自考综合英语二课文 全国高等教育自学考试指定教材 综合英语二(上下) 主编 徐克荣 外语教学与研究出版 社
Lesson One Twelve Things l Wish They Taught at School Carl Sagan
俗话说: “活到老,学到老。 ”人的一生就是不断学习、不断丰富和充实自己的过程。青 少年阶段,尤其是中学阶段,无疑是学习的最佳时期。中学教育的重点应放在什么地方?美 国著名科学家和科普作家萨根批评中学只抓各个学科具体内容的做法, 他认为中学要注重对 青少年的宏观教育,使他们建立起唯物的世界观和宇宙观,使他们能够正确对待自己,关心 周围的世界??人类生存的环境和自己的地球同胞。 1 I attended junior and senior high school, public institutions in New York and New Jersey, just after the Second World War. It seems a long time ago. The facilities and the skills of the teachers were probably well above average for the United States at that time. Since then, I've learned a great deal. One of the most important things I've learned is how much there is to learn, and how much I don't yet know. Sometimes I think how grateful I would be today if I had learned more back then about what really matters. In some respects that education was terribly narrow; the only thing I ever heard in school about Napoleon was that the United States made the Louisiana Purchase from him. (On a planet where some 95% of the inhabitants are not Americans, the only history that was thought worth teaching was American history. ) In spelling, grammar, the fundamentals of math, and other vital subjects, my teachers did a pretty good job. But there's so much else I wish they'd taught us. 2 Perhaps all the deficiencies have since been rectified. It seems to me there are many things (often more a matter of attitude and perception than the simple memorization of facts) that the schools should teach ? things that truly would be useful in later life, useful in making a stronger country and a better world, but useful also in making people happier. Human beings enjoy learning. That's one of the few things that we do better than the other species on our planet. Every student should regularly experience the "Aha!" ? when something you never understood, or something you never knew was a mystery, becomes clear. 3 So here's my list: Pick a difficult thing and learn it well. 4 The Greek philosopher Socrates said this was one of the greatest of human joys,and it is. While you learn a little bit about many subjects, make sure you learn a great deal about one or two. It hardly matters what the subject is, as long as it deeply interests you, and you place it in its broader human context. After you teach yourself one subject, you become much more confident
about your ability to teach yourself another. You gradually find you've acquired a key skill. The world is changing so rapidly that you must continue to teach yourself throughout your life. But don't get trapped by the first subject that interests you, or the first thing you find yourself good at. The world is full of wonders, and some of them we don't discover until we're all grown up. Most of them, sadly, we never discover. Don't be afraid to ask "stupid" questions. 5 Many apparently naive inquiries like why grass is green, or why the Sun is round, or why we need 55,000 nuclear weapons in the world ? are really deep questions. The answers can be a gateway to real insights. It's also important to know, as well as you can, what it is that you don't know, and asking questions is the way. To ask "stupid" questions requires courage on the part of the asker and knowledge and patience on the part of the answerer. And don't confine your learning to schoolwork. Discuss ideas in depth with friends. It's much braver to ask questions even when there's a prospect of ridicule than to suppress your questions and become deadened to the world around you. Listen carefully. 6 Many conversations are a kind of competition that rarely leads to discovery on either side. When people are talking, don't spend the time thinking about what you're going to say next. Instead, try to understand what they're saying, what experience is behind their remarks, what you can learn from or about them. Older people have grown up in a world very different from yours, one you may not know very well. They, and people from other parts of the country and from other nations, have important perspectives that can enrich your life. Everybody makes mistakes. 7 Everybody's understanding is incomplete. Be open to correction, and learn to correct your own mistakes. The only embarrassment is in not learning from your mistakes. Know your planet. 8 It's the only one we have. Learn how it works. We're changing the atmosphere, the surface, the waters of the Earth, often for some short-term advantage when the long-term implications are unknown. The citizens of any country should have at least something to say about the direction in which we're going. If we don't understand the issues, we abandon the future. Science and technology. 9 You can't know your planet unless you know something about science and technology. School science courses, I remember, concentrated on the unimportant parts of science, leaving the major insights almost untouched. The great discoveries in modern science are also great discoveries of the human spirit. For example, Copernicus showed that ? far from being the center of the universe, about which the Sun, the Moon, the planets, and the stars revolved in clockwise homage ? the Earth is just one of many small worlds. This is a deflation of our pretensions, to be sure, but it is also the opening up to our view of a vast and awesome universe. Every high school graduate should have some idea of the insights of Copernicus, Newton, Darwin, Freud, and Einstein. (Einstein's special theory of relativity, far from being obscure and exceptionally difficult, can be understood in its basics with no more than first-year algebra, and the notion of a rowboat in a river going upstream and downstream. ) Don't spend your life watching TV. 10 You know what I'm talking about.Culture. 11 Gain some exposure to the great works of literature, art and music. If such a work is hundreds or thousands of years old and is still admired, there is probably something to it. Like all
