自考英语语法复习资料(
  4)
2007-5-23 【大 中 小】
  (
  5)定语从句
  (一)定义及相关术语
  
  1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。
  
  2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。
  
  3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。
  关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;关系副词有when, where, why等。
  关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。例如:
  The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中,who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词the man, “who”是引导定语从句的关系词,代替先行词the man,在定语从句中作主语。
  (二)关系代词引导的定语从句
  
  1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。
  The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。
  Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博物馆的人必须在明晨7点到大门口集合。
  Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。
  That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。
  
  2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。
  Mr Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈论的那个人。
  Li Ming is just the boy (whom) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。
  The professor (whom) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。
  The girl (whom) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的班长。
  注意:关系代词whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用who 来代替,也可省略。
  The man (whom / who)you met just now is my old friend.
  
  3.Which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。
  Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。
  The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。
  He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。
  The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。
  This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。
  The film (which) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意思也没有。
  
  4.That 指人时,相当于who 或whom;指物时,相当于which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常可省略。
  The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观这座城市的人数达一百万。
  Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿?
  The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。
  The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。
  Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的信。
  
  5.Whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。
  I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。
  He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。
  I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。
  注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替:
  The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.
  The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.
  Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?
  Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?
  (三)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句
  关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。
  The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous.
  The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。
  Tomorrow I'll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for.
  Tomorrow I'll bring here the magazine for which you asked.明天我将把你要的杂志带来。
  This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday.
  This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。
  We'll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about.
  We'll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.我们将去听那位我们经常谈论的著名歌唱家演唱。
  The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions.
  The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions.
  我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。
  注意:
  1. 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如:look for, look after, take care of 等。
  This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。
  This is the watch for which I am looking . (误)
  The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那个保姆照看的小宝宝们都很健康。
  The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. (误)
  
  2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用whom,不可用who, that;关系代词指物时只可用which,不可用that.关系代词是所有格时用whose.
  The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是我的邻居。
  The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误)
  The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正)我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。
  The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误)
  
  3.“介词+关系代词”前还可有some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few等代词或者数词。如:
  He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母,他们俩待他都很好。
  In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果,有些已经坏了。
  There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班总共有40个学生,大多数来自大城市。
  Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 迄今为止,他写了10部小说,其中3部是关于农村生活的。
 

相关内容

【中考英语知识点总结,中考英语语法复习资料】学习啊

   学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说: 难死了 难死了”。 学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说:“难死了 。 为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个: 不得法 不得法。 为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个:“不得法。” 英 语与汉语一样都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利? 语与汉语一样都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利?那是因为你置身于 一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来会非常流利。 一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来 ...

初中英语语法复习大全

   初中英语语法 学习提纲 一、词类、句子成分和构词法: 词类、句子成分和构词法: 1、词类:英语词类分十种: 、词类:英语词类分十种: 名词、形容词、代词、数词、冠词、动词、副词、介词、连词、感叹词。 。 1、名词 名词(n.): 表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念的名称。如:boy, morning, bag, ball, class, orange. 名词 2、代词 代词(pron.): 主要用来代替名词。如:who, she, you, it . 代词 3、形容词 形容词(adj..):表示人 ...

小学英语语法复习大全及习题

   时间名词前所用介词的速记歌 年月周前要用 in,日子前面却不行。 遇到几号要用 on,上午下午又是 in。 要说某日上下午,用 on 换 in 才能行。 午夜黄昏须用 at,黎明用它也不错。 at 也用在明分前,说“差”可要用上 to, 说“过”只可使用 past,多说多练牢牢记, 莫让岁月空蹉跎。 下面就时间概念的介词用法做一简要介绍和比较。 1.at 表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。 at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一点钟(黎明、午 ...

小升初小学英语语法复习归纳

   2010 小升初小学英语语法复习归纳 一、名词复数规则 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds 2.以 s. x. sh. ch 结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches 3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries 4.以“f 或 fe”结尾 ...

