…的原因 For example:① His illness accounts for his absence. 他因为生病而缺席. ② Please account for what you have done. 请解释你所做的事情. So it makes no difference whether we say that the other train increased its speed or that our train decreased its speed. 所以,不论我们说另一列火车加快了车速,还是说我们所乘的火车减慢了车速,实际上没有什么区别.
  1.make no difference 表示没有什么不同.
  2.Whether … or: ① 是…还是…; For example:The boss did not tell us whether to go or stay. 老板没有告诉我们是走还是留. ② 或者…或者…/不是…就是… For example:He did it whether by accident or on purpose. 他不知是偶然还是有意地做了那件事. ③ 不管…还是… For example:whether he comes here or not, we will set out on time. 不管他来还是不来,我们都将准时出发. Since both explanations lead to the same result, you can choose either one. Whenever two things are relative, you can choose either one of them. The converse is also true: whenever you have a choice between two things that are equally possible, then the things are relative. 既然上述两种解释会导致同样的结果,那么你选定任何一种解释都可以.不论任何时候,只要两件事物两种情 况是相对的,那你就可以选定其中一种解释.逆真理亦真,每当你从有同样可能的两件事物中选定其中之一时,那 么这两种事物之间就是相对的. There is no reason, except convenience, for choosing one explanation over the other. The relative speed between the trains remains the same, 10 mph; and the end result will be the same. 除为了方便这个理由而外,我们选定了一种解释而不选另一种根本就没有其他别的原因.如果两列火车之间的 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
相对速度依然相同,都是每小时 10 英里,那么最终的结果也会是相同的. Now let's suppose that both trains are at the railroad station loading and unloading passengers and baggage. A half-hour passes. As we look at the other train through our window, we see that our train seems to start moving, smoothly and slowly. For a minute or so, our train seems to travel at a uniform speed. Our special speedometer shows that the relative speed between the two trains is 20 mph. But as we look out our window, we suddenly see the last coach of the other train disappear from sight and notice the motionless station behind it. So we are not moving after all. The other train has been moving! 现在我们假设两列火车都在火车站上上下乘客或装卸行李.半小时以后,当我们透过车窗看另一列火车时,我 们看到我们所乘的火车好像是在缓慢地平稳地开动了.约有一分钟左右,我们所乘的火车似乎是在以均匀的速度向 前运行.我们特制的测速仪显示这两列火车的相对速度是每小时 20 英里.但当我们往窗外一看,才突然看见另一列 火车的最后一节车厢从我们的视野中消失了,于是我们看到那一列火车后面留下的是不动的火车站.所以,我们所 乘的火车根本就没有开动.原来是另外一辆火车在开动! Disappear 消失;come into sight 进入一个人的视野 This peculiar and often frustrating experience is an effect of relative motion. At the train station we cannot tell whether it was our train that changed its speed from 0 mph to 20 mph or whether it was the other train that changed its speed from 0 mph to 20 mph. Only after the other train pulled out of the station could we see that it, and not our train, was moving. 这种奇特的而又经常使人沮丧的经历就是相对运动所产生的效应.在火车站上我们辨别不出是我们所乘坐的那 一列火车把车速从每小时 0 英里改变成每小时 20 英里还是另一列火车把车速从每小时 0 英里改变成每小时 20 英里. 只有当另一列火车驶出火车站之后,我们才明白原来是它而不是我们所乘坐的这列火车在开动. "only + 状语"开头的句子,主句用倒装语序, (部分倒装) For example: ① Only in this way can you solve the problem. 只有用这种方法你才能解决这个问题. ② Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in. 当他告诉我的时候,我才意识到他处在什么样的困难之中. 但是:only 后面的成份不是状语时,不用倒装. For example:Only you can answer this question. 只有你能回答这个问题. Now let us again raise the question that was raised at the beginning of this article: can we be absolutely certain that the other train did indeed increase its speed, and in this case pull out of the station? 现在让我们再次提出本文开头所提出过的那个问题:我们能否绝对肯定确实是另一列火车加快了车速,并在此 情况下驶出了火车站呢? If your answer is yes, then you are wrong again. All we can be certain of is that the relative speed between the two trains changed. 如果你回答说是的,那么你就又错了.我们所能够完全肯定的只是这两列火车之间的相对速度变了. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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》 《英语(一) 英语(
These examples illustrate an important principle in the special theory of relativity. If A appears to be moving at a steady speed relative to B, we cannot know for sure if it is A that is really moving. Perhaps A is standing still, and B is moving. Or perhaps both are moving. According to relativity, there is no experiment that can be devised to solve the problem. As there is no way of deciding which of the two objects is moving, we can choose either one as the moving object. The reason is that their motion is relative, and relativity, as we have seen, means that we have a choice. 这些例子阐明了相对论中的一个重要的原理.假如我们觉得 A 似乎是在用相对于 B 的一种很均匀的速度移动, 我们就不能肯定地知道是否真的就是 A 在移动.也许 A 仍在原地不动而是 B 在移动.或者,AB 两者都在移动.根 据相对论的说法,根本就不能构想出任何一个实验去解答这个问题.因为根本没有办法来确定这两个物体中哪一个 物体在移动,所以我们可以把两个物体中的任何一个物体认定是在移动着的物体.理由就是他们的运动是相对的. 正如我们所理解的那样,相对论就意味着我们可以选用一种解释了. This principle - that if two objects are in uniform motion relative to each other, it is impossible to decide which one is moving and which one is at rest - applies to all objects moving uniformly in a straight line through the universe. 如果两个物体在以相互间相对的同等的速度在运动,若想判定哪一个物体在动,哪一个物体原地不动,这是不 可能的.这一原理适用于整个宇宙中凡是做直线等速运动的一切物体. In relativity you'll find that whenever you have a choice among things that are equally possible, you are dealing with relative things. For example, time, which is measured with clocks and watches, is relative because it can be shown that there is more than one system of time. All systems of time are equally possible and you can choose any system you wish. 按着相对论的说法你就会发现,每当你在众多同样可能的事物中需要选定一种解释时,你就是在跟相对的事物 打交道.例如,时间,虽然能用钟表加以测量,也是相对的,因为有不只一种时间体系可以来表示时间.所有的时 间体系都同样有可能表示时间,所以你可以选用你所喜欢的时间体系来表示时间.
三,Vocabulary Exercises
 

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