deep experiences, it may take a little work on your part to discover what all the fuss is about. But once you make the effort, your life has changed; you've acquired a source of enjoyment and excitement for the rest of your days. In a world as tightly connected as ours is, don't restrict your attention to American or Western culture. Learn how and what people elsewhere think. Learn something of their history, their religion, their viewpoints. Compassion. 12 Many people believe that we live in an extraordinarily selfish time. But there is a hollowness, a loneliness that comes from living only for yourself. Humans are capable of great mutual compassion, love, and tenderness. These feelings, however, need encouragement to grow. 13 Look at the delight a one- or two-year-old takes in learning, and you see how powerful is the human will to learn. Our passion to understand the universe and our compassion for others jointly provide the chief hope for the human race. Lesson Two Icons 提起一位获得诺贝尔奖的华人物理学家的名字,今天的青少年恐怕很多人会感到陌生, 无话可说,可是谈起当红歌星、球星,他们则是津津乐道。当今国内外的明星大腕被少男少 女们一个个奉为偶像。君不见,追星族们为求得偶像的签名,可以在瓢泼大雨中等待半天, 为一睹偶像的风采, 可以大打出手破门而入。 三四十年前青年人崇拜的科学家和英雄人物已 被视为昨日黄花,中外都是如此。这种价值观的变化引起了社会学家和教育家的忧虑,他们 指出星们、腕儿们只不过是媒体尤其是电视炒作的产物。 Heroes and Cultural Icons Gary Gosggarian 1 If you were asked to list ten American heroes and heroines, you would probably name some or all of the following: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Daniel Boone, Martin Luther King Jr., Amelia Earhart, Susan B. Anthony, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Helen Keller, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Rosa Parks. If next you were asked to list people who are generally admired by society, who somehow seem bigger than life, you might come up with an entirely different list. You might, in fact, name people who are celebrated for their wealth and glamour rather than their achievements and moral strength of character. And you would not be alone, because pollsters have found that people today do not choose political leaders who shape history for their "Most Admired" list, but rather movie and television celebrities, fashion models, professional athletes, and even comic book and cartoon characters. In short media icons. 2 By definition, heroes and heroines are men and women distinguished by uncommon courage, achievements, and self-sacrifice made most often for the benefit of others ? they are people against whom we measure others. They are men and women recognized for shaping our nation's consciousness and development as well as the lives of those who admire them. Yet, some people say that ours is an age where true heroes and heroines are hard to come by, where the very ideal of heroism is something beyond us ? an artifact of the past. Some maintain that because the Cold War is over and because America is at peace our age is essentially an unheroic one. Furthermore, the overall crime rate is down, poverty has been eased by a strong and growing economy, and advances continue to be made in medical science. Consequently, bereft of cultural heroes, we have latched onto cultural icons ? media superstars such as actors, actresses, sports
celebrities, television personalities, and people who are simply famous for being famous. 3 Cultural icons are harder to define, but we know them when we see them. They are people who manage to transcend celebrity, who are legendary, who somehow manage to become mythic. But what makes some figures icons and others mere celebrities? That's hard to answer. In part, their lives have the quality of a story. For instance, the beautiful young Diana Spencer who at 19 married a prince, bore a king, renounced marriage and the throne, and died at the moment she found true love. Good looks certainly help. So does a special indefinable charisma, with the help of the media. But nothing be comes an icon more than a tragic and early death ? such as Martin Luther King Jr. , John F. Kennedy, and Princess Diana. Being Somebody Donna Wool folk Cross 4 One hundred years ago, people became famous for what they had achieved. Men like J.P. Morgan, E. H. Harriman and Jay Gould were all notable achievers. So were Thomas Edison, Mark Twain, and Susan B. Anthony. 5 Their accomplishments are still evident in our own day. Today's celebrities, however, often do not become known for any enduring achievement. The people we most admire today are usually those who are most highly publicized by the media. 6 In 1981, a Gallup poll revealed that Nancy Reagan was the nation's "most admired woman." The year before, that distinction went to President Carter's wife, Rosalynn. In fact, the wife of the current president is always one of the nation's most admired women. Today's celebrities, as the writer Daniel Boorstin says, are "people well-known for their well-knownness." 7 To become such a celebrity, one needs luck, not accomplishment. As Boorstin says, "The hero was distinguished by his accomplishment; the celebrity by his image or trademark. The hero created himself; the celebrity is created by the media. The hero was a big man; the celebrity is a big name." 8 There is another distinction: heroes inspire respect; celebrities inspire envy. Few of us believe we could be another Jonas Salk or Eleanor Roosevelt, but we could be another TV star like Telly Savalas or Suzanne Somers. Except for the attention they get from the media, these people are exactly like us. 9 The shift from hero-worship to celebrity-worship occurred around the turn of the century. It was closely tied to the rise of new forms of media? first photography, and later moving pictures, radio and television. For the first time, Americans could see and recognize their heroes. Previously, men like Gould and Harriman, whose names everyone knew, could easily have passed through a crowd without being recognized. The reproduction of photos in newspapers turned famous people into celebrities whose dress, appearance, and personal habits were widely commented upon. Slowly, the focus of public attention began to shift away from knowing what such people did to knowing what they looked like. 10 The shift was accelerated by the arrival of moving pictures. Between 1901 and 1914, 74 percent of the magazine articles about famous people were about political leaders, inventors, professionals, and businessmen. After 1922, however, most articles were about movie stars. 11 With the arrival of television, the faces of the stars became as familiar as those we saw across the breakfast table. We came to know more about the lives of the celebrities than we did about most of the people we know personally. Less than seventy years after the appe
 