小升初小学英语语法复习要点归纳

   小升初小学英语语法复习要点归纳 一、名词复数规则 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds 2. s. x. sh. ch 结尾, 以 加-es, bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches 如: 3 . 以 “ 辅 音 字 母 +y” 结 尾 , 变 y 为 i, 再 加 -es , 如 : family-families, strawberry-strawbe ...

2011年大学英语四级复习资料 语法+词汇

   第1课 如果想达到 85 分以上,词汇应该错 6 个以内。 Jump for the sun, at least you land on the moon. 目标定的高一点有好处。 4200 单词要求对于 4 级考试,高三毕业是 1800 个单词。 我喜欢这里: I like here. I can succeed. Right: I like it here. I can make it. Right: I can do it. 注意生活中的英语: Nike 胜利女神。 Just do i ...

最新复习资料4:电大学位英语考试词汇、综合、单选题、完形填空、阅读理解、作文

   第 1 页 共 31 页 电大学位英语 复习资料 1.电大学位英语考试词汇(东北财经大学) ......................................................... 2 2.学位英语综合 ..................................................................................................... 7 3.电大学位英语单选题 ................. ...

英语四级复习资料

   英语四级听力 60 个高频词组 hold sth to account 与 ....对 证 , 核 实 appear to 似乎,好像 apply sth to sth 把...适用于... ensure sb to do sth 保证某人做某事 assure sb of sth 使某人确信某事 attach importance to = pay/ call attention to 关注,重视 be bound to 肯定,一定 when it comes to 当谈论到...,涉及到. ...

英语四级复习资料

   英语四六级写作常用高分关键词及作文得高分秘诀 一些 a range of ; a variety of ; a series of ; an array of 无数 innumerable ; countless 许多 plenty of ; many ; much ; a great deal of ; a lot of ; ample 非常多(大)的 tremendous 依序列举 list in sequence 时间词 过时的 outdated ; antiquated ; outm ...

英语四级复习资料

   1、at the thought of 一想到… 2. as a whole (=in general) 就整体而论 3. at will 随心所欲 4. (be) abundant in(be rich in; be well supplied with) 富于,富有 5. access(to) (不可数名词) 能接近,进入,了解 6. by accident(=by chance, accidentally)偶然地,意外 . Without accident(=safely) 安全地 7 ...

热门内容

2005年同等学力全国统考英语真题

   2005 年同等学力全国统考英语真题 Paper One (90 minutes, 65 points) Part I Dialogue Communication (10 minutes, 10points, 1 for each) Section A Dialogue Completion Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialogues between two speakers, each f ...

英语presentation

   Let’s appreciate a video and tell who she is Angelina Jolie A (Angelina Jolie, 1975-6 1975n 4) g e " Hollywood actor and l social activist. i n " She graduated from a New York University Film Department. J o " Angelina Jolie was l elected in 2005 t ...

2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题[附答案]

   Section I Use of English Dnecclious: Read thc following text.Choose the bcsl word(s) for each numbcred blank.and mark[A],[B],[C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) In 1924 American' National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series o ...

初中英语口语900句(一)

   第一册 一、 Greetings 问候语 1. Hello! / Hi! 你好! 2. Good morning / afternoon / evening! 早晨(下午/晚上)好! 3. I'm Kathy King. 我是凯西?金。 4. Are you Peter Smith? 你是彼得?史密斯吗? 5. Yes, I am. / No, I'm not. 是,我是。/ 不,我不是。 6. How are you? 你好吗? 7. Fine, thanks. And you? 很好,谢谢 ...

英语发音训练操

   Hello English金山哈罗英语: 英语发音完美训练 金山 编著 我们的目标:I can speak good English! 热身运动 warm up :口腔肌肉操?五一运动 一. 字母练习:MISSISSIPPI 二.短元音:急促有力 经典收小腹减肥短“衣”音 经典练习: Give me a kiss. Business is business. 发音时好象有鱼骨头卡在喉咙里 经典练习: Impossi ...