相关内容

自考综合英语二课文

   L1 P14 Why does the author tell s not to be afraid to ask stupid questions? The author thinks that many apparently naive inquiries like why grass is green, or why the sn is round, or why we need 55, 000 unclear weapons in the world ??are really dee ...

自考综合英语二-下册-10课单词中英文释义表格

   综合英语二 下册 10 课单词中英文释义表格 suburb n (also NAmE informal the burbs [pl.]) an area where people live that is outside the centre of a city:郊区 Region n( [C] a large area of land, usually without exact limits or borders:地区 (regional) a) elsewhere ad in, at ...

自考综合英语二-下册-13课单词中英文释义表格

   综合英语二 下册 13 课单词中英文释义表格 a [only before noun] related through the mother's side of the family:母 maternal 系的,母亲一方的 a [only before noun] (of people) not closely related SYN distant:关系疏 remote 远的 ad used to introduce more exact and detailed information ...

自考综合英语二-下册-08课单词中英文释义表格

   综合英语二 下册 8 课单词中英文释义表格 [V] to be greater in amount or number than sth/sb else in a place, group, etc. predominate 占绝大多数,占优势 N a person in a university who is in charge of a department of studies dean (大学的)学院院长,系主任 A [usually before noun] connected w ...

自考综合英语二 上册08课单词中英文释义表格

   自考综合英语二上册 08 课单词中英文释义表格.doc frame heap rag v. n. n. [usually passive] to put or make a frame or border around sth:给…… 设框 1.heap (of sth) an untidy pile of sth:堆 . 2.[usually pl.] (informal) a lot of sth: 1. [C, U] a piece of old, often torn, cloth ...

自考综合英语二 上册13课单词中英文释义表格

   自考综合英语二 上册 13 课单词中英文释义表格.doc dwell half-listen shed abruptly vi. vi. n. adv [V +adv./prep.] (formal or literary) to live somewhere: 居住;生存 似听非听 a small simple building, usually built of wood or metal, used for keeping things in:棚, 小屋 突然地 abrupt adj ...

自考综合英语二-下册-03课单词中英文释义表格

   综合英语二 下册 3 课单词学习表格 doc v to give a religious talk in a public place, especially in a church during preach a service:布道; 2[v] (disapproving) to give sb advice on moral standards, behaviour, etc, especially in a way that they find annoying or boring: ...

自考综合英语二-下册-05课单词中英文释义表格

   综合英语二 下册 5 课单词学习表格 largely adv. mostly or mainly: to a great extent;主要地,很大程度上 doings n (infml 口) 1.[pl] things done or being done; activities 所做之事 2.[C] (plunchanged 复数不变) (Brit) thing(s) needed 需要的东西: dark-haired gratitude vapor melting fragrant d ...

自考综合英语二 上册06课单词中英文释义表格

   自考综合英语二 上册 06 课单词中英文释义表格.doc shock n 1.[C, usually sing., U] a strong feeling of surprise as a result of sth happening, especially sth unpleasant; the event that causes this feeling: 冲突 2.[U] a serious medical condition, usually the result of injur ...

自考《综合英语二》学习

   综合英语二学习方略 1998 年下半年起江苏省高等教育自学考试英语专业已开始实施新计划。新计划对英语专、 本科的一些课程作了调整,并增设了一些新课程。这对自学考试英语专业的更加完善,更好 地适应形势的变化发展,对教育面向社会、面向现代化起到了进一步地推动作用。 新计划将英语专科段原来的精(一)、(二)改成了综合英语(一)、(二)。为什么要作此修改? 修改后有无实质性的变化?我们又应该如何学习?这是众多考生经常询问的问题, 下面就此谈 谈笔者的几点看法。 综合英语(二)的位置 1989 年出版 ...

热门内容

09届高三英语上学期期中考试

   本资料来源于《七彩教育网》http://www.7caiedu.cn 09 届高三英语上学期期中考试 英语试题 本试卷分第 I 卷和第 II 卷两部分,共 150 分。考试时间 120 分钟。 第 I 卷 (共 105 分) 第一部分:听力理解(共三节,30 分) 第一节(共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,共 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从每题所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最佳选项。听完 每段对话后,你将有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对 ...

2010年中考英语试题分类汇编一单选陈述句祈使句和疑问句

   2010 年中考英语试题分类汇编一单选宾语从句 2010 年中考英语试题考点十六、陈述句,祈使句和疑问句 (2010?江苏省扬州市,2,1)--TV do you watch every day? --About two hours. A.How much B.How many C.How long D.How often 【答案】A (2010?湖北省荆州市,22,1) -Meat isn't really dangerous, is it? -Oh! ! It's not at all ...

佛山金喜轩家具有限公司配音英语稿

   每个时代,总有一群领航者。 今天,佛山金喜轩家具,正用如椽巨笔,挥洒壮志豪情。 金喜轩,开启家具时代。 金喜轩家具实业有限公司是一家集设计,研发,制造,和销售于一体的专业化,现代化式板 式套房,实木套房,青少年套房家具制造企业。生产基地位于中国家具之都“广东顺德”公 司拥有高标准的花园式厂房和一大批高素质的营销管理人才和生产技术人才, 拥有丰富的设 计和制造经验。 "创新,拼搏,求实,团结,沟通,双赢”是我们的灵魂。 “诚信,开拓,进取,不断为顾客 创造价值“是我们的宗旨,我们坚持 ...

英语翻译口语k

   I don’ have the energy for this 我没有能力应付这个 t you got me.你还真问住我了 美 国人最爱用的个性短语!超全,超 native! Thousand times no! 绝对办不到! Easy does it. 慢慢来。 Don’ push me. 别逼我。Have a good of it.玩的很高兴。 t What is the fuss? 吵什么? Still up? 还没睡呀? It doesn’ make any differences ...

剑桥商务英语考试

   商务英语证书(BEC)报考简章 报考简章 商务英语证书 教育部考试中心 BEC 证书简介 教育部考试中心和英国剑桥大学考试委员会合作 于 1993 年起举办商务英语证书(BUSINESS 证书简介: , ENGLISH CERTIFICATE)考试。该系列考试是一项水平考试,根据商务工作的实际需要,对考生在商务和一 般生活环境下使用英语的能力从听、说、读、写四个方面进行全面考查,对成绩及格者提供由英国剑桥大学 考试委员会颁发的标准统一的成绩证书。 BEC 证书的权威性 英国剑桥大学是一所世界 ...